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Full text of "Lives. With an English translation by Bernadotte Perrin"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/liveswithenglish11plut 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAilES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
tT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

tE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XI 



PLUTARCH'S 
LIVES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
BERNADOTTE PERRIN 

iN ELEVEN VOLUMES 
XI 

ARATUS, ARTAXERXES, GALEA AND OTHO 

INDEX TO ALL THE LIVES BY 
J. W. COHOON 




LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MCMLXII 



/ 



First printed 1926 
Reprinted 1943, 1954, 1962 



^4^JAN2819S9' )j 

Printed in Oreat Britain 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION . . vi 

TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES . . . Vii 

ARATUS 1 

ARTAXERXKS 127 

GALEA 205 

OTHO 275 

INDEX 321 



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS 

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE 

OF THE GREEK LIVES. 



Volume I. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 
Comparison. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 
Comparison. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 
Comparison. 

Volume II. 

(4) Themistocles and 

Camillus. 



(9) Aristides and Cato the 
Elder. 
Comparison. 

(13) Cimon and LucuUus. 
Comparison. 

Volume III. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Max- 

imus. 
Comparison. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 
Comparison. 

Volume IV. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola 

nus. 
Comparison. 
(12) Lysander and Sulla. 
Comparison 

Volume V. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Ponipey. 
Comparis(m. 
(8) Peloi)idas and Marcellus. 
Comparison. 



Volume VI. 
(22) Dion and Brutus. 
Comparison. 
(7) Timoleon and Aemilius 
Paulus. 
Comparison. 

Volume VII. 
(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

Comparison. 
(17) Alexander and Julius 
Caesar. 



Volume VIII. 
(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

Comparison. 
(18) Phocion and Cato the 
Younger. 



Volume IX. 
(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

Comparison. 
(11) PyrrhusandCaiusMarius. 



Volume X. 
(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and 
Tiberius and Caius 
Gracchus. 
Comparison. 
(10) Philopoemen and Flam- 
ininus. 
Comparison. 

Volume XI. 

(23) Aratus. 

(24) Artaxerxes 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



yi 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE 
PARALLEL LIVES. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa, 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 

(4) Themistocles and Camillus. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Maximus. 
(tJ) Alcibiades and Coriolanus. 

(7) Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus. 

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder. 

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus. 

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius. 

(12) Lysander and Sulla. 
(18) Cimon and Lucullus. 

(14) Xicias and Crassua. 

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar. 

(18) Phocion and Cato the Younger. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius and Caius 

Gracchus. 

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

(22) Dion and Brutus, 

(23) Aratus. 

(24) Artaxerxes. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



ARATUS 



APAT02 

I. UapoL/jLiav Tiva iroKaidv, w TLoXvfcpare'^, T'aris 
heiaa<; jjlol hoicet to Bvacf^rj/jtov avTrj<;, 6 ^tXocro^o? a. 1624 

XyOUCrtTTTTO?, 0U% OV 6%et TpOTTOV, aX)C 609 avTo^ 1027 

ftlero /SeXriov elvaL, hiarldeTai, 

Tt9 irarep* alvrjaei, el /irj €v8al/jLove<; viol ; 

I^iovvaohcopo^ Be 6 TpoL^'^vio^i eXeyxjcov avrov 
avreKTiOrjau rrjv a\r)Ocvr]V oi/ro)? e'X^ovaav 

Tt9 irarep alvi^aet, el /jltj KaKohaifiove^ viol ; 

2 Kai (prjao TOt'9 «</)' avrcov ovSevo^; d^L0v<; ovraf;, 
virohvoixevov<; he irpcyovwv tlvmv dperat<; ^ icaX 
7rX€ovd^ovTa<; ev tol<; efcelvcov eiraivoi^ vtto t^9 
7rapoc/jiui<; eTrcaro/jii^eaOaL' dXX! w ye (jyvcrei to 
yevvalov eTnTrpeTrec e/c rrarepoDV, Kara YVivhapoVt^ 
wairep (Tol 7rpo<; to KoXXcaTov cK^ofiOLovvTt, tcop 
OLKodev TrapaheLy/jLaTcov top /Slop, evBaifiop dv etrj 
to /JL€p,prjaOat tmp diro yepov<i dpiaTCov, dKovopTa<^ 

3 irepl avTcop del ti fcal \eyopTa<;. ov yap IBlcop 

^ apfTois Sint. and Ziegler with Sk; Bekker has aperds, 
with inferior MSS. 

' Pyih. viii. 44f. {<pvq. ...«'« iraTipwv iraurl A^/ta). 



ARATUS 



I. There is an ancient proverb, Polycrates/ which 
the philosopher Chrvsippus puts not as it really is, 
but as he thought better : — 

"Who will praise a father, except happy 
sons ? 

But Dionysodorus of Troezen corrects him, and 
restores the true form thus : — 

" Who will praise a father, except unhappy 
sons? 

And he says that the proverb stops the mouths 
of those who, being worthless in themselves, take 
refuge in the virtues of certain ancestors and are 
forever praising them. But surely for a .man in 
whom, to use Pindar's words, '^ the noble spirit 
naturally displayes itself as inherited from sires," 
and who, like thee, patterns his life after the 
fairest examples in his family line, — for such men it 
will be good fortune to be reminded of their noblest 
progenitors, ever and anon hearing the story of them, 
or telling it themselves. For it is not that they lack 

^ A friend of Plutarch, not otherwise known, to whom he 
thus dedicates this Life. See the note on the 2'heseus, i. 1. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(LTTopia /caXcov i^aprcoatv ciWorpiwv iiraLvayv rr)u 
So^av, dWa rol'i i/celvcoi^ ra olfceca cruvdiTrovTe'i;, 
W9 KCii rov yevovs koi tov I3lov Ka6r)y€fjLova^ 
€V(f)r]fjL0V(7L. ^tb fcdyo) rov 'Apdrov rov crov ttoXl- 
Tov Kol irpoTrdropo's /3lov, ov ovre rfj So^rj rfj 
irepl creavTov ovre rfj Bvvdfjbet, KaraLcr)(^vveL<s, uttg- 
crraXKd aoL (TV<y<ypa^diJLevo<;y ou^ co? ov)(l Travrcov 
aKpi^icrrard croc fieixe\^^KO<; e'f dp^rj<i iiriaTaaOai 
4 Ta? 6Keivov Trpd^eif}, aXX' otto)? ol TralSi^; aov 
Tlo\vKpdTr)<; koI n.vOoK\rj<; oliceioL<i irapaSeLj/JLa- 
(TLV ipTpecjicopTai, ra fiev d/covovT€<;, rd Be dva- 
yivcoaKovre^;, direp avrov^ /jLc/jLelaOai, 7rpoar)K6L. 
(PiXavTov <ydp dvBpo^;, ov <f)L\oKd\ov, 7ravT0<i dei, 
iSeXrLCTTOP r)y€L(j0aL. 

II. *H %LKV(0vi(OV TToXl^, ilTel TO ITpUiTOV ifC T% 

aKpdrov koI Aa)pL/crj(; dpicnoKparia'; coa-irep dpfxa- 
via^ avy^vOeiarj'^ et? ardaet^ eveireae Kai <^i\o- 
rLfXia<; hrjiiayoyyoyv, ovk eTravaaro voaovaa Kai 
raparrofievT] Kai Tvpauvov e/c rvpdvvov fMera/SaX- 
Xovaa, fi^XP^ ^^ K.Xewvo'^ dvaipedevrofi eiXovTO 
Ti/JLOKXeiBav dp^^ovra koX K^XeLviav, dvSpa<; iv- 
ho^ov^ rd /jidXiara kol iv Svvd/iei, rcov ttoXltmv 

2 ovra^. ijSr) Si nva t/}? TToX^Tfita? Kardaraaiv 
e^eLV BoKOvarj'i Ti/jLOKXelSa^ /xev direOavev, A^av- 1028 
Tiha^ he 6 Waaiov rupavviha TrpdrrcDV eavro) 

TOV KXe^vlav uTriKTeive /cal rcov (jiiXwv Kai OL/ceLcov 
TOL'9 /jLev e^i(3aXe, tou? Be dvelXev, i^rjreL Be 
Kai rov VLOv avrov, "Aparov, dveXelv, eTrraerrj 

3 KaraXeXeififJiivov. iv Be rfj irepl rrjv oUiav ra- 



* In 264 B.C. 



ARATUS I. 3-II. 3 

noble qualities of their own and make their reputa- 
tion dependent on their praises of others, nay rather, 
they associate their own careers with the careers of 
their great ancestors, whom they hail both as founders 
of their line and as directors of their lives. And 
therefore, now that 1 have written the life of Aratus, 
who was thy countryman and forefather, and to 
whom thou thyself art no discredit in either reputa- 
tion or influence, I send it to thee, not as though 
thou hadst not been at pains from the beginning to 
have the most precise knowledge of thy great an- 
cestor's career, but in order that thy sons Polycrates 
and Pythocles may be reared, now by hearing and 
now by reading, after examples found in their own 
family line — examples which it well becomes them 
to imitate. For it is the lover of himself, and not 
the lover of goodness, who thinks himself always 
superior to others. 

II. The city of Sicyon, as soon as it had fallen 
away from its pure Doric form of aristocracy (which 
was now like a harmony dissolved) and had become 
a prey to factions and the ambitious schemes of 
demagogues, was without cease distempered and 
agitated, and kept changing one tyrant for another, 
until, after the murder of Cleon, Timocleides and 
Cleinias were chosen chief magistrates, men of the 
highest repute and influence among the citizens. 
But no sooner did the government appear to be 
somewhat settled than Timocleides died, and Aban- 
tidas the son of Paseas, attempting to make himself 
tyrant, slew Cleinias,^ and, of the friends and kinsmen 
of Cleinias, banished some and killed others. He 
tried to kill also the son of Cleinias, Aratus, left 
fatherless at tlie age of seven. Hut in the confusion 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

pa^fj (TvveKTreaoDv rot? (pevyovaiv 6 Trat?, Kal 
TT\ava)ixevo<i ev rfj iroXet 7r€pL(f)o/3o<i Kal a/SorjOr]- 
T09, Kara tv')(7]v eXaOev et? olKiav TrapeXOcov 
yvvaiKof;, aSeXc^?}? fiev ^A^avrlBov, IIpo(f)dvT(p Se 
Tft) KXeivlov aSe\(f)a) y€yafir}fi6vr]<;, ovofxa Xcocrov<;. 
avrrj he fcal to -^^o? ovaa yevvaia fcal crvv Oew 
TLvi TO TTaLhiov olo/xevT] KaTaTTe(j>6vyevaL tt/jo? 
avrrjv aireKpv^lrev evhoVy elra vvkto<; eh ' Apyo<; 
vTre^eTTefiylrev. 

HI. OvTO) 8' eKKXairevTi rw ^Apdrco koI Sta- 

(f>Vy0VTl> TOV KlvhwOV ev6v<^ /jL€V 6V€(pueT0 Kai 

avvr]v^€TO to a(f)o8p6v kol SiaTrvpov /jblcrof; iirl 
TOL'9 Tvpdvvov^. Tp€(l)6fi€V0<i Be Trapd to?? ev 
"Apyei ^evoL<; fcal (f>iXoi<; iraTpwoi^; eXevdepioi^, 
KoX TO G(h}xa ^XaGTovov opoiv eh eve^iav Kal 
fjueyeOo^;, eirehwKev eavTov daKrjaei ttj irepl iraXai- 
(TTpav, coaTe Kal irevTaOXov dywviaaaOaL Kai 

2 aT€(f)dv(ov TV')(elv, em^aiveTaL 3' dfieXei Kai 
Tat? eiKoaiv ddXrjTLKij Ti? ISea, Kal to avveTOv 
TOV TrpoddiiTov Kal ^aaiXiKov ov iravTairaaLv 
dpvelTai T7]V ddt](f)ayiav Kal to crKa<^elov. bOev 
ivSeecTTepov Laco<; rj ttoXltckm irpoarJKOv rjv dvBpl 
irepl TOV Xoyov eairovhaae' KaiTOi yeyovevai 
KOfjLyjroTepov elirelv rj hoKel Tiacv e'/c tcov uTTO/jLvrjfid- 
TQ)v Kpivovaiv, a 7rapepy(o<; Kal vtto X^^P^ ^^^ '^^^ 
eiriTvxovTwv ovofidTcov dfiLXXtiaafxevo'!; KaTeXiire. 

3 ^p6v(p Be vcTTepov ^A^avTiBav fiev ot rrepi Aet- 
viav Kal ^ AptaTOTeXrj top SiaXeKTiKOV, elwOoTa 
TOfc? X6yoi<; auTMv KaT^ dyopav a'ypXa^ovTMV eKa- 

* A contest involving the five arts of running, leaping, 
hurling the spear, boxing, and wrestling. 

6 



ARATUS II. 3-III. 3 

which prevailed about the house the boy made his 
escape with the fugitives, and wandering about in 
the city^ full of fear and helpless, by chance got un- 
noticed into the house of a woman who was a sister 
of Abantidas, but had married Prophantus the brother 
of Cleinias. Her name was Soso. This woman, who 
was of a noble nature, and thought it a divine dis- 
pensation that the boy had taken refuge with her, 
hid him in the house, and at night sent him secretly 
off to Argos. 

III. Thus was Aratus stolen away from the peril 
that threatened him, and at once that vehement and 
glowing hatred of tyrants for which he was noted 
became a part of his nature and grew with his growth. 
He was reared in liberal fashion among the guests 
and friends of his father's house at Argos, and since 
he saw that his bodily growth promised high health 
and stature, he devoted himself to the exercises of 
the palaestra, going so far as to win wreaths of victory 
in contesting the pentathlum.^ And indeed even his 
statues have plainly an athletic look, and the sagacity 
and majesty of his countenance do not altogether 
disown the athlete's full diet and wielding of the 
mattock. Wherefore his cultivation of oratory was 
perhaps less intense than became a man in public 
life ; and yet he is said to have been a more ornate 
speaker than some think who judge from the Com- 
mentaries which he left ; these were a bye-work, 
and were composed in haste, off-hand, and in the 
words that first occurred to him in the heat of 
contest. 

Some time after the escape of Aratus, Abanticlas 
was slain by Deinias and Aristotle the logician. Ihe 
tyrant was wont to attend all their public disputations 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<7T0T€ TTapetvat Kal avfi^tkoveiKelv, €fifia\6vr€<; 
eh TOtavTTjv Biarpi^Tjv kcu KaraaKevdaavre^i 
€7nffov\r)v avetXov, Yiaaeav Se rov ^A^avriSov 
iraripa rrjv dp^r]v viroka^ovra NikokXtj^; So\o- 
4 ^ovijaa^; eavrov aviBei^e rvpavvov. tovtov c/jl- 
4>epe(naT0v Xiyovcrc rrjv o'^iv TlepicivSpay tw 
Ku'v/reXou 'yeveaOai, KaOdirep *A\Kp,aio)Vi pev rw 
^Ap,(pLdp€co rov Ueparjv ^Opovrrjv/'FiKropL he rov 
AaKehaipLovLOv veaviaKov, ov lo-jopel M.vprl\o(; 
VTTO TT\rj6ov<; Twi; Oecop^vcov, co? rovro eyvcoaav, 
KaTaTraTT^OrfvaL. 

IV. ToO he ^LKOKkeov^i reacrapa^; prjva<i rvpav- 
vovvTO^, ev ol<; iroWd KaKa rrjp itoXlv epyacrd- 
p,evo^ eKivhvvevcrev vtto AItcoXoov e7ri^ov\evop,ev7)v 
avTTjv dTTO^aXeip, 7]h7j p^ipdfciov 6 ^ ApaTO<^ wv 
d^i(op,a \apL7rpov elye hi evyeveLav koI (f)p6v'r}p,a, 
Sie(f>aLV€v ov puKpov ovBe dpyov, epb^piOe^ he kol 
irap r)\iKiav dcKpaXearepa yvcop,?] KeKpap^evov. 

2 oOev o'i T€ (pvydSe^; p^dXicrra rov vovv eKeivw irpocr- 
elyov, T6 ^iKOKKr]'^ ovk r]pie\et, rayv irparro- 
p,evcov, dW^ dhi]\ci)<; aTredecopet Kal 7rape<f)v\aTrev 
avrov rrjv 6pp.i]v, roXp.rjp.a p,ev ovhev rrfKiKovrov 
SeBto)^ ovBe epyov ovhev ourco 7rapaK€KcvBvv€v- 
p^evov, vTroTTTevcov Be roh /SacnXevacv avrov Bca- 

3 XeyecrOaL (j)iXot<; ovctl kol ^evoi^ 7rarpo}0L<;. Kal 
yap dX7]6a)<; 6 *'Aparo<; e7r€)(^eipr]ae rrjv oBov eKei- 
V7)v fiaBi^etv. &)<? Be ^AvrCyovo^ fiev virccrxvov- 
fievo<; rjpeXei Kal iraprjye ^ rov ')(p6vov, al Be dri 

^ irapriyf Coraes and Ziegler, with S? : irapriKf {let the time 
2)ass). 

1 251 B.C. 



ARATUS III. 3-iv. 3 

in the market-place and to take jjart in them ; 
they encouraged him in this practice, laid a plot, and 
took his life. Paseas also, the father of Abantidas, 
after assuming the supreme power, was treacherously 
slain by Nicocles, who then proclaimed himself tyrant. 
This man is said to have borne a very close resemblance 
to Periander the son of Cypselus, just as Orontes the 
Persian did to Alcmaeon the son of Amphiaraiis, and 
as the Spartan youth mentioned by Myrtilus did to 
Hector. Myrtilus tells us that when the throng of 
spectators became aware of this resemblance, the 
youth was trampled underfoot. 

IV". Nicocles was tyrant of the city for four months, 
during which he wrought the city much harm, and 
narrowly escaped losing it to the Aetolians when 
they plotted to seize it. By this time^ Aratus, now a 
young man, was held in marked esteem on account of 
his high birth, and of his spirit. This was showing 
itself to be not insignificant nor yet unenterprising, 
but earnest, and tempered with a judgement safe 
beyond his years. Wherefore the exiles from Sicyon 
had their minds fixed most of all upon him, and 
Nicocles was not neglectful of what was going on, but 
kept secret Avatch and ward over his undertakings, 
not because he feared any deed of so great daring 
and hazard as that in which Aratus finally engaged, 
but because he suspected that Aratus was in com- 
munication with the kings wlio had been on terms 
of friendship and hospitality with his father. And 
in truth Aratus had attempted to travel along that 
path. But since Antigonus- neglected his promises 
and prolonged the time, and since the hopes derived 

* Aatigoims (ioiiatas, king of Macedonia 283-239 B.C. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

AlyvTrrov koI irapa JlToXefxaiov fxaKpav rjaav 
eXiTihe^, eyvd) St aurov KaraXvetv rov rvpavvov. 

V. UpcoTOLf; Se KOivovrai rrjv jvco/jLtjv 'ApKTTO- 
fiaxV ^^'' 'Ea:S7/Xo[). tovtcov 6 fiev i/c Xikv6!)vo<; 
Tjv <pvjd<;, 6 Be "EKBrjXof; *ApKa<; i/c M.€ya\,r]<; 
TToiVeo)?, apTjp <ptXocro(f)o<i fcal irpaKTLKO'^, ^ApKe- 
aCKoLov rod ^ AKahr^fjuaKov y€yovQ)<; ev do-rei avv- 

2 rjOr)'^. Se^a/jievcov Se tovtcov 7rpo9v/jLa)<; SieXeyeTO 
TOt? dWoL<; (j)uydaiv, a)v oXiyoc fxev aia')(yv6evT€<^ 
eyKaToXLTTelv Tr/v iXTTiBa fieTel^ov tmv irpuT- 1029 
TOfievcov, ol Be iroWoX fcal tov "Aparov eireipoiVTO 
KaTaK(o\v€LV oi)9 dTreipia irpaypbaTcov Opaavvo- 
fxevov. 

3 BovXevofxevov S' avrov ')(^coplov ti Trj<; Xi/cvcovla^; 
KaTaXa/Selv, 66ev wpiMrjiJLevo^ BiairoXeiJirjcrei 7rpo<; 
TOV Tvpavvov, r)K6V €69 "Apyo<; dvrjp ^iKV(ovio<s ifc 
T% eipKTTj^; diroBeBpafcux;' rjv Be tmv (pvydBcov 
evo^ 'B^evoKXeov<; dSeXcpof;' /cat T(p Apdrco irpocr- 
ax0€l<; viTo TOV Hez^o/cXeof? eXeye tov ret^of? 
KaO^ ov V7r€p^d<; avT0<^ eadtOr] tottov, €VTO<i fiev 
oXiyov Belv eiriirehov elvai, irpoaTrecpv/coTa p^oDyOtot? 
ireTpcoBeaL /cat vyjrrjXoL'^, to Be e^coOev v\p-o<; vrro 

4 KXifxdKwv ov irdvv dvecpi/CTOV. co? ^e TavTa rJKOv- 
aev 6 'ApaTo<i, ifCTre/uLTrei fieTo, tov 'HevoKXeov^ 
OLKeTa<; lBiov<i Bvo, ^evOdv re koI Tex^oova, Kara- 
GKe'^ofxevov^ to T€t%09, eyvojKco^, el Bwulto, 
Kpv^a KoX 7rpb<; eva kivBvvov 6^eco<; to Trdv dvap- 
ply^au p^dXXov r) fia/cpM TroXe/io) Koi (papepot^; 
dyojatv IBicottj^; dvTifca6i(TTaa6at 7r/309 Tvpavvov. 

6 0)9 8' eiravf'jXOov ol irepl tov B^evo/cXea tov fiev 
Teixoy^ elXycpoTe*; fxerpa Koi tov tottov ttjv ^vatv 



lO 



ARATUS IV. 3-v. 5 

from Egypt and Ptolemy ^ were a long way off, he 
resolved to overthrow the tyrant by his own efforts. 

V. The first to whom he imj^arted his design were 
Aristomachus and Ecdelus. Of these^ the one was 
an exile from Sicyon^ and Ecdelus was an Arcadian 
of Megalopolis, a student of philosophy and a man of 
action, who had been an intimate friend of Arcesilaiis 
the Academic at Athens. These men eagerly adopted 
his proposals, and he then began conversations with 
the other exiles. A few of these took part in the 
enterprise because they were ashamed to disappoint 
the hope placed in them, but the majority actually 
tried to stop Aratus, on the ground that his in- 
experience made him over-bold. 

While he was planning to seize some post in the 
territory of Sicyon from which he might sally forth 
and make war upon the tyrant, there came to Argos 
a man of Sicyon who had run away from prison. He 
was a brother of Xenocles, one of the exiles ; and 
when he had been brought to Aratus by Xenocles, 
he told him that the part of the city's wall over 
which he had climbed to safety was almost level 
with the ground on the inside, where it had been 
attached to steep and rocky places, and that on the 
outside it was not at all too high for scaling-ladders. 
When Aratus had heard this, he sent with Xenocles 
two servants of his own, Seuthas and Technon, to 
make an examination of the wall ; for he was resolved, 
if he could, to hazard the whole enterprise on one 
secret and swift attempt, rather than in a long war 
and in open contests to match his private resources 
against those of a tyrant. So when Xenocles and 
his party came back with measurements of the wall 

1 Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt 283-247 B.C. 

II 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

a7ray<yeXXGVT€<^ ovk airopov ovSk ')(a\e7rrjv , to he 
\adelv 7rpoae\06vra<!; e'pYwSe? elvai ^daK0VT€<s 
viro KYjiToupov Tivo(y fcvvapicov, pc/cpcov /xev, eVroTrcos 
Be ixa')(iix(ov /cat aTraprjyopijrcov, ev6v<; ivia-raro 
rr]V Trpd^Lv- 

VI. 'H fiev ovv Twv ottXcov irapaaKevr) avvr]Or]<; 
Tjv, irdvicov, ct)9 eVo? eiTrelv, t6t€ KKwrreiai^; %/?&)- 
fjbevwv Koi fcaraBpofiai^ eV dWijXov^;' Ta<i Se kXi- 
/iaKa<; E^vcf^pdvwp o ixrjy avoir olo^ dva<^avhov iirr}- 
^aro, T?}? Te')(vr-j<i avrw to dvviTOiTTOV BiSovarjf;, eVel 

2 Kol auTo? r)v rcop (jyvydBcov. dvhpa^ Be avTM tmv 
fxev iv "Apyei (piXwv €/caaTO<^ e^ oXiycov Sexa nrap- 
eayev, avT0<; Be rcov IBlcop olKer&u rpiaKovra 
KaOdnrXiaev. efiLaOcoaaro Be koI Blcl Trpcorov 
'B.€Vo<f)iXov tQ)v dp')(^LKXd>7T(t)v ov TToXXovf; crrparid)- 
Ta<;, ot? BieB66r} X6yo<; &)? iirl ra? 'lttitov<^ to.? 
l3a(nXiKd<; et? rrjv ^iKVcovlav €^oBo<; eaoiro, koI 
IT poeirefi^d rjaav ol ttoXXoI (jTropa^e? eVt rov ITo- 
XvyviOTov nrvpyov, eKel KeXevaOeuTe^; irepifxelvai. 

3 '7rpo€7re/jL<f)0'r) Be koX l^a^Laia's vir^ avrov /jberd 
recradpcov dXXcov eu^covo^, 0D9 eBei irpo^ rov 
fcrjTTOvpov dcpLKeaOai, (TKOTaiov^, ^daKovra^ oBoi- 
7r6pov<; elvai, koI KaravXiaa/jievov^ avrov re 
auyKXelaai koX rov^ Kvva<;' ov yap tjv dXXrj rrap- 
eXdelv. rd<; Be KXifxaKa'^ BiaXvrd'^ ovaa<; ep,^a- 
X6vT€<; el<; d')(^dva^ koI KaraKaXvy\ravre'^ €(f> 
dfia^cov irpoairecrreiXav. 

4 *Ei/ rovr(o Be Karacncoiruiv rivwv ev "Apyei rov 
NiKOKXeov<; (pavevrcov Kal irepiievai Xeyofievcov 
dBijXcof; KOL irapacpvXdrreiv rov ' Aparov, dp, 



12 



ARATUS V. 5-vi. 4 

which they had taken, and with a report that the 
place was by nature not impassable nor even difficult 
(although they declared that it was hard to get to 
it undetected owing to a certain gardener's dogs^ 
which were little beasts, but extraordinarily fierce 
and savage), Aratus at once undertook the business. 

VI. Now the laying in of arms was nothing un- 
usual, since almost everybody at that time indulged 
in robberies and predatory forays ; and as for scaling- 
ladders, Euphranor the engineer made them openly, 
since his trade screened him from suspicion ; and he 
too was one of the exiles. As for men, each of the 
friends of Aratus in Argos furnished him with ten 
out of the few they had, and he himself equipped 
thirty of his own servants with arms. Through 
Xenophilus, the foremost of the robber captains, he 
also hired a few soldiers, to whom it was given out 
that a foray was to be made into the territory of 
Sicyon to seize the horses of Antigonus. And most 
of them were sent on ahead in small bands to the 
tower of Polygnotus, with orders to wait there. 
Aratus also sent on in advance Caphisias, lightly 
armed, with four companions; their orders were to 
come to the gardener's when it was dark, pretending 
to be travellers, and after taking up quarters there 
for the night, to shut up him and his dogs ; for there 
was no other way to get past them. The scaling- 
ladders, which could be taken apart, were packed in 
boxes, and thus concealed were sent on ahead in 
waggons. 

In the meantime some spies of Xicocles appeared 
in Argos and were reported to be secretly going 
about and watching the movements of Aratus. As 
soon as it was day, therefore, Aratus left his house 

13 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tjfiepa irpoeXOoiv kol (pavepo^ oiv ev ayopa SUrpc^e 
fiera to)v (puXcov elr dXei\lrdfjL€PO<; ev tw yv/jivaaio) 
Koi irapaXa^oov ri,va<i etc ri}^ 7ra\ai(TTpa<; tmv 
elwOoTcov TTLvetv KOL paOvfielv jxeT avrov veavl- 
(TKoav (iTTTjyev ocKaSe' kol /lerd /jufcpov ecopdro rcov 
oitceTcJov avTov 3i' dyopd^ 6 piev crre^dvov^ (pipwv, 
6 Be Xap.7rdEa<; wvovfievo^, 6 he rot? eW Laptev ol<; 
irapd TTOTOP 'yjrdXXeiv fcal avXelv yvvaloi^ Bt-aXeyo- 
5 p,evo^. ravra Be ol KardaKOiroi iravra opcovre^ 
i^rjTTarijvro koI 7rp'o<i dXX7]Xov<; avayeXoyvre^ eXe- 
yov *' OvBev Tjv dpa Tvpdvvov BeiXorepov, el kul 
^iKOKXf]<; T7]Xi/€avT7)v ttoXlv e^cov Kol ToaavTr)v 
Bvvap,iv oppcoBel pbeipdiciov eh r}Bovd<; koI ttotov; 
peOr]pLepivov<; rd Trj<; (j)vyr](; e(j)6Bia /caraj^pd)- 
pievov. ' 

VII. O/ piev ovv ovro) irapaXoyLaOevTe^ aTnjX- 
XdyrjcraV 6 Be "ApaTO<^ evOv^ piST dptarov i^eX- 
6d)V icai (Tvvd-yjra'i tt/do? tov JloXvyvd)TOV irvpyov 
T0t9 arparidiTai'^ et? ^epeav Trporjyev, ottov rrjv 
irpd^Lv i^e(f)y]ve roh ttoXXol^; rare TrpcjTOV, vtto- 

2 a-)(iaei^ re fcal TrapaKXrjaei'^ eirotTjcraTO' Koi aw- 1030 
6r)pa '7TapaBov<; ^AiToXXaiva virepBe^tov Trporjyev 

eVl Tr)v ttoXlv, avp,peTpo}<; rfj Trepccpopa tt}? ae- 
X^vrj<i einTa^vvwv koX irdXiv dvtel'^ ttjv Tropeuav, 
wcTTG TO) piev (pcoTL '^pijaduL KaO^ oBov, TjBr) Be 
BvopLevrj<; irepl tov kyjitov ecvat TrXrjaiov tov Tei- 

3 xou?. evTavda K.a(f)i,aLa<; diri^vTrjcyev avTW, tcov 
piev KVvapLcov ov KpaTrjaa'^ {ecpdr] yap diroirrjBri- 
aavTo), TOV Be KrjTTovpov eyKeKX€LKd)<i. d9vpiov<; 
Be TOL'9 TrXeiaTOV<; yevopLevov<^ koi KeXevovTa<; 
diraXXaTTeaOai irapeOdppvvev 6' ApaTO^, o)^ air- 

4 d^cov, dv ol Kvve<; dyav evo)(X€)aLV avTol<;. dpua 

14 



ARATUS VI. 4-VI1. 4 

and showed himself openly in the market-place, 
conversing with his friends ; then he anointed himself 
in the gymnasium, took with him from the palaestra 
some of the young men who were wont to drink and 
make holiday with him, and went back home ; and 
after a little one of his servants was seen carrying 
garlands through the market-place, another buying 
lights, and another talking with the women that regu- 
larly furnished music of harp and flute at banquets. 
When the spies saw all this, they were completely 
deceived, and with loud laughter said to one another: 
'^ Nothing, you see, is more timorous than a tyrant, 
since even Nicocles^ though master of so great a city 
and so large a force, is in fear of a stripling who 
squanders on pleasures and mid-day banquets his 
means of subsistence in exile." 

VII. The spies, then, thus misled, left the city; 
but Aratus, immediately after the morning meal, 
sallied forth, joined his soldiers at the tower of Poly- 
gnotus, and led them on to Nemea. Here he dis- 
closed his design, to most of them then for the first 
time, and made them exhortations and promises. 
Then, after giving out as watchword "Apollo Vic- 
torious," he led them forward against Sicyon, 
quickening or retarding his progress according to 
the revolution of the moon, so as to enjoy her light 
while on the march, and as soon as she was setting 
to be at the garden near the wall. There Caphisias 
came to meet him ; he had not secured the dogs (for 
they had bounded off before he could do this), but 
had locked up the gardener. Most of his men were 
disheartened at this and urged Aratus to retire ; but 
he tried to encourage them, promising to lead them 
back if the dogs should prove too troublesome for 

15 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

he T0U9 Ta9 K\l/jLaKa<; <^epovTa<i 7rpo7r6/j,-\jra<;, oyv 
''RkB7)\o<; riyelro kuI Mvacrt^eo?, avrb^; iirrjKO- 
XovOet a)(o\aL(D'i, 7]Br] rcov Kvvapioov €VTov(o<i iiXa- 

KTOVVTCOV KOi (TV/JL7rapaTp€')(^6vTCi)V rOt<i TVepL TOP 

"EkBtjXov. ov fjLT)!/ aWa TTpoaep.i^dv re T(j> r^iyjE-i 
zeal TrpocTTjpeicrav ra? K\ifjLaKa<i d(7(f)a\(o<;. dva- 

6 ^aivovTwv 8e royv Trpcorcov, 6 rrjv ecoOcvrjv (j)v\aK7]v 
TrapaBiBov^ i<pQ)B€V6 KcoBcovif /cal (pwra iroXXa /cat 
06pvj3o<i r)v rcjv eTmropevopLevwv. ol Be, wcrirep 
el^oi;, avTOv 7rTt]^avr€<; eVl tcou kXlp^cikcov tov- 
T0U9 fjLCV ov ^aXeTTCO? eXaOov, dXXi]<^ Be (^vXaKrj<^ 
evavTia^ ravrrj 7r/30cr6/0%OyU.ez^7;9 el<; top e<7%aT0i/ 

C KivBvvov TjXOov. &>? Be KaKeivr^v BUcfyvyov irap- 
eXdovaav, €v6u<; dve^aivov ol Trpooroi MvaaiOeof; 
Koi "EKB7]Xo<i, Kal ra? eKarepoyOep oBov^; rov 
Tei')(pv<i BiaXa^6vT€<; direaTeXXov Te)(ycova 7rpb<; 
"Aparov eTreiyecrdai KeXevovTe<;, 

VIIL ^Viv Be ov TToXv BLuarrf/jLa oltto tov Krjirov 
7rpo9 TO T€L)(0<i Kal TOV TTVpyov, ev c5 Kvcov /jLeya<i 
e^poupet Or)parLK6<;. avro^; pev ovv ovk jjaOeTO 
TrjV €(f)oBov, €LT€ (f)V(Tet. vcoOrjf; o)v, elre p^eO i)pepav 
KaruKOTTO^ yeyovoi^. royv Be tov KrjTTovpov Kvva- 
pi(ov KCLTUiOev e/cKaXovpevcop avTOP v7recf)0eyyeTO 
TV(f)Xop Kol darjiiop to rrpcoTov, cItu p,dXXop iir- 

2 eTeipe '7rapep-)(^opepcop. Kal KaTel^ep ijBr) ttoXu? 
vXaypb^i to ')((i>piov, cocTTe top irepav (f>vXaKa 
Kpavyfj peydXr) ttv OdpeaOac tov Kvpyjyov, tt/so? 
TLPa rpaveoxi o'vt(o<^ 6 KV(jdP vXaKTel, Kal p^r) to 

1 The sentries who had formed the night-watch came up at 
the sound of the bell, to be inspected, and then relieved by 
the morning- watch. 

i6 



ARATUS VII. 4-VI11. 2 

them. At the same time he sent forward the men 
who carried the scahng-ladders^ under the command 
of Ecdelus and Mnasitheus^ while he himself followed 
after them slowly, the dogs already barking vigorously 
and running along by the side of Ecdelus and his 
party. However, they reached the wall and planted 
their ladders against it without mishap. But as 
the first men were mounting the ladders, the officer 
who was to set the morning-watch began making his 
rounds with a bell, and there were many lights and 
the noise of the sentries coming up.^ The invaders, 
however, crouched down just where they were on 
the ladders, and so escaped the notice of this party 
without any trouble ; but since another watch was 
coming up to meet the first, they incurred the 
greatest danger. However, they escaped the notice 
of this guard also as it passed by, and then the 
leaders, Mnasitheus and Ecdelus, at once mounted 
to the top, and after occupying the approaches to 
the wall on either side, sent Technon to Aratus, 
urging him to hasten up. 

VI 11. Now it was no great distance from the 
garden to the wall, and to the tower, in which a huge 
dog was on the watch, a hunter. The dog himself 
did not notice their approach, either because he was 
naturally sluggish, or because during the day he had 
become tired out. But when the gardener's whelps 
challenged him from below, he began to growl in re- 
sponse, faintly and indistinctly at first, then bayed out 
more loudly as they passed by. Presently the whole 
place resounded with barking, so that the watch- 
man opposite called with a loud cry to the hunts- 
man asking why his dog was baying so savagely and 
whether some mischief was not afoot. The hunts- 

17 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rylveTac Kaivorepov. 6 8' citto tov irvpyov avrat^ 
dvTe(j)Oi)VT}a€ jji^qhev elvai Seivov, aXXa tov Kvva 
7rpb(; TO ^0)9 twz^ TeL')(0(^v\dK(ov fcal tov '\lro(f)ov 

3 TOV fCct)Scovo<; Trapw^vvOat. tovto /LidXtaTa tov? 
^ApdTov (7TpaTiQ)Ta(; iireppoyo-ev, olo/i6uov<; tov 
Kvvi'i'yov iiriKpvTTTeiv fcoivcovovvTa tjj Trpd^et, elvai 
Se 7roWov<i /cal aWoi;? ev ttj ttoXgl tou? avv- 
€pyovvTa<s. ov /jltjv dWa tm Tei')(^eL irpocr/SaXov- 
Tcov ^aA.e7ro9 >V ^ /civBvvo<i /cal /a>}a:o? iXd/jb/Save, 
Tcov KXi/idKCOv KpaSaivofievcov el /jltj KaO eva fcal 
(Tj^oXaiw^ dva(3aivoLev' rj Bk copa KaTrjirecyev, 'i^Bij 
{^OeyyojJievwv dXe/cTpuoicov, koi oaov ovttco tcov 
i^ dypov TL (^epeiv elwOoTwv 7rpo<s dyopav iirep^o- 

i fjuevcDV. Blo fcal airevhwv 6 "ApaTO^; dvifiacve, 
TeaaapdKovTa tmv rrdvT(cv di'a/Se^ijKOToyv irpo 
avTov' fcal 'Trpoahe^dfxevo<^ €tc twi^ /cdTcodev oXl- 
yov<; irrl ttjv olKiav tov Tvpdvvov kol to aTpa- 
TrjyLOV dvrjXdev ivTavOa yap ol /jLta9oc})OpOL 
TrapevvKTcpevov. d(pvco Se iirLireawv avTol<^ Kai 
avXXajBoov diravTa^;, ovheva he diroKTeiva'^, ev6v<; 
BLe7T€fi7r€T0 TTpo^ Tou? cJ)lXov<; dvaKaXov/xevo^i 

5 €KaaTOV dir olicia^, Kal avvSpa/jbovTcov irav- 
TayoQev, r^piepa fiev vTreXafiirev ijSr) /cal to OeaTpov 
r)v oyXov fjLecJTov, eTt tt/jo? Tr]v dSyXov alcopov- 
fievcou <pi]/jLr)v Kal cra(f)e<; ovBev elSoTcov vnep tS)v 
TrpaTTO/jievcov, irpiv ye Br) TrpoeXOojv o KTjpv^ eiirev 
ft)? 'ApaTO^ 6 KXetvlov Trapa/caXel tov<; 'jToXLTa<; 
eVl Tr)v eXevOepiav. 

IX. Tore Be 7ncrTevaavTe<; rjiceLV a irdXat 
TrpoaeBofCcov, cop/jurjaav ddpooi Tryoo? ra? Ovpa<; tov 



i8 



ARATUS VIII. 2-ix. I 

man answered him from the tower that there was 
nothing to fear, but that his dog had been excited 
by the lights of the sentries and the din of the bell. 
This more than anything else gave heart to the 
soldiers of Aratus. They thought that the huntsman 
was privy to their design and was trying to conceal 
it, and that there were many others also in the city 
who would assist them. However, when the rest of 
the company essayed the wall, their peril was grievous 
and protracted, since the ladders shook unless they 
mounted one by one and slowly ; moreover, time was 
pressing, since cocks were already crowing, and 
directly the people who brought produce from the 
country to the market-place would be coming up. 
Therefore Aratus also mounted the wall in haste, 
after forty in all had mounted before him ; and when 
he had been joined by a few more of those below, he 
went up against the tyrant's house and the praetorium, 
where the mercenary soldiers passed the night. And 
after falling upon these suddenly and capturing them 
all, but killing none, he straightway sent messages 
to his friends summoning them all from their homes, 
and they ran together from all quarters. Day was 
now breaking, and the theatre was thronged with 
people who still were in suspense because of the un- 
certain rumour that prevailed and in utter ignorance 
of what was afoot, until the herald came forward and 
made proclamation that Aratus the son of Cleinias 
invited the citizens to secure their freedom. 

IX. Then, convinced that what they had long ex- 
pected was come, they rushed in a body to the 

^ airh . . . avTy bracketed by Sint.^; Ziegler reads irpbs 
avT6v, with Stephanas. 

19 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rvpdvvov TTvp i7n(f)€poi>T6<^. ripdrj he (f)Xb^ /ubeydXr] 
Kal KaTa(f)avr)(; fjiixp^ YiopivOov t?)? olKia<i dva- 
(pdeia7)<;, axrre Oavfidaavra'; tou? iv KopLvOo) 
irapd fjLiKpov opfxrjaai irpo^ ttjv ^orjOeiav. 6 jiev 1031 
ovv Nikok\7]<; eXade Scd rcvcov vttovo/kov vire/cSv^; 

2 Kol d7roBpd<i i/c tt}? TroXeo)?, ol Be (Trparicorac 
Karairavaavre^ fierd rcov ^lkvwviwv to irvp 
SLyjpira^ou rriv oiKLav. kol ovre ravra eKcoXvcrep 
6 "A/3aT09, Ta re Xonrd ')(^prjfjiara rcov rvpdvvcov 
et9 ixeaov edrjKe toI^ iroX'nai';, direOave Se ovBel<i 
ovBe irpcoOr] to irapdrrav tcov eTreXdovTcov ovBe 
Tcop TroXefilcov, dXXa KaOapdv Kal advKTOV aiiJLaTO<; 
efx^vXiov TTjV irpd^iv t] tv^^ 8ie(f)vXa^€. 

3 KuTijyaye Be <pvydBa<i Tov<i fxev viro Nt/co- 
KXf.ov<i eKireiTTCOKOTafi oyBorjKOVTa, tou9 Be eirl tcov 
epuTTpoaOev Tvpdvvwv ovk eXarrof ? irevTaKoaicov, 
ol? fjuafcpd jjuev r) irXdvr] koX o/jlov ti rrrevTrjKov- 
Taer?;? iyeyovei. KaTeX66vT€<; Bk ol TrXelaTOv 
irevrjTe';, a)v Kvpiot irpoTepov rjaav eTreXa/jU^dvovTOy 
Kill l3aBl^0PT6^ iirl TO, ')((») pia /cat ra? olfCLWi Beivr^v 
diTopiav TM 'Aparft) irapelxov, eTTL^ovXevo/xevTjp 
fxev e^coOeu Kal (j)6ovovfxevr)v vTr" ^ KvTiyovov ttjp 
ttuXlv opcovTL Sea TTjv iXevOeplau, TapaTTOfjLevrjp 

"Be v(j)^ at/T/)? Kal aracnd^ovcrav. 

4 "OOev €K Toiiv irapovTcov dpiara Kpi,va<i irpoae- 
fiL^ev avrrjv cfyepcov tol^ 'A;)^aiot9' kol Ao) ptel^i 
6vT€<; vireBvcrav eKOVcnco'i ovofia Kai TToXiTeiav 
TTJV ^ A'x^aLMV ovTG aftco/xa XafxTTpov ovT€ /leydXrjv 
layvv e^ovTwv rore. fMiKpoiroXLTac yap r/aap ol 
TToXXol, Kal yrjv ovre XPV^'^V^ ovTe d(f>6ovov 



30 



ARATUS IX. 1-4 

residence of the tyrant, carrying firebrands. A great 
flame arose as the house caught fire, and it was visible 
as far as Corinth, so that the people of Corinth were 
astonished and were on the point of sallying forth to 
help. Nicocles, then, slipped out unnoticed by way 
of certain underground passages, and ran away from 
the city, and the soldiers, after extinguishing the fire 
with the aid of the Sicyonians, plundered his house. 
Xor did Aratus prevent this, but put the rest of the 
wealth of the tyrants at the disposition of the citizens. 
And not a man was killed or even wounded at all, 
either among the assailants or their enemies, but 
fortune preserved the enterprise free from the taint 
of civil bloodshed. 

Aratus restored eighty exiles who had been banished 
by Nicocles, and those also who had fled the city 
during the reign of former tyrants, to the number of 
five hundred. These had long been wanderers, yes, 
for close to fifty years. And now that they had 
come back, most of them in poverty, they laid claim 
to the property which they had formerly held, and 
by going to their farms and houses threw Aratus 
into great perplexity. For he saw that the city 
was plotted against by outsiders and eyed with 
jealousy by Antigonus because it had regained its 
freedom, while it was full of internal disturbances 
and faction. 

Wherefore, as things stood, he thought it best to 
attach the city promptly to the Achaean League; 
and so, though the people of Sicyon were Dorians, 
they voluntarily assumed the name and civil polity 
of the Achaeans, who at that time had neither 
brilliant repute nor great strength. For most of 
them lived in small cities, owned land tliat was 

21 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€Ke/CT7]VT0, Kol OaXaTTij TrpoaatKovv aXiixevw, ra 
TToWa Kara paxici'^ efcc^epojjbevr] Trpo^; rrjv rjireipov. 

5 aWa fidXiara Sr) SceSei^av ovtol ttjv 'EtWrjViKrjv 
akKTjV aTTpoapayov ovaav, ocrdKV<^ t^X*'^ Kocrp^ov 
KOL avvrd^ewf; 6po(ppovovcr7]<i fcal vovv e^ovro^ 
r)'yep6vo'^, oc tt}^ p,ev iraXat twv FjW/]V(ov dKpLrj<; 
ovhev, 009 elirelv, pLepo<^ ovre^, iv he tS> rore pia^ 
d^Lokoyov 7r6\€0)<; avp.iTavTe<; 6p,ov ^vvapnv ovfc 

6 eyovre^i ev/BovXla kol op^ovma, /cal on rw irpcoTO) 
Kaj" dperrjv ehvvavro p^rj (j)Ooi^€Lv, dWd TreiOecrOai 
fcal aKoXovdelVy ov puovov avrov^ ev p^ecro) iroXecov 
/cat Buvdp,€(ov TifkLKovTwv Kol TvpavvlBcov Bt.€(j>V- 
Xa^av €X€v66pov<^, dXXd kol tmv dXXcov KXXt]- 
vcop oi)9 TrXeiarov^ eXevdepovvTe<^ Kal ad)^ovTe<i 

8t€T€X0VV. 

X. ^Hv Se "Aparo? rw rpoirw ttoXltiko^, p,eya- 
X6(f)pcop, dKpLl3e(JT€po<; et? ra KOivd p,aXXov tS)v 
IhiwVy TTLKpcj^i pLiaoTvpavvo<;, €'x6pa<^ op(p Kal 

2 ^LXia"; del tu) koivo) avpLcj^epovri ')(p(op,ei'o^. 69ev 
ovx ovTa)<; hoKel yeyovevai <f)iXo<; dKpijSrjf;, &)<? 
e-)(dpo'^ evyvcop.cov kol Trpao?, vtto t?}? TroXtreta? 
eV dpcporepa tq) Kaipw pLera^aXXopLevo<;, opovoia^; 
eOvwv Kal KOivwvia'^ iroXewv Kal crvvehpiov Kal 
Oedrpov piav (poyvtjp d<pLevTO<i oo? oijBev6<; dXXov 
rcjv KaXcov epaarrj<^, TroXe/xco Kal dyoiyvL \pr](ja- 
adai (pavepot)^; dOapa7)<; Kal SvcreXirif;, KXe^jrai Be 
TrpdypLara Kal crvcrfcevdcraaOaL Kpvcfia TroXet? 

3 Kal rvpdvvov^ €7rr]^oXo)TaTo<;. Bib Kal iroXXa 
tS)v dveXiricrTWV KaropOcoaa^; ev 0I9 iroXpLrjcrev, 
ovK eXuTTOva Boxel tcop Bwarcov eyKaraXiTrelv 



22 



ARATUS IX. 4-x. 3 

neither fertile nor extensive, and were neighbours to 
a sea that had no harbours and for the most part 
washed a precipitous and rocky shore. But this 
people more than any other showed the world that 
Greek prowess was invincible, whenever it enjoyed 
good order, harmonious discipline, and a sensible 
leader. For though they had taken almost no part in 
the ancient glories of Greece, and at this time, though 
counted all together, had not the power of a single 
considerable city, still, owing to their good counsels 
and their concord, and because they were able, in 
place of envying, to obey and follow the one who was 
pre-eminent among them for virtue, they not only 
preserved their own freedom in the midst of so great 
cities and powers and tyrannies, but also were con- 
tinually saving and setting free very many of the 
other Greeks. 

X. Aratus was by natural bent a statesman, high- 
minded, more exact in his public than in his private 
relations, a bitter hater of tyrants, and ever making 
a regard for the public weal determine his enmity 
or his friendship. Wherefore he seems to have 
proved not so much a strict friend, as a considerate 
and mild enemy, changing his ground in either 
direction according to the exigencies of the state, 
loving concord between nations, community of cities, 
and unanimity of council and assembly, beyond all 
other blessings. It was manifest that he resorted 
to open warfare and strife witliout courage and with 
little confidence, but that in stealing advantages and 
secretly managing cities and tyrants he was most 
proficient. Therefore, though lie won many unex- 
pected successes where he showed courage, he seems 
to have lost no fewer favourable opportunities through 

23 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ti evXd^eiav, ov <yap fiovov, ci)9 eoiKe, Orjpicov 
rivoyv oyjreLf; ivepyol Sia o-ATOTOf? ovaat /leO^ Vf^^~ 
pav d7roTV(f>\ovvrai ^rjporrjri koI XeTrrorriTi tt}? 
irepi TOP o(f)6a\fjLov vypoT7]TO<; fit) (^epovavj^ rrjv 
7r/309 TO <j)cb<; (TvjfcpaaLv, aXXd fcal heivoTrff; rU 
ecniv dvdpuoiTov koI avveai^; ev roc<; viraiOpoL^ koI 
BiaK€fcr)pvyfji€voi<; evrdpaKTO^ (^vaei, 7rpo<; Be ra? 
eTTCKpixpov; koI \a6 paiov^ dvaOapaovaa 7rpd^€L<;. 

4 rr/i/ Be roLavrrjv dvwp,aklav evBeia \6yov (ptXoao- 
(f)ov irepX ra? ev(j>vta<^ dwepyd^eraL, ttjv dpeTi]vj 
oyairep KapTTOv avTO(f)V)] koI dyecopyrjTov, eKcpepov- 
(Ta<; Bi'^a rr}? eiTLaTrjiir)<;, ravra pev ovv i^eia- 10 
^eaOct) Tol<; vapaBeiypbaaLV. 

XL O Be ^'Aparo^, eirel /carepi^e toI<; ^A'^aiol'; 
eavTov KOi ttjv ttoXlv, ev rot? lirTrevat arparev- 
op€vo<; yyairdro Bi* evireWeiav vtto to)v dp')(^6v7(i)v, 
on, Kaiirep avpL^oXd^ rw kolvCo pieyd\a<; BeBwK(b<^ 
rrjV eavrov Bo^ap koI ttjv t^}? TrarpiBo^ Bvvafxiv, 
ft)? evl Twv e'inTV')(pvT(ov 'X^prjaOai, irapel^^ev avro) 
rov del arparrjyovvra^ rcov ^A-x^aicov, etre Au- 
fMaLO<;, etre Tpiracev^;, etre p,LKpoTepa<; tivo<; cov 

2 Tvx^oi TToXeo)?. "^/ce Be avTM koI ')(^p^]p,dTcov Bcopen 
irapd rov /Saaikeco^ irevre koI elKoai rdXavra. 
ravra eXa/Se piev 6 "Aparo?, Xa/Soov Be roL<; eavrov 
iroXirai<; eTreBwKev diTopovfxevoL<; eh re rdXXa 
Kal Xvrpcoaiv al)(/jiaXd)rcov. 

XII. 'ETTft ^e 01 <f)vydBe<; rjaav dTraprjyopyjroi 
rol<; e'XpvcTL ra? Krij(Tei<; evoy(Xovvre^y tj re ttoXl^ 
eKLvBvvevev dvdcrraro^ yeveaOai, p-iav opcov eXmBa 
rrjv UroXe/jLalov (jxXavdpcoTriav wppbrjorev eKirXev- 

* rhv afl CTpaT-qyovPTa Ziegler, with Sint.* and the MSS. : 
Ty ael (rrpar-qyovvTi, 

24 



ARATUS X. 3-xii. i 

over-caution. For not only in the case of certain 
wild beasts, as it would seem, is the vision strong by 
night but wholly blinded in the day-time (since the 
humour in their eyes is too dry and delicate to bear 
contact with the light), but there is also in some 
men a cleverness and sagacity which is prone to be 
confounded in transactions that are carried out under 
the open sky and proclaimed abroad by public criers, 
but when confronting hidden and secret enterprises 
recovers its courage. Such unevenness a lack of 
philosophy may cause in men of good natural parts ; 
they produce virtue without scientific knowledge, 
and it is like spontaneous and uncultivated fruit. 
This can be proved by examples. 

XI. Aratus, now, after uniting himself and his 
city with the Achaeans, served in the cavalry, and 
was beloved bv his commanders on account of his 
ready obedience. For although he had made great 
contributions to the commonwealth in his own repu- 
tation and the power of his native city, he gave his 
services like those of any ordinary person to the one 
who from time to time was general of the Achaeans, 
whether he was a man of Dyrae or of Tritaea, or of 
a meaner city. And there came to him also a gift of 
money from the king of Egypt, five-and- twenty 
talents. These Aratus accepted, but gave them at 
once to his fellow-citizens, who were in want of 
money, especially for the ransoming of such as had 
been taken prisoners. 

XII. But the exiles were not to be dissuaded from 
molesting those who were in possession of their 
property, and the city was in danger of an upheaval. 
Aratus saw that his only hope was in the generosity 
of Ptolemy, and therefore determined to sail to 

VOL. XI. B ^^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aat KoX ^oiOrjvai, rov /SacrtXeo)? otto)? avT& 

2 y^pTj/JLara av/j./3d\r]TaL Trpo? Ta<; Sta\va€L<;. av- 
y]X^V l^^v ovv airo Modcovrj^; virep MaXea?, 009 tm 

hLCL -ITOpOV SpoflW ')(p7]<T6fl€VO<;. 77/30? Sfc' fliya 

Trvevfia koX ttoWt/v OdXaacrav etc ireXayov; kuti- 
ovcrav evh6vT0<; rov KvjBepvrjTOV, wapaipepo/ievo^ 
/ji6Xt<; rj-yjraTO r?}? 'ASyota? TToXe/i-ta? ovar]<;. CKpa- 
relro yap vtto ^Avriyovov /cat cfyvXaKrjv el)(ev' r/v 
<f)6daa<; direffr], /cal rrjv vavv KarakiTrayv dir- 
e-)((ji)pr](Te /xaKpav avro dakdo'arjf; €%ft)i/ eva tmv 

3 (piXcov (Tvv avTfp TifidvOr^v. koi Kara^aXovre^i 
kavTom €t9 rXva roirov vXr)<; yefiovra ^aXeTTci)? 
ivvfcripevov. 0X170) Be vcrrepov 6 <^povpap)(o<; 
iireXdodv Kal ^tjtmv rov ^ Aparov vtto tojv Oepa- 
TTovTcov i^rjirartjO)-) rcov eKeivov, SeBiBay/mevcov 
Xeyuv CO? evdv^ diroBpa'^ et? Kv^oiav i^eirXeva-e. 
TO, jxevTOL KOfii^oixeva koi rrjv vavv Kal Tov<i Oepd- 
TTOvra*; direcp^jve TroXe/jLia fcal /carea'^e. 

4 Mera Be -qfiepa^ ov ttoXXo.? ev diropoL^ ovtl rw 
^Apdrqy yiveral rt? evrv^ia, 'VwfjLalKrj<; veco^ 
7rapal3aXov(T7](; Karh rov roirov ev o5 ra [lev eirl 
aKOTTTjv dvicov, rd Be KpV7rr6fxevo<; Btrjyev. errXei 
fxev ovv rj vav<; et? 'EvpCav, eTre/Sr} Be Treicra^ rov 
vavKXrjpov d)(pt Kapta? BiaKOfiiaOPjrar Kal BieKO- 
/jLicrdr} KivBvvoi<; avOi<; ovic eXdrroai y^priddfievo^ 

5 Kara QdXarrav. Ik Be K.apia<; ')(p6v<p ttoXXo) 
rrepaLwOel^ eh Aiyvwrov avroOev re ra> ^aaiXel 
BiaK€LfJL€V(p 'irpo<; avrov olk€LQ)<; everv)(e, Kal reOepa- 
26 



ARATUS XII. 1-5 

Egypt and beg the king to furnish him with money 
for the settlement of these disputes. So he put to 
sea from Mothone above Malea, intending to make 
the shortest passage. But the steersman could not 
make head against a strong wind and high waves 
that came in from the open sea^ and being carried 
out of his course got with difficulty to Adria^^ which 
was a hostile place. For it was in the power of 
Antigonus, and held a garrison of his. Aratus an- 
ticipated arrest by landing, and forsaking the ship 
withdrew a long way from tlie sea, having with him 
one of his friends, Timanthes. They threw them- 
selves into a place that was thickly covered with 
woods, and had a grievous night of it. A little later 
the commander of the garrison came to the ship in 
search of Aratus, and was deceived by his servants, 
who had been instructed to say that he had run away 
at once and had sailed off" to Euboea. The ship, 
however, with its cargo and the servants of Aratus, 
was declared a prize of war and detained. 

After a few days, while still in this helpless })light, 
Aratus met with a rare piece of good fortune, for a 
Roman ship put in at the place where he was staying, 
sometimes on a lookout-place, and sometimes hiding 
himself. The ship was bound for Syria, but after going 
on board Aratus persuaded the master of the vessel to 
convey him as far as Caria. Thither he was conveyed, 
encountering fresii perils by sea and perils as great 
as before. From Caria, after a long time, he made 
his way across to Egypt, and found the king both 
naturally well disjjosed towards him, and much grati- 

^ The text is probably corrupt. Bergk suggested Hydrea, 
an island off the N.E. coast of Peloponnesus. Others think 
of Andros, an island 8.E. of Euboea. 

27 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7revfi€P(p ypacpalf; /cat inva^LV airo rij<i 'EWa8o9, 
€P 0I9 KpidLV e^cov ovk a/jLovaov 6 'Aparo^ ael 
Tt rodv Te')(yiK(av koX Trepirrcoi', jxaXKna he Ha/x,- 
(f>v\ov Koi WeXdvOov, crvvdycov koI Kroojievo^ 
direcneWev. 

XIII. "WvOei yap en So^a Trj<; SiKvwvla^i fxov- 
(7rj<; KoX ')(prjaToypa(f)La<i, co? fjuovrj^ dBia.(f)Oopov 
e')(pv(jri<{ TO tcdXov, coare Koi ^KireWr^v eKelvov 
i]8rj Oavfia^opLefOP dtpifceaSai koi avyyeviaOat 
ToZ? dvhpdaiv iiri rakdvrw, t^9 ho^rjf; paWov 
rj T^9 Te)(i"r]<; Seofievov fjueraXa^elv. 816 ra? /lev 
dXXa<^ elfcovw^ TOiv rvpdvvcov dvel\ev ev6v<; o 
"Ayoaro?, ore rrjv iroKiv rjXevdepcoae, irepl he t?;? 
^Apio-rpdrov Kara ^IXcmrov aKfidaavTOf; e/3ov- 

2 Xevaaro ttoXvv '^povov. iypd(f)r] fiev yap viro irdv- 
rcov Tcov TTcpl TOP M.€Xav6ov dp/j-ari vi,Kri(^6p(o 
TrayoecTTft)? 6 ^Aplarparof;, ^AireXXov (rvvecpayfra- 
fxevov T7j<; ypa(f)rj^, 009 IToXefxcov o 7repir}yr)T7)<; 
laroprjKev. rjv he to epyov d^ioOeaTOV, loGTe 
yvdjiTrTeaOai top "ApaTOP viro t^? Te)(Pi]<;, avOi's 
Te fiicrei tw irpo'; tol'? Tvpdppov; e^ayofiepop 

3 KeXeveiv KaOaipelp. top ovp ^a)ypd<pop NedXKTj 
(f)iXop ovTa Tov ApdTOV irapaiTelaOai (f^aai Kal 
hafcpveip, (1)? h ov/c eTreiOep, elTreip oti toI<; Tvpdp- 
voi<^ 7roX€/ir]T€op, ov Tot? Tcop Tvpdppwp. " Yjdaoy- 

fiep ovv TO dpiia Kal tijp ^LKrjPy avTOP hi aoi 1033 
Trape^o) top ApiaTpaTop eyco 7rapa)(^o)povPTa tov 
TTLPaKO^;.^^ eiTLTpe'^aPTO'i ovp tov ^ApdTov hi- 

1 Philip II., 382-336 B.C. 
28 



ARATUS XII. 5-X111. 3 

fied because Aratus had sent him drawings and 
paintings from Greece. In these matters Aratus 
had a refined judgement^ and was continually col- 
lecting and acquiring works of artistic skill and ex- 
cellence^especiall}- those of Pamphilusand Melanthus. 
Tiiese he would send to Ptolemy. 

XIII. For the fame of Sicyon's refined and beautiful 
paintings was still in full bloom, and they alone 
were thought to have a beauty that was indestruct- 
ible. Therefore even the great Apelles, when he 
was already admired, came to Sicyon and gave a 
talent that he might be admitted into the society of 
its artists, desiring to share their fame rather than 
their art. Hence it was that Aratus, although he 
at once destroyed the other portraits of the tyrants 
when he had given the city its freedom, de- 
liberated a long time about that of Aristratus (who 
flourished in the time of Philip of Macedon^). For 
it was the work of Melanthus and all his pupils, and 
Aristratus was painted standing by a chariot in which 
was a Victory ; Apelles also had a hand in the 
painting, as we are told by Polemon the Topographer. 
And the work was a marvellous one, so that Aratus 
was moved by the artistic skill therein ; but after- 
wards, such was his hatred of the tyrants, that he 
ordered it to be removed and destroyed. Accord- 
ingly, the painter Nealces, who was a friend of 
Aratus, interceded with him for the picture, as 
we are told, and with tears, and when he could 
not persuade him, said that war should be waged 
against the tyrants, but not against the treasures 
of the tyrants. " Let us therefore leave the chariot 
and the Victory, but Aristratus himself I will 
undertake to remove from the picture." Aratus 

29 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

r/Xeiyjreu 6 NcttX^rr;? roi^ 'AplarpaTov, 6t9 ^e ttjp 
ycopav (f)OLViKa fJLovov iviypayjrev, dWo Be ovSev 
eroXfjirjcre irapa^aXelv. rov<; he TroSa? e^aXec- 
(jiopievov Tov WpLCTTpdrov BcaXaOelv vrro to ap/xa 
XeyovcTLv. 

4 "E/c T€ Br] rovTcov 6 "Apaxo? 'qyairaroy koX SlBov<; 
irelpav en fiaXXov i^ylraro tov ySacrtXeox?, kul 
Bcopeav eXa/Se rrj iroXei TrevTi^Kovra kol eKarov 
rdXavra. koI tovtcov reaaapafcovra fiev evOv^ 
fieO* eavTov ko/jLL^cov et? YleXoTropvqaov Karijpe, 
TO, Be XoLTTCL BieXoov eh Boaei^ 6 jSacriXevfi varepop 
Kara /jLepo<; diredretXep. 

XIV. ^Hv ixev ovp /jLeya koI to ^(^pijfMaTa to- 
(TavTU iropidai roi? 7roXLTaL<;, ocrcop puKpop /lepof; 
dXXoL cTTpaTijyol kol Brj^iayw/ol Xa/jL/3dpoPT€(; 
irapa ^aacXecop 7)Blkovp Kai KaTeBovXovPTo koI 
TTpoeiTLPOP avToh TO.? irarplBa^, /leu^cop Be r) Bia 
Toyp ^pTjfMaTcop TOVTO)p KaTacTKevaadelaa rot? p.ep 
uTTopoi^; Trpo? toi'9 TrXovaiOV^ BidXvai^; koI ofio- 
voia, rw Be Bij/JLO) ttuptI crwTTjpia /cac da(f)dXeca, 
OavjxacTTr) Be rj tov dpBpo<i ip Bvpdfxet ToaavTrj 

2 fxerpLOTrjfi. diroBeL^xOei^i yap avroKpdTcop BiaX- 
Xa/cTr)<; Kal Kvpi.o<; oXoj? eirl ra? (f>vyaBcKa<; olkopo- 
p,ia<i fjbopo^ ov^ v7re/jL6tP€P, dXXa irePTeKaiBeKa 
TOip TToXiTcop 'TTpodKareXe^ep eauTU), pueO u)p ttopo) 
TToXXo) Koi fi€ydXai<; TrpayfiaTelai^; KaTsupydaaTo 
Kal crvp7]p/ji0(Te <^CXiai> fcal elpyprjp Tolf TroXirac^. 

€</)' ols^ OV jXOVOP ICOLvf] (T V jJiTT aPT e^ OL TTOXiTaL 

Tt/Aa? dneBoaap avTW Trpeirovaa^, dXXa Kal Kar 
3° 



ARATUS XIII. 3-xiv. 2 

therefore yielded, and Nealces erased the figure of 
Aristratus, and in its place painted a palm-tree 
merely, not daring to introduce anything else. We 
are told, however, that the feet of the erased figure 
of Aristratus were left by an oversight beneath the 
chariot. 

In consequence of this love of art Aratus was 
already beloved by the king, and in personal inter- 
course grew yet more upon him, and received for his 
city a gift of a hundred and fifty talents. Forty of 
these Aratus took with him at once and sailed to 
Peloponnesus ; the rest the king divided into instal- 
ments, and sent them to him afterwards one by one. 

XIV. Now it was a great achievement to procure 
so large a sum of money for his fellow-citizens ; other 
generals and leaders of the people had taken but 
a fraction of this sum from kings in payment for 
wronging, enslaving, and betraying to them their 
native cities. But it was a far greater achievement 
by means of this money to have effected a harmonious 
adjustment of the disputes between rich and poor, and 
safety and security for the entire people. Moreover, 
we must admire the moderation of the man in the 
exercise of so great power. For when he was ap- 
pointed independent arbiter, with absolute powers for 
settling the money affairs of the exiles, he would not 
accept the office alone, but associated with himself 
fifteen of his fellow-citizens, by whose aid, after 
much toil and great trouble, he established peace 
and friendship among his fellow-citizens.^ For these 
services not only did the entire body of citizens 
bestow fitting public honours upon him, but the 
exiles also on their own account erected a bronze 
1 Cf. Cicero, De Off. ii. 23, SlflF. 

3^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

IBiav ol (pvydSe^; elKova '^oKkt^p avatTTTJo-avref; 
iTriypayjrav roSe ro iXeyetov 

3 ^ovXal fiev fcal aeOXa /cal a irepl 'EXXaSo? oKkcl 
rods' apSpo<; crraXat? TrXdOerat *H.paK\fi.ov(;' 

afjLfie<^ K €lk6v\ "Apare, reav voaroLo Tu^oz/re? 
aTaa-apLev dvr dperd^ rjBe BLfcaLO(Tvva<i 

acorrjpo^; acorripac Oeol^, on irarpihi ra aa 
haifJLOVLOv ^ Oeiav r coira(ja<i euvopLiav. 

XV. Tavra hiaiTpa^dp.evo'^ 6 "A/jaro? rov p.lv 
iroXiTifCOv (f)dovov fiet^cop iyeyovei Bid ra? ')(^dpiTa'^, 
^AvTLyovo<i S' l3a(TLXev<i dvid)/jL6vo<; ctt' avTW fcal 
^ovXo pLSVo'^ Tj pLerdyeiv 6Xco<; rfj (piXua tt/jo? avTov 
Tj hiaQdXXeiV irpo<^ tov UroXe/jLaloVf aXXa<i re 
<PiXav6pa)7rLa<; iveBeiKvvro firj irdw TrpocnepLevw, 
KoX Ovcov 6eol<; iv J^opivdco pL€piBa<; eh Xtfcvcava 

2 TO) ^Apdrcp hieiTep,7re. koI irapd to BelTrvov, ecrri- 
a)/jL€vcDv TToXXayv, €l<i pLeaov (^6ey^dp.evo<;, *'' D>L/jLr}v, 
€<pr], " top XcKvoopiop TOVTOP P€aplcr/cop eXevdepiov 
elpac TTJ <pva6i /jlopop koI ipiXoTroXiTrjv o Be Koi 
^[(op eoiKe Kol irpaypLdTcop (BaatXiiCMp Itcapo^ 
elpac KpLTr}<^. irporepop yap T/yu-a? virepeoopa rat? 
iXTTLCTLP e^co ^Xiircop Koi top AlyvTrriop iOavp^a^e 
ttXovtop, eXe(paPTa<; koI cttoX-ou? koI avXdf; 
uKOvcop, pvvl Be viro aicrjprjp ecopaKco^ irdpTa tu 
eKCL irpdypLaTa TpaywBiap oPTa koI aKrjPoypa^iap 

3 o\o9 r^pilp 7rpoa/ce')(^a>pr}Kep. avrot re ovp utto- 
Be')(opLai TO fjietpdKiop eypcoKco^ et? dirapTa XPV~ 

^ daindvioy Sint.' and Ziegler, after Zeibz : SalfMov taov. 
32 



ARATUS XIV. 2-xv. 3 

statue of him, and inscribed thereon the following 
elegiac verses : — 

"The counsels, valorous deeds, and prowess 
in behalf of Hellas, which this man has dis- 
played, are known as far as the Pillars of 
Heracles ; but we who achieved our return 
through thee, Aratus, for thy virtue and justice, 
have erected to the Saviour Gods this statue of 
our saviour, because to thy native city thou hast 
brought a sacred and heavenly reign of law." 

XV. These successful achievements placed Aratus 
beyond the jealousy of his fellow-citizens, owing to 
the gratitude which he inspired ; but Antigonus, the 
king, was annoyed by the policy of Aratus, and 
wished either to bring him over into complete friend- 
ship with himself or to alienate him from Ptolemv. 
He therefore showed him many kindnesses which 
were not at all welcome, and especially this, that as 
he was sacrificing to the gods at Corinth, he sent 
portions of the victims to Aratus at Sicyon. And at 
the banquet which followed, where many guests were 
present, he said, so that all could hear : " I thought 
this Sicyonian youth was merely free-spirited and a 
lover of his fellow-citizens ; but he would seem to be 
a capable judge also of the lives and actions of kings. 
For formerly he was inclined to overlook us, fixing 
his hopes elsewhere, and he admired the wealth of 
Egypt, hearing tales of its elephants, and fleets, and 
palaces ; but now that he has been behind the scenes 
and seen that everything in Egypt is play-acting and 
painted scenery, he has come over entirely to us. 
Therefore I both welcome the young man myself, 
having determined to make every possible use of 

33 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aOai, Koi vfjLd<i a^ico (plXov voini^eiv.** toutou? tou9 

X07OU? VTTodeCTLV Xa^6vT€(i ol (^dovepoX KoX KaKO' 

r]d€i's hLrjixiWuiVTO Tal<s iTn(JTo\al<^ aWrjXot,^, 
TToXXa Kol hv(T')(eprj Kara rov ^Aparov rw YiroXe- 
[xalw <ypd<povT€<:t ooare KaKeivov iy/caXovvra irefi- 
yjraL. rati; fi€V ovv 7r€pLfjLa')(^rJT0i<; Kal Bia7rvpot<; 
TO^€vofiepai<i epcoai ^CXiaL<; ^acriXeoiv Kal rvpdv- 
vwv ToaovTOP Trpoarjv <^66vov Kal KaKor)6€La<i. 

XVI. 'O he"ApaTO<; alpeOei^ (TTpaTr]y6<i to TTyow- 
Tov virb t€)v ^A^atcov rrjv puev avmrepa's AoKpLha 
Kal KaXvBcovlav iTropdrjcre, BotwTOi? Se fJLera puv- 
picDV (TTpartcoTcov ^orjOcov vareprja-e t% fid^7]<i, 
Tfv V7T0 AIto)X(ov irepl ^acpcopeiav rjTT^Orjaav, 1034 
^A^OKOKpiTOv T€ Tov ^ot,wTdp')(pv Kul ')(^iXi(i)V avv 

2 avTO) ireaovToav. eviavTw Se varepov avdc^; cyrpa- 
rrjycop ivia-Taro rrjv irepl top ^AKpoKopcpOop irpa- 
^LP, ov ^iKvcopLcop ovB* ^ A^ai(ii)P Kr}S6p,6P0<;, dXXa 
KoiPi'/P TLPa T7]<; *EXXdSo<; 0X77? rvpappiha, rr]p 
^laKe^opcDP (ppovpdp, CKelOep i^eXdaac Biapoov- 

3 pepos;. Xa/37;? p,ep yap 6 ^AOrjpaco^ ep tlpi P'd^rj 
Trpo? TOL/? ^acnX60)(; crrparijyovf; evrv^rjaa^ 
€ypay\re rro S7]p,o) royp ^AOrjpaicop o)? pepiKtycoi, Tfj<i 
€P MapaOcopL pid^ri^ dS6X(f)7]P' ravTrjp Be Tr}v 
irpd^cp ovK UP dp^dproL rt? dBeXcf^rjp irpoaetTrcop 
T?)? TieXoTrloov rod %r]^aiov Kal %paav^ovXov 
rov AOrjiaiov rvpappoKropla^;, irXrjp on r(p p<r} 
7rp6<i " EXXi]pa'^, dXXd eiraKrop dp')(rip yeyopkvai 

4 Kai aXXo^vXop avrr] BujpeyKev. 6 p>ep yap ^\cr6- 

34 



I 



ARATUS XV. 3-xvi. 4 

him, and I ask you to consider him a friend." These 
words were seized upon by the envious and male- 
volent, who vied with one anotiier in writing to 
Ptolemy many grievous charges against Aratus, so 
that the king sent an envoy and upbraided him. 
So great malice and envy attend upon the friend- 
ships of kings and tyrants, for which men strive and 
at which they aim with ardent passion. 

XVI. Aratus now, having been chosen general of 
the Achaean League for the first time, ravaged the 
opposite territories of Locris and Calydonia, and 
went to the assistance of the Boeotians with an army 
of ten thousand men. He came too late, however, 
for the battle at Chaeroneia, in which the Boeotians 
were defeated by the Aetolians, with the loss of 
Aboeocritus, their Boeotarch, and a thousand men. 
A year later,^ being general again, he set on foot the 
enterprise for the recovery of Acrocorinthus,^ not in 
the interests of Sicyonians or Achaeans merely, but 
purposing to drive from that stronghold what held 
all Hellas in a common subjection, — the Macedonian 
garrison. Chares the Athenian, having been suc- 
cessful in a battle with the king's generals, wrote to 
the people of Athens that he had won a battle which 
was "sister to that at Marathon"; and this enter- 
prise of Aratus may be rightly called a sister of 
those of Pelopidas the Thel)an and Thrasybulus the 
Athenian, in which they slew tyrants, except that it 
surpassed them in being undertaken, not against 
Greeks, but against a foreign and alien power. For 

^ In 243 B.C., two years later. The otiice of general in the 
League could not be held by the same person in successive 
years. Cf. chap, xxiv, 4. 

' The citadel of Corinth. 

35 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yLtos* ^iJ.<l>fia(X(ra>v Ta9 daXdaaa^, eh ravro crvvdyet, 
TO) iciro)^ fcal arvvdirTet rrjv yneipov yfiayv, 6 Be 
^AfcpoKopivOo^i, v^\rrf\.ov opo<s, ifc fxea^'^ dva- 
7r€(f)VK(o<; ri]'^ EXX,a8o9, orav Xd^rj (f)povpdv, ii'i- 
crrarat. Koi aTroKOTrret, ttjv evro<^ 'IctO/jLOv iraaav 
iTTipLc^icou T€ Kol TTapoScov Kol (TTpareiMv ipyacrLa<; 
5 re Kara yrjv koI Kara 6 dXarrav , fcal eva Kvpiov 
TTOiel Tov dp)(0VTa koI KaTe)(^ovra cfypovpa to 
ycopiov, wcrre fjbrf irai^ovra hoKelv tov veoorepov 
(plXiTTTTOV, dX}C dXrjOo)'^, eKdarore 7re8a? t^9 'E\- 
XdBo<; rrjp Y^opLvOiwv itoXlv Trpoaa'yopevetv. 

XVIL YlacFL fJLev ovv 7r6pLfjLd')(r}T0<i rjv 6 totto? 
del fcal ^aaiXevai, kol Svvdarai^;, r) hk ^ AvTiyorov 
(jiTOvdt) irepl avrov ovhev direXiire irdOei roov e'/x- 
fiaveardrcov ipcoTcov, aXV 6Xo<; dvijpTTjro ra?? 
(^povTLCTLv OTTft)? dcpaiprjaerai SoXw rov<; ey^ovra^;, 

2 €7r€l(f)av€pa)<; dp6X7riaT0<; ^v rjiiTix^i'PV^^''^- *A\e^- 
dvBpov ydp, vcf)^ ov to ycopiov rjv, drroOavovTO's 
(ft)? XeyeTat) c^app^aKOL^ vir avTOV, N^/rata? Be 
T^9 ifcelvov yvvaiKOf; eVt tmv TrpaypdTcov 
yevopevq^ koI <pvXaTTOvar)<i tov AKpoKopivOov, 

€vOv<^ V7T07r€p.7ra)V Ar]pi]TpL0V TOV vloV aVTTJ, KOL 

yXvKtLUf; iXTTiSafi evBcBov's ydficov ^aacXiKMV kuI 
crvfx^icoaecoi; 7r/?09 ovk dr)Se<; evTV')(e'iv yvvaifcl 

3 irpea^vTepa peipdKtov, avTrjv fiev rjprjKei,, tw TratSl 
')(^pr}adp,evo<; Mairep dXX(p tlvI tcov BeXea(T p,dTa)v 
eiT avTrj, TOV Be tottov ov 7rpoiep,ev7j<;, dXX eyKpa- 
T6t>9 <^vXaTTOvar]^y dp^eXelv 7rpo(77rotov/jbevo<i eOve 
ydp,ov<i avTMV ev KopLvOro, koI dea<s eireTeXei fcai 

* TO) tJtto) Capps : T(f 7 6rrtf>, 



3« 



ARATUS x\i. 4-XV11. 3 

the Isthmus of Corinth, forming a barrier between 
the seas, brings together the two regions, and thus 
unites our continent ; and when Acrocorinthus, 
which is a lofty liill springing u]) at this centre of 
Greece, is held by a garrison, it hinders and cuts off 
all the country south of the Isthmus from inter- 
course, transits, and the carrying on of military 
expeditions by land and sea, and makes him who 
controls the place with a garrison sole lord of Greece. 
Therefore it is thought that the younger Philip of 
Macedon^ uttered no jest, but the truth, whenever 
he called the city of Corinth " the fetters of Greece.'' 
XVII. Accordingly, the place was always an object 
of great contention among kings and dynasts, but the 
eagerness of Antigonus to secure it fell nothing short 
of the most frenzied passion, and he was wholly 
absorbed in schemes to take it by stratagem from 
its possessors, since an open attempt upon it was 
hopeless. For when Alexander,^ in whose hands 
the place was, had died of poison given him (it is 
said) in obedience to Antigonus, and his wife Nicaea 
had succeeded to his power and was guarding the 
citadel, Antigonus at once sent his son Demetrius to 
lier in furtherance of his schemes, and by ins})iring 
her with pleasant hopes of a royal marriage and of 
wedded life with a young man who would be no 
disagreeable company for an elderly woman, he 
captured her, using his son for all the world like a 
bait for her. The citadel, however, she did not give 
up, but kept it under strong guard. Pretending, 
therefore, indifference to this, Antigonus celebrated 
the nuptials of the pair in Corinth, exhibiting 

*■ Philip v., 237-179 B.a 
* The tyrant of Corinth, 

37 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

tt6tov<; avvfiye xad rj/juepav, co? dv rt? fioKiara 
7rai^€Lv Kol cf)(o^oL^eLV Tijv Btdvoiav v<f>^ r)Sovfj<; 

4 fcal <f)tXo(ppo(TVpr)<; d(^6LK(o<^. eVet he Kaipo<^ 7]v, 
aSovTo<; ^AfJLOL^€(o<; ev tw Oedrpw, 7rap€7r€/j.7r€ rrjv 
^LKaiav avro<^ eirl rrjv Beav iv (popelo) K€Kocrp,7j- 
fjuevcp l3acn\LK(o<;, dyaWofievrjv re rfj rifjufj koX 
Troppayrdro) rov p,eWovTO<; ovcrav. yevopevo^; Be 
T/}? ohov Kara 7r)v eKTpoirrjv rrjv avco (pepovaav, 
€K€LV7}v peu e/ciXevae irpodyeiv eh to dearpov, 
avTO<i Be \aipeiv pev ^ApoiSea, 'xaipeLV he roii^ 
ydp.ov<; edcra<; dvr)ei irpo's top ^ AKpoKopivOov dp^iX- 
Xdypevo^ Trap rfkiiciav' fcal KeKXeia p,evrjv rrjv irv- 
Xrjv evpoov, e/corrre rrj ^afCTrjpia KeXevwv dvoiyetv, 

5 ol 8' evhov dvew^av KarairXayevre^;. ovrco he rov 
TOTTOV Kparrjaa<;, ou Karea')(ev avrov, dXX emve 
irai^cov vti'o ')(^apa^ ev rot? (Trevayrrol^, KaX hi 
dyopas avXr]rpiha<; e')((ov KaX (Tre(f)dvov<; rrepiKei- 
pevo<;, avrjp yepwv Kac ryjXiKavraif; 7rpayp,dr(ov 
pera0o\al<s K€)(p7]pevo<;, €fC(t)p,al^€ he^Lovp,evo<s Kal 
irpoaayopevwv rov<; aTravrcovra^i. ovrro^ dpa KaX 
XuTT/;? KaX (f)6^ov paXXov e^iarrjai KaX adXov 
Trapex^i rfj "v/^f^.v to ')(aipeiv dvev Xoyiapt,ov 
7rapayivop.evov. 

XVIIL 'AWa yap WvrLyovo<; p,ev, axnrep e'tprj- 
rai, Krrjadpevo^; rov ^ AKpoKopivOov €(f)vXarre, 
perd rcov dXXwv oI<? eiricyreve pdXia-ra KaX Wep- 1035 
Galov eiTLcrrriaa^ dp^ovra rov <piXoao<^ov. o he 
' Xparo'^ ert p.ev KaX 'AXe^dvhpov ^Mvro<^ eVep^et- 
pyjae rfj irpd^ei, yevop€V7]<; he (Tvppa')(ia<i roU 
2 'Amatol? TTyoo? rov ^ AXe^avhpov irravaaro, rore 



38 



ARATUS XVII. 3-XV111. 2 

spectacles and giving banquets every day, as one 
whom pleasure and kindliness led to think chief! v 
of mirth and ease. Hut when the crucial moment 
came, and as Amoebeus was about to sing in the 
theatre, he escorted Nicaea in })erson to the spectacle. 
She was borne in a litter which had royal trappings, 
plumed herself on her new honour, and had not the 
remotest suspicion of what was to happen. Then, 
arrived at the diverging street that led up to the 
citadel, Antigonus gave orders that Nicaea should 
be borne on into the theatre, while he himself, 
bidding adieu to Amoebeus, and adieu to the 
nuptials, went up to Acrocorinthus with a speed 
that belied his years ; and, finding the gate locked, 
he beat upon it with his staff and ordered it to 
be opened. And the guards within, stupefied, 
opened it. Thus master of the place, he could not 
contain himself for joy, but drank and disported 
himself in the streets, and with music-girls in his 
train and garlands on his head, old man that he 
was and acquainted with so great vicissitudes 
of fortune, revelled through the market-place, 
greeting and clasping hands with all who met him. 
'JMius we see that neither grief nor fear transports 
and agitates the soul as much as joy that comes 
unexpectedly. 

XVIII. Antigonus, then, having got Acrocorinthus 
into liis power, as I have said, kept it under guard, 
putting men there whom he most trusted, and 
making Persaeus the philosopher their commander. 
Now Aratus, even while Alexander was still living, 
had set his hand to the enterprise, but an alliance 
was made between the Achaeans and Alexander, and 
he therefore desisted. At the time of wiiich I spcnk, 

39 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Be av6t<; ef virap^V^ erepav eXafie ttj<; 7rpd^€(o<; 
vTToOeaiv TOiavrrjv. 

*Hcray iv K.opLv6(p reao-ape<^ ahe\<j)ol ^vpoi ro 
761/09, wv ei? ovofxa AiOK\rj<^ iv rw (^povpicp iiLado- 
(^opoiv Sierpi^ev. ol 3e rpet? K\ey\ravTe<i ^acn- 
\iKov ^(^pvaiov rjXSov eh XtKVMpa 7rpo<; Alyiav 
TLva Tpa7T€^iTr)v, (p Sia rrjv ipyaaiav 6 "A/^aro? 
e^p^TO. Kol pepo<^ p.ev €v0u<^ BuOevro rov ^/ji^o-tof, 
TO Be XoLTTov el<; avrwv Epytvo^ iindiOLToyv rjcrv^fj 

3 KaTTjWarrev. €k Be tovtou yevopbevo^; rCo Alyla 
<TvvrjOrj<;, koI irpoa')(6e\<^ et? \6yov vir avrov irepX 
tt}? (f)povpd<;, e<^rj Trpo? tov aBe\(fiOV avajSaivcov 
77/309 TO KprjpvoiBe's evropr)v KaOecopafcevaL irXa- 
yiav, ayovaav 77 'X^OapLaXcorarov eTTMtcoBoprjjai 
rep (ppovpio) TO T6t;!^o9. irpocnrai^avTO'^ Be avrw 
rov Alyiov koI elirovro^' " Kira, o) ^eXriare, Bia 
pLLKpov ovTO) ')(^pvaiov avacrrrare ra<; ^aatXi/ca<; 
7rpd^ei<^, Bvvdpevoi piav copav rroXXcbv diroBoadai 
'^(pripdrwv ; rj yap ovj(i kol roL)(copv')(oi^ koI 
irpoBorai^ dXovcnv dira^ diroOavelv vrrdp')(et ; 

4 yeXdaa^ ^Kpycvo^ rore piev (jopoXoyrjaer diroTTei- 
patjOai rov Ato/cXeov^ (T0i9 ydp dXXot.^ a8eX^oi9 
pi] irdvv ri Triareveiv), 6Xiyai<; Be varepov rjpepaifi 
eiraveXOoiv avvriOerai rov "Aparov d^eiv 7rpo9 to 
Tefc;i^09, OTTOf ro v^\ro<; ov pel^ov tjv irevreKaiBeKa 
TToBcov, KoX rdXXa avprrpd^eLV pera rov AiOKXeov;. 

XIX. 'O Be "Aparo^ eKeivoi<; puev e^ijKOvra 
rdXavra Bcoaeiv /caropdcoaaf; copoXoyrjaev, rjv Be 
d7Torv')(rj, acoOfj Be per eKeivcov, oiKiav eKareprp 
Kol rdXavrov. eVet Be eBei irapd too Auyia ra 
e^TjKovra rdXavra fcelaOai rol^ irepl rov 'Epylvov, 



40 



A RAT us XVIII. 2-xix. i 

however, a new and fresh basis for the enterprise 
was found by him in the following circumstances. 

There were in Corinth four brothers, Syrians by 
race, one of whom, Diodes by name, was serving as 
a mercenary soldier in the citadel. The other three, 
after stealing some gold plate of the king's, came to 
Aegias, a banker in Sicyon with Avhom Aratus did 
business. A portion of the gold they disposed of to 
him at once, but the remainder was being quietly 
exchanged by one of them, Erginus, in frequent 
visits. Erginus thus became well acquainted with 
Aegias, and having been led by him into conversa- 
tion about the garrison in the citadel, said that as he 
was going up to see his brother he had noticed in 
the face of the cliff a slanting fissure leading to 
where the wall of the citadel was at its lowest. 
Thereupon Aegias fell to jesting with him, and said : 
'' Do you, then, best of men, thus for the sake of a 
little gold })late rifle the king's treasures, when it is 
in your power to sell a single hour's work for large 
sums of money .^ Don't you know that burglars as 
well as traitors, if they are caught, have only one death 
to die .^ " Erginus burst out laughing, and as a first 
step agreed to make trial of Diodes (saying that he 
had no confidence at all in his other brothers), and a 
fevv' days afterwards came back and bargained to 
conduct Aratus to the wall at a spot where it was 
not more than fifteen feet in height, and to aid in 
the rest of the enterprise together with Diodes. 

XIX. Aratus on his part agreed to give the men 
sixty talents if he was successful, and in case he 
failed, and he as well as they got off safely, to give 
each of them a house and a talent. 7'hen, since the 
sixty talents had to be deposited with Aegias for 

41 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 Be ' Aparo<^ ovre avro<^ ^^X^^ ovre e^ovXero 
haveiXofxevo<; aia6)]aiv erepo) T^}9 Trpd^eoyq Trapa- 
cT'y^elv, Xa/Scbv tcov €K7T(op.dra)V ra TroWa koX ra 
^(pvaia T?}? ^vvaiKO's vireO^Ke tm Alyla TTyOO? to 

2 dpyvpiov. ovTO) yap eTTTJpro rf} yjrv^T] Kal rocrov- 
Tov epcora rcov koXcov irpd^ecov el-^ev, ware rov 
^co/cicova Kal rov KTrafieivcovSav eiTLaTdfievo^^ 
' ¥SK\r}V(ov BtKaiordrov^ Kal Kpariarov^ yeyovevai 
hoKovvTa<^ iirl rw SiwcraaOat Scopea^; fieydXa^ Kal 
fXTj TrpoeaOai 'X^prjixdraiv to KaXov, avro^ ch ravra 
hairavdaOai Kpv(f)a Kal 7rpoci(7(f)€peiv, ev ol\ €kiv- 
hvveve /li6vo<; virep Trdvrcov ovSe elSorcDV ra irpar- 

3 rofieva, rjpelro. rt? 7^^ ovk av Oavfidaeie Kal 
avvaywvicraLTo en vvv rfj fxeyaXoyj/v^^ia rov dv- 
hpG'^y (jdvovpLevov 'y^pijfidrcov rocrovraw Kivhwov 
rrfXiKovroVy Kal rd rifiKorara hoKovvra tmv k-ttj- 
udTwv v'TTOTiOevTO'^, 6'7ra}<; 'Trap€Laa')(^del<^ vvktg^ 
et9 Toil's iroXefiiovf; hiay(oviai]Tai rrepl Trj<^ ^^XV^' 
eve)(vpov XaSwv I'qv eXiriBa rov KaXov irap aviMv, 
dX\o Se ovhev ; 

XX, Ovcrav ce KaO auTr]v €77/ crcbaXrj rr/v irpd- 
^w (.7Ti^>^d\e(TTepav €~oir)aei' dpapna r/? evOv^i 
€v dp-)(7] crv/jLfSdaa Bt' dyvoiav. yap OLKerr]^ rov 
Apdrov Te)(V(t)v irrefL^fjOr) jiev a)? pierd rov Aio- 
KXeov<; Kara(TKe-^6pievo<^ ro nelyy;, ovrrny 8' 7]v rep 
AtoKXel TTpoiepov ivrervyrjKcc^ Kar oyjriv, dXXa 
rifv fjiopc^rjv avrou Kal ro el8o^ hoKOiv Kare')(^eiv e| 
o)v o ^Fjpylvo<; eirearjpbrivev ovXoKOfirjv Kal pieXdy- 
2 ypouv Kal dyeveiov. iXQwv ovv ^ ottov avvere- 

' a-^heiov. ^x0u;v ovv Coracs and Zie>gler, with the WSS. : 
oy^vftoi', iXQxv, 

42 



ARATUS XIX. i-xx. 2 

Erginus, and Aratus neither had them liimself nor 
was willing by borrowing them to give anyone 
else a suspicion of his undertaking, he took most 
of his plate and his wife's golden ornaments and 
deposited them with Aegias as security for the 
money. For he was so exalted in spirit and had 
so great a passion for noble deeds that, knowing as 
he did that Phocion and Epaminondas were reputed 
to have been the justest and best of Greeks because 
they spurned great gifts and would not betray their 
honour for money, he elected to expend his own 
substance secretly, as an advance, on an enterprise in 
which he alune was risking his life for the whole 
body of citizens, who did not even know what was 
going on. For who will not admire the magnanimity 
of the man, and yearn even now to lend a helping 
hand, who purchased at so high a price so great a 
d mger, and })ledged what he thought the most 
precious of his possessions in order that he might 
l)e introduced by night among his enemies and 
contend for his life, receivini; as his security from 
his countrymen the hope of a noble acticJn, and 
nothing: else ? 

XX, Now the enterprise was dangerous in itself, 
but was made more dangerous still by a mistake 
which occurred at the very beginning through 
ignorance. For Technon, the servant of Aratus, 
had been sent to inspect the wall with Diodes, 
and had not yet met Diodes face to face, but 
thought he would know how he looked because 
Erginus had described him as curly-haired, of a 
swarthy complexion, and without a beard. Having 
come, therefore, to the ])lace appointed, he was 

43 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

raKTO, rov ^Kpylvov &)? a<^t^9fjievov jubera rov 
Aiok\€OV<; avejieve irpo rPis vroXeo)? jrpo tov koXov- 
/16V0V ' OpviOo^. ev he tovtco irpwro^; aSeXcfyo^ 
^Rpyivov Kol AioK\eov<; ovopa Aiovvcnof; ov crvv- 
€iSq)<; rrjv irpa^Lv ovBe kolvcovcov, OfjLoio^; Sk T(p 
AlokXcl, irpoa-pei Kara TV')(riv. 6 he Tex^o^v tt/oo? 
ra (Trjfiela tt)? fjLop(f)'T]<; rrj o/jLOioTrjTL KivyOel^; 1036 
jjpoorrjae rov av6 pwirov et n avpi^oXaiov avrw 

3 7r/oo9 ^Epyivov eh]. <f)7]aavT0<; he dhe\(f)6v elvat, 
Travrdiracjiv 6 Te'X^vcov iTrelaOr) rw Aiok\€l hiaXe- 
yeadar Kai /j,r)Te Tovvofxa irvOofievo^ /jLtJt aXXo 
p,7]hev 7rpoafieLva<; Te/c/iyjpiov efx/SaXXei re rrjv 
he^iav av7(p Kal irepl rcov (TvyKei/ievcov Trpbs rov 

Kpyh'ov eXaXei Kciicelvov dvkfcpivev, 6 he he^d- 
p.€vo<; avTOV rrjv dfxapTiav iravovpyw^ oy/jLoXoyei, 
T€ Tvavra tcaX 7rpo<; ryv ttoXlv dvaarpe'^a^ virrjyev 

4 dvvTroTrrccx; hiaXeyopevo'^. r'jhrj he irXriaiov dvto<; 
avTov Kal fie\XovTo<; oaov oviru) rov ^e)(ywva 
hiaXa/i^dj'€LV, diro tu^t;? av irdXiv 6 ^Kpylvo<i 
avrol<; d7njvry]a€V. alaOo/jievo<; he rrjv dirdrijv fcal 
rov Kivhvvov hid vev/jLaro<; ehjjXcoae rw ^e'XyodVi 
(pevyeiv Kal d7ro7r7]hi]cravr€<; dfi(f)6repoi, hpofico 
7rpo9 rov" Aparov direaooOijaav. ov fiijv drreKafie 
ral^ eXTTioiv eKeLVo<i, d'W eireix'^ev evOv^ rov 
'Kpyivov ')(pvaiov re ro) Aiovvairp Ko/ii^ovra Kai 

6 herjaofievov avrou (TicoTrdv. o he Kalrovro erroirjcre 
Kal rov Aiovvaiov dycov ped eavrov irpo^ rov 
"Aparov r)X6tv. eXOovra he avrov ovKen hirjKav, 
dXXd hijaavref; e<\)vXarrov ev oIklctkm KaraKe- 
K'Xeta- fi^vov avrol he irapeaKCvd^ovro 7rpo9 rrjv 
eTTiOeaiv. 

XXI. ' Vjirel he yv eroifia Trdvra, rrjv fjuev dXXrjv 

44 



ARATUS XX. 2-xxi. i 

waiting lor Erginus to come there with Diodes, 
just outside the city, near what was called the 
Ornis. As he was waiting, however, the oldest 
brother of Erginus and Diodes, named Dionysius, 
who was not privy to the enterprise and took no 
part in it, but resembled Diodes, chanced to come 
up. So Technon, moved by the similarity in the 
marks of his outward appearance, asked him if he 
was connected at all with Erginus ; and on his saying 
that he was a brother, Technon was altogether 
convinced that he was talking with Diodes, and 
without inquiring his name, or waiting for any other 
proof whatever, gave him his hand and began 
chatting with him and asking him questions about 
what had been agreed upon with Erginus. 
Dionysius took cunning advantage of his mistake, 
assented to all that he said, and turning his back 
towards the city led him along in unsuspicious 
conversation. But just as he was near the city, 
and was at the very point of seizing Technon, by 
a second chance Erginus met them. Erginus 
compreliended tlie trick and the danger, motioned 
Technon to fly, and both of them ran off and got 
safely to Aratus. Aratus, however, would not give 
up hope, but at once sent Erginus to bribe Diony- 
sius and beg him to hold his tongue. Erginus not 
only did this, but actually brought Dionysius with 
him to Aratus. And now that Dionysius was there 
they would not let him go, but bound him and kept 
him indoors under lock and key, while tiiey 
themselves prej)ared for their attack. 

XXI. VV'lien all things were ready, Aratus ordered 

45 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hvva^iiv eKekevaev iirl to3V oirXayv vv/crepeveip, 
dvaXa/Scov Be \oydBa<; rerpaKoaiovi ovB^ avTov<s 
elBoTa'i TCL TTparro/jLeva, ttXtjv oXlycov, rj^e TTyoo? 
ra? TTuXa? irapa to Hpatov. rjv Se rov erov^ r) 
Trepl 6epo<i ciKpid^ov oypa, rov he /ir]p6<i iravae- 
\r)po(;, 7) he vv^ dv€cj)€\o<; koI KaTa^avr)<;, coare 
Koi (f>o^op rd ottAo, irapey^eLV dpTiXafiirovra irpo^ 

2 TYjV creXrjvrjv, fir] Tou<i ^vkaKa<i ov XdOayaiv. ijhy] 
he T<t)v TrpcoTcov €771)9 ovtcdp diro 6d\da(j7)<; dp- 
ehpafie pecftrj kol Karea^e rrjp re ttoKlp avrrji^ Ka\ 
TOP e^co TOTTOP iiriarKLOp yepopiepop. epravOa he 
01 p,ep dWot (JvyKadiaavTe^ vireXvoPTo Ta9 Kpr)- 
7rlha<s' ovre yap ■\lr6(f)0P iroLOvcn ttoXvp ovt 
oXiaOijpaTa XapL^dpovac yvpLPol'i Tol'i tto(t\p upti- 
Xafi^apop^pOL TMP KXipLaKoop' 6 he ^Ejpylpo<i eiTTa 
Xa^Q)P peaplaKovi eo-raX/iepov^; ohocTropiKCJ^; eXaOe 

3 TTJ TTvXrj irpo<jp,i^a<s. Kal top TrvXwpop u.'itoktip- 
pvovai KUL Toil's pier avTov (pvXaKa^. dpua he alt 
re KXipLUKC^ TTpoaeTiOePTO Kal fcard (nrovhrjp 6 
^ApaTo^ virep^L^daa^ eKaTOP dphpa<;, to?)? 8' 
dXXou({ eireadai KeXevaa<; co? dp hvpcopTUL ra^^^/crra, 
Ta? KXipLaKa<^ dpap7rdaa<i e;\^coy06t hia t% TroXew? 
perd T(OP efcuTOP eVl tjjp dfcpap, r/orj 7r€prj(apr)<{ 
hid TO XapOdpeip &)? fcuTopOcop. 

4 Kai 7ra)9 ctl TrpocrcoOep avroi^ dTTTJpTa avp (JxotI 
(f)vXaKrj Teaadpcop dphpoiP ov Kadopcopuepoif;' cti 
yap rjcrap ip Ta> axia^opepfo T/79 (7eX7]P7)<i' €KeiPov< 
he TrpoaioPTa^ e^ €PaPTLa<i KaOopwat. puKpop ovr 
v7ro(TT€iXa<s Tet')(L0L<; Tial Kal oLKOTrehoi^, ipehpav 
iirl T0v<; dphpa<^ KaOl^et. Kal Tpel<i puep uvtmp 
epLirecJuPTes diToOvi^aKOvaLP, 6 h^ TeTapT0<^ ttXt)- 
7619 ^Lcpei T7]p Ke(paXr)p 6^1/76, ^ocop ephop eipai 
46 



ARATUS XXI. 1-4 

the rest of his forces to pass the niglit under arms, 
and taking with him four hundred picked men, few 
of whom knew what was on foot themselves, led 
them towards the gate of GDrintli near by the 
temple of Hera. It was midsummer, the moon was 
at its full, and the night was cloudless and clear, so 
that they feared lest the gleam of their arms in the 
moonlight should disclose them to the sentinels. 
But just as the foremost of them were near the 
wall, clouds ran up from the sea and enveloped 
the city itself and the region outside, which tims 
became dark. Then the rest of them sat down and 
took off their shoes, since men make little noise and 
do not slip if they are barefooted when they climb 
ladders ; but Erginus, taking with him seven young 
men equipped as travellers, got unnoticed to the gate. 
Here they slew the gate-keeper and the sentries 
who were with him. At the same time the ladders 
were clapped to the wall, and after getting a 
hundred men over in all haste, Aratus ordered tlie 
rest to follow as fast as they could ; then he pulled 
his ladders up after him and marched through the 
city with his hundred men against the citadel, being 
already full of joy at his escape from detection and 
confident of success. 

A little farther on they encountered a watch of 
four men with a light ; they were not seen by them, 
being still in the shade of the moon, but saw them 
coming up in the oj)posite direction. So they drew 
back a little for shelter beneath some walls and 
buildings, and set an ambush for the men. Tliree 
of them they killed in their attack, but the fourth, 
with a sword-wound in his head, took to flight, crying 

47 



•PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 Toi'9 TToXeyLitof 9. Koi fiera fiiKpov aXre craXTn'yye^i 
eirearifiaLVOv, rj re ttoX^? i^aviCTaTO tt/jo? ra 
yiv6/jL6vaf 'rr\r)pei,<^ re rjaav oi (rrevcoTrol hiaOeov- 
rcov, Kal (bcora TroWd, ra fiev KarcoOev 7]Br), ra 
Be avwdev diro t% aKpa^ TrepieXafjiTrey kol xpavyrj 
(TvveppTjyvvTO Trapra^odev darj/xof;. 

XXIL 'Ei^ TouToy Se /xev 'Aparo? efjL(f)v<; ttj 
iTopeia irapa to Kprj/nvcoSef; t)/j,iWdro, ^paSeayfi 
Kal raXaiTTcopco'; to Trpcorov, ov KaTafcpaTcov, dW* 
dirOTrXavcofjievof; tov Tpi/Sov TravTdTraaip ivBeSv- 
KOTO^ Kal Tre 01 (TKia^ofievov rat? Tpa^y^VTrjai Kal 
hia iToWoiv eXiypoyv Kal rrapa^oXoyv irepaivovTOf; 
7r/309 TO Tecxo^. elTa Oavfidaiov olov rj aekrjvr) 
XiycTat BtaaTeWovaa to, ve(f)7) Kal vTroXapurovaa,^ 
T/}9 6B0V TO ')(aX€7r(i)TaT0v (ja(f>r)vi,^€iv, eo)<; ijyjraTO 
TOV Tei^o^^ K-OiO ov eBcL TOTTov eKel Be irdXiv 
(TVV€(TKiacre Kal dTreKpvyjre ve^wv auveXOovTcov. 

2 Ot Be irepl ra? irvXa^; e^co irepl to ^Wpalov 
d7roXei(f)0evTe<; tov ^ApdTOV aTpaTicoTai, Tpia- 
KocrtoL TO irXrfOo'^ ovTe'^, co<; Trore TrapeLaeireaov 

el's Trjv ttoXlv dopv^ov re TvavToBairov Kal cf^coTcov 1037 
yepLOvaav, ov Bvpr)6evTe<s e^avevpelv tov avTOv 
Tpi^ov ovB 6t9 L')(yo<; epL^fjvai Trj<; eKeivcov 7rop€ia<i, 
eTTTTj^av dOpooi irpo^ tivl TraXivaKiO) Xayovi tov 
Kpr]fivov av(TTeLXavT€(; eavTov^, Kal BteKapTepovv 
evTavda irepiiraOovvTe^ Kal Bv(Tavaa')(eTOvvTe<i. 

3 l3aXXo/jiev(t)v yap utto t»}9 dKpa<i 7]Br) tmv irepl tov 
' ApaTOv Kal j.ia)(^opevo)v, d\aXaypo>: ivaycovio^ 
€\(i)peL KaTM, Kal Kpavyr) Trepirj-^ei., Bid ttjv diro 
Twv opojv dvdKXacTLv avyKex^p^evT) Kal dBrjXo<; 

* viro\afj.Trovaa Coraes and Bekker, adopting an anonymous 
conjecture : i>Tro\a^v<ra. 

48 



ARATUS XXI. 4-xxii. 3 

out that the enemy were in the city. And pres- 
ently the trumpets were soundings the city was in 
an uproar over what was happening, the streets were 
full of people running up and down, many lights 
were flashing, some in the city below and some in 
the citadel above, and a confused shouting broke 
forth on all hands. 

XXII. Meanwhile Aratus was struggling up the 
steep with all his might, slowly and laboriously at 
first, unable to keep to the path and wandering from 
it, since it was everywhere sunk in the shadows of 
the jutting cliffs and had many twists and turns 
before it came out at the wall of the citadel. Then, 
marvellous to relate, the moon is said to have parted 
the clouds and shone out, making the most difficult 
part of the road plain, until he got to the wall at the 
spot desired ; there the clouds came together again 
and everything was hidden in darkness. 

But the soldiers of Aratus whom he had left at 
the gate outside near the temple of Hera, three 
hundred in number, when once they had burst into 
the city and found it full of lights and manifold 
tumult, were unable to discover the path which 
their comrades had taken or follow in their steps. 
So they crouched down and huddled themselves 
together in a shaded flank of the cliff, and there 
remained in great distress and impatience. For 
Aratus and his party were now assailed with missiles 
from the citadel and were fighting, the shouts of 
the combatants came down the slopes, and cries 
echoed round about which the reverberations from 

49 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oOep ecX-ycpe rrjv ap-^^'ji'. SiaTTopovprcov 8e avTOiv 
6(f)^ 6 TL 'X^prj TpaireaOau fiepo^i, ^ Ap)(eXao<i 6 tu)p 
^acriXiKcov r/ye/ncov o-rparicoTa'^ ^X^^ ttoXXoi"? 
/Liera Kpavyi]<i ave^aive KaX aaXTriyycov, eTTK^epofxe- 
vo<; TOt? irepl TOP "Aparov, /cal iraprjWaTTe toi)? 

4 rpLaKoaiov<^, ol he Mcnrep e^ ivehpa<^ avaaravre'^ 
i/i/3dWovaLV avrcp Kat Siacf)deipouaiv oZ? eTredevro 
7rpQ)Toi<!}, Tou? Be a\Xov<i koX top ^Ap^^Xaop (f)o- 
^rjaapTe<^ erpe'^aPTO koI KareSico^ap d-^pi, rov 
aKelaaOrjvai irepl rrjp ttoXlp BiaXvOePTa^. apri 
Be TOVTcop pePiKTjKOTwp ^Ejpylpo'; cltto tcop apco 
fia^op^ipcop rfkOeVy dyyeWcop crv/jLTreTrXex^ai TOi? 
7roXe/jLL0c<; top Aparop dixvpoixepoL^ evpcoarcof;, Koi 
fxeyap dyoipa irepl auro to Te^^o? elpai, /cal Td')(pv<^ 

5 Belp rrj<^ /So7]deia<i. ol Be evOv<; e/ceXevop rjyeladaL' 
Koi iTp3a^aiP0PTe<i d/xa <f)a)pfj Biea^/xaipop eavToix;, 
e7ridappvP0PT€<i 701/9 <piXov<;' i] re 7rai'creXT]P0<; 
direc^aipe rd oirXa TrXeiopa cfyaivofiEPa T0L<i TroXe- 
/ulIol<^ Bt,d TO /iirJK0<i T'^? 7ropeLa<;, koX to Tr}? pvkto^ 
i)-^(ji}Be'^ TOP dXaXay/jLOP dirb TroXXaTrXaaLOPcop 7) 

6 ToaovTcop eTTOiei Bo/ceip (f^epecrdai. Te'Xo? Be avp- 
epeiaaPTe<i e^wOovcri. tou? TroXepulovf; /cal /cad- 
virepTepoL Tfj<; uKpa^; rjaap Kal to (ppovpiop el^^op, 
rjfiepa^ i]Br) Biavyovar)<^, 6 t€ r]Xio<i ev6v<; eireXap^Tre 
T^ cpyw, /cal iraprjp etc ^LKVOiPO^ r; XoLttt) Bvpa/jbi^ 
TM 'Apdrw, Bexo/jL€P(i)P /caTa 7rvXa<; tmp KopcpOicop 
irpoOvfiQ)'; /cal toi)? ^aatXi/cou^; cvXXafi^avoPTODV. 

XXIIL 'ETret Be dcr(f)aXa)<; eBo/cet irdpTa e)(€cp, 
KaTe/Baipep et? to OeaTpop diro t?}? d/cpa<;, 7rXrjdov<i 

50 



ARATUS XXII. 3-XXI11. 1 

the hills rendered confused and of uncertain origin. 
Then, as they were at a loss which way to turn, 
Archelaiis, the commander of the kino's forces, having 
many soldiers with him, made up the ascent amid 
shouts and the blare of trumpets to attack Aratus 
and his party, and thus passed by the three hundred. 
These, rising up from ambush as it were, fell upon 
him, slew the first whom they attacked, put the rest, 
together with Archelaiis, to panic flight, and pursued 
them until they were scattered and dispersed about 
the city. And just as this victory had been won, 
Erginus came from the party fighting on the heights, 
with tidings that Aratus was engaged with the 
enemy, that these were defending themselves vigor- 
ously, that a great struggle was going on at the very 
wall, and there was need of speedy help. The three 
hundred at once ordered him to lead the way ; and 
as they took to the ascent their cries signalled their 
coming and encouraged their friends ; the light of 
the full moon also made their arms appear more 
numerous to the enemy than they really were, owing 
to tl.e length of their line of march, and the echoes 
of the night gave the impression that the shouts 
proceeded from many times the number of men 
there really were. At last, with a united onset, 
they repulsed the enemy, mastered the citadel, 
and held its gairison in their power. Day was 
now breaking, the sun at once shone out upon 
their success, and the rest of the forces of Aratus 
came up from Sicyon, the Corinthians readily re- 
ceiving them by the gates and helping them to 
seize the king's soldiers. 

XXIIl. When everything appeared to be safe 
Aratus came down from the citadel into the theatre 

SI 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dvelpov avppeovTO<s eTndvfiia Tr}<; re o-^ecof; avrov 
fcal Tcov \6ycov 0I9 efieWe 'X^pijaOac tt/jo? tov<; Ko- 

2 pivOiov^. eTrLaTi^cFa<s he Tac<i 7rap6SoL<i CKarepcoOev 
T0L/9 ^A)(^aLov<;, auT09 aTTo rr}? (TKr]vr]<; et? fieaov 
irporfkdey TeOoypaKiap^evo^i koI tw irpoacoirw Sia 
TOP KoiTov Kol rrjv aypvirviav r)WoLcofi€PO<;, axrre 
T/}9 "^I'X^ "^^ <yavpovfjL6vov kol ^aipov vtto t% 

3 irepl TO acofia ^apvrrjro^ fcara/cparelaOac. rcav 
8e dvOpcoTTCov apua roJ Trpoaekdelv avrov i/c^^vdev- 
rcov ralf; (f)L\o(f)poavvac<;, fMeraXa^cov eh tyjv 

he^LCLV TO BopV, Kol TO JOVV KOl TO aO)fJLa Trj pOTTTj 

pLLKpov iyK\ii>a<i fcal d7r€peLadfX6vo<;, eicrTTjKec tto- 

\VV ')(^p6vOl> (TiCOTTTJ B€')(^6pL€l'0<; aVTCOV TOV<i KpOTOV^i 

Koi Ta<i iTri^orjaei^, eiraivovvTcov ptep rrjp dper-qp, 

4 ^TfKovPTcov he T7JP TV)(rip. 0)9 he eTravaapro kol 
KaTeaT7]crav, avpayaycov eavTOP hie^rfKOe \6yop 
virep Twv 'A^atwi/ ttj irpd^ei irpeiroPTa, /cat orvp- 
eireiae tol'9 Koplp6lov<; 'A^atou9 yepeaOai, fcal 
Tot)P TTvXwv Ta9 /cX€t9 dTvehdiKe TOTe Trpcorop diro 
TMv ^CkiTTTTiKoiP Kuipcjp utt' eKelpoi^i yePopLepa<i. 
T(x)v he ^ AvTiy OP ov aTpaTrjycop ^ A.p')(^e\aov p^ev 
d(f)r]K€P vrro)(€LpLOP yepopLevop, %e6<^paaT0P he dp- 

6 elXep ov /BovXopLevop diraWdTTecrOar TlepcraiOf; he 
rP)<; aKpa<; d\iaKopL€pr]<i €19 K.ey')(^p6d<; hie^eTreaep. 
{•(TTepop he Xeyerat a')(^o\d^a)v irpo^ top elirovTa 
p.6vop avTw hoKelv arpaTijybp elvai top (T0(f)0P, 
" ^AWa pr) ^eoi;9," (pdvat, " tovto pudXtaTa /cdpLOt 
TTOTe TMp 7j7]P(opo(; 7]peaKe hoypiuTcop' pvp he pucTa- 
^dXXopat vov0eTi]6e\<^ vtto tov ^lkvcoplou peaplov.^ 
Tavra peep irepc Tlepaalov TrXelope*; laropouaip. 



52 



ARATUS XXIII. 1-5 

whither an immense multitude streamed with an 
eager desire to see him and hear what he would say 
to the Corinthians. After stationing his Achaeans 
at both the side-entrances, he liimself advanced from 
the back-scene into the orchestra, with his breastplate 
still on and his countenance altered by toil and loss 
of sleep, so that the exultation and joy of his spirit 
were overpowered by the weariness of his body. 
Since the multitude, when he came forward to 
address them, were profuse in their friendly ex- 
pressions, taking his spear in his right hand and 
slightly inclining his knee and his body, he sup- 
ported himself upon it and stood thus for a 
long time silently receiving their applause and ac- 
clamations, their praises of his valour and their 
conoTatulations on his success. But when thev had 
ceased and quiet had ensued, he summoned his 
strength and in behalf of the Achaeans made a 
speech which befitted their exploit, and persuaded 
the Corinthians to join the Achaean League. He 
also gave them back the keys to their gates, of 
which they then became possessed for the first time 
since the time of Philip of Macedon. Of the officers 
of Antigonus, he dismissed Archelaiis, who had been 
taken prisoner, but Theophrastus, who would not quit 
his post, he slew ; as for Persaeus, on the capture of 
the citadel he made his escape to Cenchreae. And at 
a later time, as we are told, when he was leading a life 
of leisure, and someone remarked that in his opinion 
the wise man only could be a good general, '^ Indeed," 
he replied, "there was a time when I too particularly 
liked this doctrine of Zeno's ; but now, since the lesson 
1 got from the young man of Sicyon, I am of another 
mind." This story of Persaeus is told by many writers. 

S3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXIV. 'O ^€ "ApaTO<; evOv^; to re 'Hyoatoi/ v(f 
eavTO) fcal to A€)(^aiov eTTonjcraTO' zeal vewv fxev 1038 
€iKocmr6VT€ l3aat\tK(0Jf ifcvplevaev, tTTTroi;? ^e 
TrevTaKOfTiov^ koI ^vpov<; t€t paKocriov<i airehoTo' 

TOV T€ ^AfCpOKOpivdoP 6<^v\aTT0V 01 'A^tt^ol 

TeTpa/coaioi^ OTrXiTai^ koI TrevTrjKOvra Kvcrl koX 
Kvvriyoh t(70i<s ev tw (ppovpLW Tp6<pop,evoL<;. 

2 O/ fjL€v ovv 'V(D}ialoL TOV ^iXoTToipLeva 6av' 
fid^ovTCf; . 'EXk-^vcov ecr^uTOV irpoar^yopevov, co9 
fjLr]S€vo<; fieyaXov fieT e/celvov ev toi<; "KWr)(7i 
y€vojuL6vov' iyco Be tcov EjWrjvtKcov Trpd^eayv 
TavTv,v eV^axT/i^ Koi vecoTdTrjv 4>al7jv av Treirpd- 
X^<^f> TOVTO fiev ToXfirj, tovto Se tvxj) Tat? dpi- 
mai^ ivdubtWov, 009 eSijXMcrev evOv^ tcl yivo/iieva. 

3 Meyapel^; t€ yap diroaTdvTS'^ ^AvTiyovov tm ^ Apd- 
Tw irpoaedevTO, kol TpoL^ijvioL p,€Td ^V^irihavpicov 
(TweTdx^i^crav ei? rou? 'A;;^atou?, e^oSov t€ TTpco- 
Trjv Oefievo^ et? T'qv Att iKr]v eve^aXe, koI Tr)v 
^aXapiva Sia0d<; eXerjXdTr^crev , ibcTirep i^ elpxTrj*; 
XeXvfjLevrj ttj Bvvd/JL€L tmv ^A^aicov e^' 6 tl /3ou- 
XoLTO ^^'paS/zei^o?. ^AOrjvaioi^ Se tou? eXevOipovf; 
u(f)rjK€v civev XvTpcov, dp^d'^ diroaTdaew^; €vSiSov<; 

4 avTOLs. JlroXepLalov Se (TvpLfxayov iiroirjae tcov 

Axo-ifJ^Vy r/ye/jioviav e^ovTa TroXejULOu koI KaTa 
yr]v KOL OdXaTTav. ovto) Be Xayyaev ev toI<; 
*A;p^atot9, m(tt\ el f-Lrj KaT eviavTov ePijv, irap 
eviavTov alpelaOai aTpaTTjyov avTov, epyw Be kol 
yvdypnj Bia 7ravT0<^ apxecv. ecopcov yap auTov ov 
irXovTov, ov Bo^av, ov (fnXlav ^acnXiKi]v, ov to 
T>)9 avTov TraTpiBo's crvficfiepov, ovk dXXo tl Trj<; 
av^ijaewf; tcov 'A^atwi' eTrLTrpoaOev Trocovfievov. 

54 



ARATUS XXIV. 1-4 

XXIV. As for Aratus, he at once made himselt 
master of the temple of Hera and the harbour of 
Lechaeiini ; he also seized five-and-twenty of the 
kings ships, and sold five hundred horses and four 
hundred Syrians ; Acrocorinthus, too, was garrisoned 
bv the Achaeans with four hundred men-at-arms, 
and fifty dogs with as many keepers were maintained 
ill the citadel. 

Now the Romans, in their admiration of Philopoe- 
>nen, call him ^^the last of the Greeks," implying 
that no great man arose among the Greeks after 
him ; but I should say that this capture of Acro- 
corinthus was the very last and latest achievement 
of the Greeks, and that it rivalled their best, not 
only in daring, but also in happy results, as events 
at once showed. For Megara seceded from Antigonus 
and attached herself to Aratus ; Troezen and E])i- 
daurus were enrolled in the Achaean League ; and 
Aratus, making a distant expedition for the rtrst time, 
invaded Attica, and crossing the strait plundered 
Salamis, his Achaean forces, as though released from 
prison, obeying his every wish. But the freemen 
among his prisoners he sent back to the Athenians 
without ransom, thus laying a foundation for their 
revolt from Antigonus. He also made Ptolemy an 
ally of the Achaeans, with the leadership in war on 
Innd and sea. And he was so influential among the 
Achaeans that, since it was not permissible every year, 
they chose him general every other year, though, 
in fict, his wisdom made him their leader all tlie 
time. For they saw tiiat he })ut first and foremost, 
not wealth, not fame, not friendshij) witli kings, not 
his own native city's advantage, but only the growth 
in power of the Achaean League. For he considered 

55 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 rjyelTO yap dcr6ev€L<; ISua ra? TroXe^? vTrap')(pv(7a<s 
(Tco^ecrOai hi aWrfkcov wairep €vSeh€/jL€va<; rw 
Koivw (TV/jL(f)6povTi, KOI KaOdiT€p TO, fieprj TOV 
(Tco/jLaro^; ^ojvra koI avfjiiTveovTa hid rrjv TTyoo? 
dXkrjXa o-vfKJivtav, orav dTToairaaO^ koI ykv7]Tai 
ywpi'ii drpocpel xal a-qirerai, irapaTrXrjaLco^ ra? 
TToXei? diToXkvcrOai /aev vtto tmv hiacTTrcovrcov 
TO Koivov, av^eadai he vir dWjjXcov, orav oXov 
Tivo<; /jbeydXov /Jiepr) yevojxevai, KOLvri<; 7rpovoLa<; 
Tvyxdvwatv. 

XXV. ^Opcjv he Tou? dpiaTOV<s rcov irpoaoi- 
K(ov avTOvo/jLovfievov;, WpyeiOL^; he hovXevovatv 
d')(66iJievo<^, eTre^ovXevev dveXelv rbv rvpavvov 
avTcov ^AptoTo/iia^^ov, dfxa rfj re iroXei dpeirrripia 
Tr)v eXevOepiav dirohovvai (f)iXoTLfA,ov/jL€vo<; Kai 

2 TOK 'A^aiot? irpocTKOfXiaai rrjv ttoXlV' ol fjLev ovv 
ToXficovre^ evpeOyaav, cov AtV^^uXo? Trpoeiar^Ket 
teal ^apL/jievrjc; 6 p,dvri<;' ^t(jb>; he ov/c el^ov, dXX! 
drreip-qro KeKTrjaOai kol ^rjpLiai /leydXai toI<^ KeKrrj- 
fjbevoL<; errijaav vtto tov rvpavvov. KaracrKevdcra^ 
ovv 6 "Kparo<; avroc<; iv K.op[vO(p pLtKpd^ Trapa^Kpi- 
ha<; eveppay^ev eh adypara' Kal ravra irepcdel^ 
v7ro^vyLOi<; aKevrj rivd TraprjpeXrjpeva Ko/JLU^ovatv 

3 et? "A/9709 direareLXe. ^apf,p,€vov<^ he rov pdvrercx; 
7rpoaXa^6vTO<; eVl ttjv irpd^iv dvOpcowov, ol we pi 
rov Ala)(^vXov rjyavdKrijaav Kal hi" eavrwv eirpar- 
rov, TOV X^apt/iievovf; Karayv6vTe<;. ala06pevo<s 
he €K€Lvo<i opyfi /care/xijvvo-e tov<; dvhpa<; r]hr) 
^ahb^ovra^; eirl rov rvpavvov' mv ol rrXelarot 
<^6d<Tavre<; e^ dyopd<i dire^vyov ko.I hie^eireaov 
6^9 KopivOov. 

* Cf. chap. iii. 1. 
56 



ARATUS XXIV. 5-xxv. 3 

that the Greek states which were weak would be 
preserved by mutual support when once they had 
been bound as it were by the common interest, and 
that just as the members of the body have a common 
life and breath because they cleave together in a 
common growth, but when they are drawn apart 
and become separate they wither away and decay, 
in like manner the several states are ruined by those 
who dissever their common bonds, but are augmented 
by mutual support, when they become parts of a 
great whole and enjoy a common foresight. 

XXV. And so, since he saw that the best of the 
neighbouring peoples were autonomous, and was 
distressed at the servitude of the Argives, he plotted 
to kill Aristomachus the tvrant of Ar<jos, beinsr 
ambitious to restore its freedom to the citv as a re- 
ward for the rearing it had given him,^ as well as to 
attach it to the Achaean League. Accordincrlv. men 
were found to dare the deed, of whom Aeschylus 
and Charimenes the seer were the chief. They had 
no swords, however, the tyrant having prohibited the 
possession of them under heavy penalties. Aratus, 
therefore, ordered small dacraers to be made for them 
in Corinth and sewed them up in pack-saddles ; these 
he put upon beasts of burden carrving ordinary wares 
and sent them into Argos. But Charimenes the seer 
took on a partner in the enterprise, at which Aeschy- 
lus and his friends were incensed and proceeded to 
act on their own account, ignoring Charimenes. 
When Charimenes was aware of this, he was angry 
and informed against the men just as they were 
setting out to attack the tyrant ; most of them, 
however, succeeded in escaping from the market- 
place and fled to Corinth. 

VOL. XI. r 57 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 Ov firjv aWa ')(^povov ^pax^o<s SieXdovrof; diro- 
OvrjCTKet fiev viro SovXcov ^Apcarofjiaxo'i, viro- 
Xafi^dvei Be rrfv dp-^rjv (p6daa^ ^ApLcrTLinro^, 
i^coXearepo^ eKeivov rupavvo';. oaoi Bj] tcop 
'A^aiwj/ €P rjXcKLa 7rap6vr€<s erv^ov, tovtov^ 
dva\aj3(M)v 6 ^'ApaTO<; i^orfOei Trpo? Tr)v ttoKlp 
o^eo)?, OLo/ievo^i eupijaeiv to, twi/ ^ Apyeiwv irpo- 

5 Ov/jia. rcov Be ttoWcov rjBr} Bia crvvrjOeiav iOeXo- 
BovXo)<; e-)(0VT(i)v fcal fj,r)B€VO<; d<^Lara/jLevov irpo^^ 
avTov, dv€)(^a)prja€P ey/cX7]/xa Karea-Kevafcaxi rot? 
^A-)(^aLoi<; o)? ev elpTjvr) iroXefiov e^evT^voy^^oat. kol 
Blktjv ea^^ov eVl toutco irapd M-avTivevaiVy rjv 1039 
*Apdrov fxr] irapovTO'^ ApiarLTT'rro^ elXe Bicokcov 

G Kul fjLvcov eTLfJLi]drj TpiaKovra. top Be 'Aparoi' 
avTOP djjLa /cal /jlktwv fcal BeBoiKco<; iire^ovXevev 
dveXelv avvepyovvro^ ^Avrcyovov rov ^aaiXeciy^;' 
Kol 7ravTa)(ov a)(^eBbp yaap ol tovto TrpdrTOPre^ 
avTOLf; /cal Kaipov eTTtrrjpouprefi. 

7 *AX,X' ovBep olop dXyOiprj Koi ^e^aio^; evpoia 
(f)vXaKT7]piop dpBpo<i dp')(pPTo^. otup yap eOiaOoi- 
aip OL re ttoXXol Kal ol Buparol firj top rjyovfievop, 
dX')C virep rov riyovfiepov BeBtepai, ttoWok /jlcp 
ofjLfjLaatp opa, Bid iroXXcap Be cl)T(op d/covei, Kal 
irpoaLaOdperac rd yipofiepa. Bio Kal ^ouXo/juai 
TOP Xoyop €7r icrTi](Ta<; ePTavOd nrov Bie^eXOelp 
Trepl T% ^ApiaTLTTTrou BiaLTrj<;, rjv r] ^rjXoTVTrov- 
/jL€Prj Tvpavpl^ avTM Kal 6 t?}? p>aKapia<i Kal 
TT6pL^or]TOv fiopap^La^i 07/cov irepieOiiKep. 

XXV L EtK.elpo'i yap ^ApTiyopop fiep e^wv 

S8 



I 



ARATUS XXV. 4-XXVI. I 

Nevertheless, after a little while Aristomachus was 
killed by slaves, and Aristippus, a more pernicious 
tyrant than he, soon succeeded in seizing the power. 
Aratus at once took all the Achaeans of military age 
who were at hand and went swiftly to the aid of the 
city, supposing that he would be welcomed by the 
Argives. But since most of them were by this time 
habituated to slavery and willing to endure it, so 
that not a man came over to his side, he retired, 
after involving the Achaeans in the charge of having 
gone to war in time of peace. They were prosecuted 
on this charge before the Mantineans, and in the 
absence of Aratus, Aristippus as plaintiff won his 
case and was awarded damages to the amount of 
thirty minas.^ Aratus himself the tyrant both hated 
and feared, and so laid plots to kill him with the 
assistance of Antigonus the king ; and almost every- 
where there were men who undertook this deed for 
ihem and watched for an opportunity. 

But there is no safeguard for a ruler like a sincere 
and steadfast goodwill on the part of the ruled. For 
when both the common people and the leading men 
are afraid, not of their leader, but for their leader, 
he sees with many eyes, hears with many ears, and 
so })erceives betimes what is going on. Therefore I 
wish to stop my story at this point, in order to 
describe the life that Aristippus led. This was laid 
upon him by his office of tyrant, so envied of men, 
and by the pride and pomp of monarchy, which men 
celebrate and call blessed. 

XXVI. For though he had Antigonus as ally, and 

^ Half a talent, equivalent to about £118, or .$600, a merely 
nominal line. Mantineia acted as arbitrator, perhaps by 
special agreement. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Gvybjiayov, rpecfxov Se ttoWou's eveKa t-^? tou 
a(i)fiaTo^ da(f)aX€ia<;, ovheva he iv rrj rroXei 
^(ovra Tcov i')(Opo}V vTroKekonro)^, rov<; fxev oo~ 
puipopovi KaX (f>uXaKa<; e^co Trapep^dWeiv ckc- 

2 Xevev iv tw irepLcrrvXtp, toi'9 he oLKera^i, oirore 
Beiirvrjaai, rd'^iara 7rdvra<^ i^eXavvcov xal rrjv 
ixeravXov aTrofcXeiwv fierd r?)? €p(o/j.€Pt]<; auT09 
eh oiKTj/jLa fcarehvero puKpov virepchov, Ovpa 
fcarappafcrrj KXeLOjjievov' '^9 vTrepdvco ti-jv fcXtvrju 
eTTLTidel'^ i/cdOeuSev, &>? etVo? KaOevheiv rov ovto)<; 

3 e')(^ovTa, Tapa^(t)h(ji)<; /cal 7repi(f)ol3co<;. to he kXl- 
fxaKLov T) ta}9 ep(op,evt]<; fiijrrjp ix^aipovaa /care- 
KXeiev 669 erepov otfcrjpa, kul irdXiv dp! rjpbepa 
TrpoaerldeL kol KareKdXei rov davpLaarov rvpav- 
vov, wGirep epirerov eK (fxoXeov fcarep^opLepop. 
6 Se ovx OTrXoL^; Kara ^Lav, v6pL(a Be vtt^ dperrjf; 
dKardiTavaTov dp')(r]v 7T€pc7r€7roir)pL€vo<i, ev ip-ariw 
Kal ')(XapLvhi(p rw tv^ovtl, tmv TTcoTTore TvpdvvcDv 
KOLVo^i aTroSeBetypeuo^; e^^Opyo^, dxpt- Tr}9 rrjp^epop 
7)p€pa<; yevo^y evSoKLp^Gorarov diroXeXoLirev ev T0t9 

4 "KXXt)GLv. eKeivwv he twp Ta9 dKpa<; Kara- 
XapL^avovTOdv Kal tol'9 hopv(f)6pov<i rpecpovrcop 
Kal TCLorrXa Kal Ta9 irvXa^ Kal TOt'9 KaTappdKTa<i 
TT po ^aX\o pLevwv virep rrjfj rov <T(opiaro<^ dcr(f)a- 
\6ta9 oXljol rov eK irXi^yri'^ Odvarov, coairep ol 
XaycooL, htecpvyov olko^ he 7) jevo^i r) rd(f)o<i e-^^^cov 
rip,a)p,evrjv pivr)p/rjv ovhevo^ XeXetTrrac- 

XXVIL npo9 3' ovv rov ^ApLo-rLTTTTov 6 "Apa- 
T09 Kal Kpv(f)a 7roXX<7/c/9 Kal (^av€pa)<; rrpoa- 
eirraiaev eiriyeipr)Ga^ KaTa\ap,fidveLv ro "Apyof;. 
dira^ he KXip,aKa<i 7rpoaOel<; p,er^ oXiycov irrl ro 
rel')(o^ dv€^7] irapa/SoXco^, Kal tol'9 ^orjOovvraf 

60 



ARATUS XXVI. i-xxvii. i 

kept many guards to protect his person, and had left 
no single enemy alive in the city, yet he would order 
his spearmen and guards to bivouac outside in the 
colonnade ; and as tor his servants, as soon as supper 
was over he would drive them all out. Then he 
would lock the doors of the inner house, and betake 
himself with his mistress to a little upper room, 
which was closed by a trap-door ; on this door he 
would place his couch and sleep, as one in his state 
of mind would naturally sleep, by fits and starts and 
in great fear. The ladder the mother of his mistress 
would take away and lock up in another room, and 
in the morning would put it in place again and call 
the wonderful tyrant, who would come down like a 
creeping thing out of its hole. Aratus, on the other 
hand, not by force of arms, but legally and in con- 
sequence of his virtues, had invested himself with an 
enduring power, and yet went about in ordinary tunic 
and cloak ; he declared himself a public foe of any 
and every tyrant ; and he left behind him a posterity 
of the highest repute among the Greeks down to 
this day.^ But of the men who seize citadels, main- 
tain spearmen, and depend upon arms and gates and 
trap-doors for the safety of their persons, only a 
few, like timorous hares, have escaped a violent 
death ; while not one of them has left a house, or a 
family, or a tomb to keep his memory in honour. 

XXVII. Against Aristippus, then, and in trying 
to seize Argos, Aratus made many open and secret 
attempts in vain. Once he set up scaling-ladders, 
at great hazard got upon the wall with a few 
followers, and killed the sentries tiiat defended the 

1 Cf. chap. liv. ad Jin, 

67 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 evravOa rcov (^vKclkwv aireKreLveV' elra r/fiepa^ 
€'m^av€i(T7j<; Kal rov rvpcivvov iravraxoOev avrw 
irpoa^dWovTo^, oi /xev ^Apyecot, KaOdirep ov^ 
VTTep T?;? eKeivwv iXevOepia^; t?}9 /xa^779 ovarj^, aXV 
tt)9 rov dyo^va toju Ne/ieicov jSpa^evovre^, X(tol koI 
Sifcaioi Oearal Kadrjvro tmv yivo/nevayi', ttoWtjv 
r}(TV)(^lav ajovT€<;, 6 Be ^ Kparo^ evp(0(TT(o<; dfivvo- 
p,€vo<; ^o'y')(r) fiev €k ^eipo^ BieXavverai rov firjpov, 
eKpuTTjae Be rcov roiroav iv ot9 ^v, koI ovk e^ewcrOrj 
/jiexpi vvKTOfy evo'xXovfievo'; vtto tcov TroXe/iicov. 

3 el Be Kal rrjv vvKra to) irovcp TrpocreraXaiTrcopTjo-ev, 
OVK av Bajfiaprev' 6 yap rvpavvo^ rjBr) irepl Bpa- 
(T/jLov eZ^e Kal iroXka rcov IBicov eirX OaXacraav 
TTpoe^e7r€fx-y\r€' . vvv Be rovro puev ovB€v6<; e^ay- 
yeiXavTOf; 7rpb<; tov ''Aparov, vBaro^; Be eiriXi- 
TTovTO^, eavTq> Be ^(prjCTacTdaL Bih to rpavfia fjLT) 
Bvvd/jLevof;, dirriyaye toi'9 (TTpaTLOiTa^. 

XXVIIL ETret Be ravTrjv aTreyvo) rrjv oBov, 
€/ji^a\cbv (f)av€pw<^ TO) (TTparoTreBct) rrjv ApyoXlBa 
^aypav eiropOei' Kal irepl rov \dpr)Ta jrora/Jibv 
lo")(^upd<; fid)(^r]<; yevofJLevr)^ irpo^ ^ Aplamrirop 
alrlav ea-^ev a)9 eyKaraXiiroov rov dyoiva Kal 
irpoefievo^ ro viKrjfia. rrj<i yap dX\r]<i Bvvdfxe(o<; 1040 
6fio\oyov/ji€vco<; eiTLKparovar)<; Kal ra> Bicoy/jifp 
TToXv irpoeXOovcn')'^ el^ rovp^irpoadev, avro<i ov^ 
ovT(o<; eK^iaaOel^ vtto rcov KaO^ aurov, a)9 dirc- 
arcov TO) KaropOM/jbart Kal (f)o^r)6ei<i, dve^dyprjae 
2 rerapayfjievo^- €t9 to crrparoireBov. eirei Be diro 
rr]<^ Btoo^tcoi; e7raveX66vTe<s oi XoLirol %a\e7ra>9 
€(f)epov OTL rpeyjrdfjLevoi rov<; 7roXe/jLiov<; Kal 
TToXv irXeiova'^ eKeivcov Kara^aX6vT€<; /; (T(f>c!)V 
avrcjv diroXeaavre^ irapaXeXoirraar (, rol^ r)rrrj- 

62 



ARATUS XXVII. I -XXVIII. 2 

place. Then day came and the tyrant attacked him 
from all sides, while the Argives, as though it were 
not a battle to secure their liberties^ but a contest in 
the Nemean games of which they were the judges, 
sat as just and impartial spectators of what was going 
on, without lifting a finger. Aratus, fighting sturdily, 
had his thigh transfixed by a spear-thrust, yet held his 
ground, and could not be dislodged at close quarters 
until night, though harassed by his enemies. And 
if through the night also he had maintained the 
struggle, he would not have failed in his attempt ; 
for the tyrant was already bent on flight and had 
sent on many of his goods to the sea. As it was, 
however, no one told Aratus of this, and since water 
was failing him and he could not use his strength by 
reason of his wound, he led his soldiers away. 

XXVIII. Then, since he despaired of success in 
this way, he openly invaded the territory of Argos 
with his army and ravaged it ; and in a fierce battle 
with Aristippus at the river Chares, he was accused 
of abandoning the struggle and throwing away the 
victory. For although the rest of his forces ad- 
mittedly had the upper hand and had gone far on 
ahead in pursuit, he himself, not so much because he 
was ousted from his position by his opponents, as 
out of mistrust of success and in utter fear, withdrew 
in disorder to his camp. But when the rest of his 
army came back from the pursuit and were indignant 
because, though they had routed the enemy and 
slain far more of them than they had lost of their 
own number, they had suffered the vanquished to 

63 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/jL€voi<; (TTrjcrai /car aurcov rpoTvaiov, al<T')(yv6 ei^ 
TToXiv eyvco 8ia/nd')(^€aOai Trepl rov rpoTraiov, Koi 
fjLiav r^fxepav BiaXcTroov av0t<; i^eraacre rrjv (rrpa- 

3 Tidv. ft)9 he TjaOero irXelova^; yeyovora^; /cal 
OappaXeoirepov dvOiaTapevov^; tov<^ irepl rov rv- 
pavvov, ov/c eroXpLTjcrev, a)OC dirrfxde tou? v€Kpov<; 
virocnrovhov^i dve\6pevo<^. ov p^rjv aXXa rfj Trepl 
Tr)V ofJLLKiav koL irokireiav ipureipia /cat ')(^dpLTi 
Trjv hiap^apriav Tavrrjv dvafia'X^op.evo^ irpocTTj'yd- 
ycTO Td<; KXecovd^; tol<; Ap^a<ot9, koi tov dycova 
T(ov l^€p.€La)v ijyayev iv KX€Ci)vai<;, t»9 Trdrptov 

4 ovra Kol p,dWov TrpocnjKovra rouTOi?. rjyayov 
Bk /cat ^ ApyeloLy koX avve')(y6r) rore irpcoTov t) 
SeSop^evT] TOL<; dywviGTal^ davXia kul da(f)d\€ia, 
7rdvra<; rwv ^K^aiwv, 6(tov<; eXa^ov yyci)VLap.€vov<; 
iv "Apyei, Std tt}? -^copa*; iropevopbevov^; &)? ttoXc- 
/xtof? aTToBopevcov. outco (T(f)oBpo<; rjv kol airap- 
aLrr)ro<; iv tm pnaelv rov<i Tvpdvvov;. 

XXIX. '0X^700 Be varepov dKOV(Ta<; tov ^Api- 
(TTLiTTTov iiTL^ovXeveiv pev ralfi KXecoval^, cf^o^el- 
aOat Be iKeivov iv }^opiv6cp KaOe^opuevov, rjOpoiaev 
iK irapayyeXpaTO^ crrpaTeiav. kul crtTia Ke- 
Xevcra^ irXetovcov rjpbepojv Kopi^eiv et? }^ey')(^ped<; 
KarrjXOev, iKKaXovpL€vo<; Bl d7rdr7)<; rbv ApidTiir- 
TTOV ft)9 avrov pirj irapovro'; iinOecrdaL rot's 
KXecovaiOi<;' o koI crvv6/3r]. iraprjv yap €v6v<; ef 
2 "Apyov<i e^ft)!^ rrjv Bvvapiiv, Be "Aparo'i et9 
KopivOov yBr) aKOTaio<; etc l^eyxp^^^ v'TToarpe'^a^, 

^ After the events narrated in xxxiv. t£ 
64 



I 



ARATUS xyv'iii. 2-xxix. 2 

erect a trophy over the victors, Aratus was ashamed 
and determined again to figlit out tlie question of 
the trophy^ and on the next day but one put his 
army once more in battle array. However, on per- 
ceiving that the forces of the tyrant were more 
numerous than before and more courageous in their 
resistance, he would not venture a decisive battle, 
but withdrew after being allowed to take up his dead 
under a truce. Nevertheless, by his skill in dealing 
with men and public affairs, and by the favour in 
which he stood, he retrieved this failure, brought 
Cleonae into the Achaean League, and celebrated 
the Nemean games in that city, on the ground that 
it had an ancient and more fitting claim upon them. 
But the games were also celebrated at Argos, and 
then for the first time the privilege of asylum and 
safe-conduct which had been granted to contestants 
in the games was violated, since the Achaeans treated 
as enemies and sold into slavery all contestants in 
the games at Argos whom they caught travelling- 
through their territory. So fierce and implacable 
was Aratus in his hatred of tyrants. 

XXIX. A little while after this,^ Aratus heard 
that Aristippus was plotting against Cleonae, but 
feared to attack it while his enemy was posted at 
Corinth ; he therefore assembled an army by public 
proclamation. And after ordering his troops to 
carrv provisions for several da^-s, he marched down 
to Cenchreae, by this stratagem inviting Aristippus 
to attack Cleonae in the belief that his enemy was 
not at hand ; and this was actually what happened. 
For the tyrant set out at once from Argos with his 
forces. But Aratus, returning from Cenchreae to 
Corinth as soon as it was dark, and posting guards 

65 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal TCL^ 6Bov<; (fyvXaKal'^ ScaXa^cov, ^ye tou? 
*A^aiov<; €7ro/jL€vov^ ovrco fxev €vrdKTa><;, ovtco Se 
rax^f^^ f^cu TrpoOvfico'^ axrre fir] /j,ovov oSevovra^;, 
aXXa fcal irapeXOovTa^ 6l<; Ta<; K\€cova<; en vvk- 
T09 ovarii Kol crvvra^afievov^ errl fjLd)(r]v dyvoel- 

3 aOaL Kol \av6dveiv rov ^ Kpiari'mrov. a/na Be 
r)fjb€pa ro)v ttvXmu dvoL-)(6eLao)v kol t^9 adXTriy- 
709 ijKeXevcra/iievrjf;, Spofifo Kai dXaXayfiw irpoa- 
vecroov rot? rroXejuioi^ €v6v<; eTpe-^ajo, Kai 
KaTet')(€ Blookcov fj fidXiara (f)€vy€iv virevoeL rov 
^ApiCTTiTnrov, i/CTpo7rd<; TroXXa? rcov ■)(^wpL(ov e^^oV' 

4 T(ov. y€VOfi€vrj<; Be Tr}<; Bico^eco^ ^XP^ Mvktjvcov, 
6 fi€v Tvpavvo<; vtto }Lpr)T6(; tivo<;, ox; /^€tvia<; 
Icnopel, Tovvofia Tpaylafcov, KaraXrj(f)Oel<; airo- 
(T<l>dTT€Tai, Tcov 3fc dXXcov eireaov virep ^tXtou? 
irevraKoalov^;. 6 Be "Aparo? ovrw XapurpM^ 
€vrv')(^j]cra<; kol firjBeva royv avTOV crrparKOTCov 
aTTO^aXcov, ofiox; ovk eXa^e to ^Apyo<; ovBe 
rjXevOepcoa-e, tmv irepl ^Aylav Kal rov vecorepov 
^ApcaTofiaxov fiera Bvvd/jL€a)<; ^aai.XiK7]<; irap- 
eicTTreaovTcov kol KaTaa^ovrwv ra irpdyfiara. 

5 To filv ovv TToXv T% BLal3oXrj<; Kal X6yov<; Kai, 
(TKcofifiara Kal ^(i)fxoXo-)(l,a^ TrapelXero Tcav KoXa- 
K€v6vT0)v Tou? rvpdvvou<; Kal Bce^iovrcov, €K€ivoi<; 
'^(^apL^o/jLevQyi^, ea? rov arparrjyov rcov 'A^a^wi^ 
iKrapdrroLTO fiev 77 KoiXia irapd ra? fid)(^a<;, 
Kdpo<; Be Trpoa-TTLirTOL Kal IXiyyo^ dfia rw irapa- 
(TTTJvat TOP aaXinyKTrjV, eKrd^a<; Be rrjv Bvvapnv 
Kal TO avvOr}/xa irapeyyvqaa^, Kal 7rv06/jievo<; 
Twv vTToaTpaTrjywv kol Xo^uyoiVy firj ti<; avrov 
XP^^^ 'rrap6vT0<; {pe(3Xrja6aL yap tov^ dcTTpa- 
yd\ov<;)y uTrepx^i'TO KapaBoKijawv iroppcoOev to 

66 



ARATUS XXIX. 2-5 

along all the roads^ led his Achaeans towards 
Cleonae, and they followed him in such good order 
and with such swiftness and alacrity that not only 
while they were on the march, but also when the\' 
had got into Cleonae, before the night was over, and 
liad arrayed then^seives for battle. Aristippus knew 
nothing at all of it. Then, at daybreak, the gates 
were thrown open, the trumpet gave its loud signal, 
and dashing at a run and with shouts upon the 
enemy xAratus routed them at once, and kept on 
pursuing where he most suspected that Aristippus 
was in flight, the country having many diverging 
routes. The pursuit continued as far as Mycenae, 
where the tyrant was overtaken and slain by a 
certain Cretan named Tragiscus, as Deinias relates ; 
and besides him there fell over fifteen hundred. 
But although Aratus had won so brilliant a success, 
and had lost not a single one of his own soldiers, he 
nevertheless did not take Argos nor set it free, since 
Agias and the younger Aristomachus burst into the 
city with troops of tlie king and took control of affairs. 
This success, then, refuted much of the calumny 
heaped upon Aratus, as well as the scoffing and 
abusive stories of the flatterers of the tyrants, who 
would recount, to please their masters, how the 
general of the Acha.niis always had cramps in tiie 
bowels when a b ittle was imminent, and how torpor 
and dizziness would seize him as soon as the 
trumpeter stood by to give the signal, and how, 
after he had drawn up his forces and passed the 
watchword along, he would ask his 1 eutenanls and 
captains whether there was any further need of his 
presence (since the die was already cast), and then 
go off to await the issue anxiously at a distance. For 

67 ; 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 ffVfi^rjcToixevov. ravra yap ovro)^ l<T')(yaev ci)(tt€ 
Kol rov<s <piXoa6(l)ov<i tv Tal<; (7^o\aL<; ^r)rovvTa<i 
€1 TO TrdWeaOac Tr)V Kuphiav kol to '^(pcb/jLa Tpe- 
TreaOai koX ttjv KoCkiav i^vypalueaOai, irapa to, 
(^aivofieva Becva ^etXta? eaTiv rj Bv(TKpa(7La<; tlvo<^ 
irepl TO (TMfia koI 'y\rv)(poTriTO<i, ovo/id^ecv del rov 
"ApaTOV ft)? dyaOov fxlv ovTa cTTpaTrfyoVt del he 
TavTa irdcF^ovTa Trapd tol'? dy(ova<;. 

XXX. 'n? S* ovv TOP 'ApiorTLTT'Trov dvelXev, 1041 
evOv^ eire^ovXevcre AuSidSrj tm M^eyaXoiroXiTrj 
TvpavvovvTL ri}? eavTOv iraTpiho'^. 6 he ov/c wv 
dyevvr]<s ovhe dcfyLkoTLfio^; ttjv (f)vaLv, ovhe odcrirep 
ol TToWol TCi)v /jLovdp)(a)V dKpaaia Kai irXeove^La 
TT/jo? TavTrjv pvel^ TTJV dhiKiav, dW eiTap6€L<; 
epcoTi h6^7]<; €TL veo<; koX X6yov<; ylrevhel^ teal 
Kevov<; Xeyofievov; irepl Tupavvlho^, oo? [laKapiov 
Koi Oav/JLaaTov irpdyfjuaTOf;, et? fieya (f)p6vrj/j,a 
7rapahe^d/jLevo<; dvoijTay^, koI KaTaaTijcra<; eavTov 
Tvpavvov Ta')(y /xecrTO? r]v t?1? Ik /xovapx^(^'^ 0apv- 

2 Tr}TO<;, d/jLa he l^rjXwv evijfiepovvra koX hehocfCQ)<; 
eiTt^ovXevovTa tov "ApaTov copfirjae fcaWicrTrjv 
opfjir]v /jieTal3a\6/xevo<;, irpcoTov fiev eavTov eXev- 
Bepwaai piiaov<; koI (f>6^ov Kal (f)povpd<; koI 
hopv(^6pwVy eiTa t?)? iraTpiho^ €U€pyeTr)<; yeveaOai 
Kal iJi€Ta7refJL'\lrdfjLevo<; tov "ApUTOV d(f)rjK€ ttjv 
dpxrjVy Kal Tr)v ttoXlv et? roi/? 'A^^afou? /xer- 
CKo/JiKTev. e(/)' oh fjbeyaXvvovTe'^ avTov ol *A;^atot 
aTpaTTjyov eiXovTO. 

3 <t>oXoTifjLov/jLevo^ he €v0v<; virep/SaXelv ho^rj tov 
"ApaTov dXXa<i re TroXXd^; TTyoaf^t? ovk dvayKala^i 
elvai hoKOV(Ta<^ Kal OTpaTelav eirl AaKehaip.ovLov<i 
TraprjyyeXXev, iviaTdfievo'i he o "A/jaro? avTO) 

6S 



ARATUS XXIX. 5-xxx. 3 

these stories were so prevalent that even in tlie 
schools of philosophy, wlien the query arises whether 
palpitation of the heart and change of colour and 
looseness of the bowels, in the presence of seeming 
peril, are the mark of cowardice, or of some faulty 
temperament and chilliness in the body, Aratus is 
always mentioned by name as one who was a good 
general, but always had these symptons when a 
contest was impending. 

XXX. Having thus made away with Aristippus, 
Aratus at once began to plot against Lydiades, who 
was tyrant in his native city of Megalopolis. This 
Lydiades was neither of mean birth nor naturally 
lacking in high ambition, nor, like most sole rulers, 
had he been driven by licence and rapacity into this 
iniquity, but he had been fired with a love of glory 
while still young, and had thoughtlessly associated 
with his high spirit the false and empty doctrines 
current concerning tyranny, to the effect that it was 
a wonderful and blessed thin or. And now that he 
had made himself tyrant, he was quickly sated with 
the burdens which devolve upon the sole ruler. 
Therefore, at once envying the successes of Aratus 
and fearing his plots, he adopted a new and most 
admirable plan, first, to free liimself from hatred and 
fear and guards and spearmen, and second, to become 
a benefactor of his native city. So he sent for 
Aratus, resigned his power, and made his city a 
member of the Achaean League. Wherefore the 
Achaeans exalted him and chose him general. 

Lydiades was at once ambitious to surpass Aratus 
in reputation, and not only did many other things 
which were thought unnecessary, but also proclaimed 
an expedition against the Lacedaemonians. Aratus 

69 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(f>Oov€Lv iSofcer koX to <ye hevrepov 6 AvSidB7j<; 
arpaTriyo<s ypeOr), avTL7rpdTT0VT0<; dvriKpv; Apd- 
rov KoX airovBd^ovTO^ krepw TrapaBoOijvat rr)P 
dp^rjv. auTo? fxev 'ydp, co? elprjTaL, irap eviavTov 

4 rjp')(e. P'kxP^ f^^^ ^^^ Tpirri<; <tt parrj'yia'i o Av- 
Bidor]<; ev ^ep6fX€vo<^ BiereXei Kal Trap* ivtavrov 
r}p-)(ev evaWd^ t&> W^pdico GTparrjfyojv' ^avepdv 
Be €^eP€<yfcdp,€i^o<i €')(dpav kul 7roWaKL<; avrov 
/caTr}yopr]aa<i ev rol^ ^ A)(aLol'i direppK^j} xat 
'7rapoi)(f)6r}, ireirXaapevw Bokcov ijOei 'jrpo^ dXr)- 

5 Oivr}V Kal uKepatov dpeTr]v dpaWdaOai. koX 
KaOdirep rO) KoicKvyi cfirjaip Aia(07ro<i, epayrcjpTi, 
Tou? XeTTTou? 6pvi6a<; 6 rt, (^evyoiev avrov, euirelv 
eKeivov^ &)9 ear at irore lepa^, ovTco^i eoiKe rr?) 
AvEidBr) TrapaKoXovOelv ex t?}9 TupavvLBo<; vtro- 
yJTLa jBXdiTTovGa t)jv (fivcTiv avrov t/}? p,eTa^o\rj<;. 

XXXL 'O Be "Aparo^ evBoKip>7)ae Kal irepl 
ra? AtrojXt^ra? vr/Da^et?, ore avp^BaXeiv fiev avroly 
irpo rrj^ yieyapLKrjq copfxij/jLevcov rdv AyaLoyv, 
Ka\ Tov ffaai\e(o<; T(av AaKeBaifiovicdv " A^lBo^ 
d(f)iKO/jLevov fierd Bwdp^eux; Kal a-vve^oppL(ovro<i 
€7rl rrjv puaxv^ rov<i 'A^j^atou?, ivavTtcodeU Kal 
TToWd fxev ovelBrjy iroWd 5* et? /laXaKLav kul 
aroX/xLav Kal aKUip^fiaTa Kal '^Xevaa/xov viro/xei,- 
va^ ov TTporjKaTO tov tov <Tv/jL(f)€povTO<; Xoyicrpov 
Bid TO <f>aLv6pL€vov ala')(^p6v, dXXa 7rape')(^a)pt]ae 
Tot9 7roX€/jLLOt<i virep^aXovcTL rrjv Tepdvecav afia- 
2 ')(^el nrapeXOelveh UeXoTTOvvrjaoV' ft)? /xevTOt irap- 
eX66vT€^ €^aL(f)V7j(; UeXXrjvrjv KaTcXa^ov, ovkIt r)v 
o auT09, oud* epieXXe BiaTpl^wv Kal ireptpei'fDv 

^ Chap. xiiv. 4. * About 241 n.c. Cf. the Agis, xiv. f. 
70 



ARATUS XXX. 3-x\AT. 2 

opposed him, but was thought to do so out of 
jealousy ; and Lydiades was chosen general for the 
second time, though Aratus openly worked against 
liim and was eager to have the office given to some- 
one else. For Aratus himself, as I have said/ held 
the office every other year. Accordingly, until he 
was general for the third time, Lydiades continued 
to be held in favour, and held the office every other 
year in alternation with Aratus ; but after displaying 
an open enmity to him and frequently denouncing 
him before the Achaeans, he was cast aside and 
ignored, since it was apparent that he was contend- 
ing, with a fictitious character, against a genuine and 
unadulterated virtue. And just as the cuckoo, in 
the fable of Aesop, when he asks the little birds 
why they fly away from him, is told by them that he 
will one day be a hawk, so it would seem that since 
Lydiades had once been a tyrant he was never free 
from a suspicion, which did injustice to his real 
nature, that he would change again. 

XXXI. In the Aetolian war also Aratus won a 
good repute. For when the Achaeans were bent 
on an engagement with the Aetolians in front of 
Megara,2 and Agis the king of the Lacedaemonians 
was come up with an army and joined in urging the 
Achaeans on to battle, Aratus opposed this counsel, 
and in spite of much vilification and much scoffing 
abuse for weakness and cowardice would not abandon, 
because of any seeming disgrace, which he judged to 
be for the general advantage, but allowed the enemy 
to cross the Geraneian range without a battle and 
pass on into Peloponnesus. When, however, after 
thus passing on, they suddenly seized Pellene, he 
was no longer the same man, nor would he wait at 

71 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aOpoKrOrjvat koI avveXOelv el<; ravrb iravraxoOev 
TTjv Svva/jLiVy aW €vOu<; cop/XTjae fiera rcov irapov- 
T(av eVt TOV<; 7ro\€/jLiov<i eu rCo Kparelv aaOeve- 

3 ardrov^i hi dra^iav /cal vffpiv 6vra<^. apa yap 
TO) irapeXOelv el^ rrjv ttoXlv ol p,ev <tt par icJoraL 
htaairapevTe^ ev ral^ olKiai<^ rjaav, i^coOovvre^i 
d\X7]\ov<; Kol hiapia')(^Qp,ei'Oi irepl rwv ')(prip.dT(ov, 
r)y€p6v€<i Be Koi Xoy^ayoi Ta<^ yvvalKa'^ Kai ra^ 
Ovyarepa^i rcov TleXXr/vecov 7r€pLL0V7e<; yjpTra^ov, 
fcal rd KpdvT) rd aurcov d(f)acpovpr€<i eKeivai^ 
TrepieTiOecrav rod p,r]Beva Xa^elv dXXov, dXXd ra> 
Kpdvei hrjXov elvau rov heairorriv e/cdaTr]<;. ovrco 
Be St.aKeip6Vot<i avrol^ /cal ravra irpajrovaLv 
i^alcjivrjf; 6 "A/oaro? eTnireacov TrpoaTjyyeXOrj. koX 
yevop^evrj^ e/C7rX7]^€(o<^, oiav e.lKO<; ev dra^ia roi- 
avry, irplv rj irdvTa^ irvOeadai rov klvBuvov ol irpoi- 
TOL irepl ra? 7rvXa<; rot? 'A^aiot? Kal ra irpodareia 
aviuL7rea6vT6<i e(j)€vyov tjBt] vevtKrjp^evoi, kol Kare- 1042 
TripTrXaaav iXavvop^evoi TrporpoTrdSrjv diropia'^ 
Toi)? avviarapevov^ koI irpoa^orjOovvrafi. 

XXXIL 'FiV TOVTO) Be T<p Tapd)(^(i) p,ia rayv 
al')(paXd)r(Dv, ^^Triy^Oovi dvBpo<; ivBo^ov dvydrrjp, 
avrt) Be KdXXec Kal pieyeOet crcoparo^; evirpe'JTrj';, 
ervx^e puev ev rw lepQ> fcaOe^op^evyj T/79 ApTep,tBo<i, 
ov Kariarrjaev avrrfv 6 iirtXeKTdp'xr)'^ eXoov eavru) 
Kal 7repiOel<; Tr]v rptXocpLav, d(f)V(j) Be eKBpap,ovaa 

2 77/30? Tov Oopv^ov, o)? ecTTr] rrpo rcov OupMV rov 
lepov Kal KajefiXey^rev eh roi'? pa^opLevov^; dvcoOev 
evovcra rrjv TpiXo(pLav, avrol^i re tol<; TroXirai^ 

72 



ARATUS XXXI. 2-xxxii. 2 

all in order tliat his forces misht assemble and come 
together from all quarters, but at once set out with 
those he had against the enemy, vviiom the disorder 
and wantonness attendant upon their success had 
wholly weakened. For as soon as they had entered 
the citv, the common soldiers had scattered them- 
selves among the houses, jostling and fighting with 
one another over the booty, while the leaders and 
captains were going about and seizing the wives and 
daughters of the Pellenians, on whose heads they 
put their own helmets, that no one else might seize 
tiiem, but that the helmet might show to whom each 
woman belonged. But while they were in this 
situation and thus engaged, word was suddenly 
brought them that Aratus had attacked. Dismay 
fell upon them, as was natural amid such disorder, 
and before all had learned of the danger the fore- 
most of them, engaging with the Achaeans at the 
gates and in the suburbs, were already conquered 
and in full flight, and being driven in headlong rout, 
they filled with dismay those who were collecting 
together and coming to their aid. 

XXXll. In the midst of this confusion, one of the 
captive women, daughter of Epigethes, a man of 
distinction, and herself conspicuous for beauty and 
stateliness of person, chanced to be sitting in the 
sanctuary of Artemis, where she had been placed by 
the captain of a picked corps, who had seized her for 
his prize and set his three crested helmet upon her 
head. But suddenly she ran forth to view the 
tumult, and as she stood in front of the gate of the 
sanctuary and looked down upon the combatants 
from on high, with the three-crested helmet on her 
head, she seemed to the citizens themselves a vision 

73 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Oeafia ae^vorepov rj Kar dvOpwirov i^dvrj, koX 
TOL(; TTo\efXLOLS <f)da/j,a Oelou opdv hoKOvat (f>pLKr]v 
evejBaXe koX 6d/jj^o<;, ware jxrjheva TpeireaOai ttoo? 
aKKi)v. 

Avrol Be HeWrjveh Xeyovac rb ^pera^ tt}? 
Oeov TOP fX€V dWoi> aTTOKuaOaL ')(^p6vov a^^avaroif, 
orav Se KLvrjOev vtto t^? lepeia^ €K(j>epr)Tai., /xrjSipa 
irpocT^XeiTUv ivavTiov, cOOC dTTOTpeireaOaL irdv- 
ra^' ov yap dpOpco7roi<; fiovov opa/xa (ppi/crov 
eivai Kai '^^aXeirov, dXXd Koi BevSpa iroLelv d<popa 
Kal Kapirov^ dTra/bL^XtaKeiv, 5t' a)v av /co/jLL^r]Tai. 

3 TovTO Bt} t6t€ Tr)v lepeiap i^eveyKafxevqv Kal rpe- 
TTOvaav a€L Kara tov<; AIt(oXov<^ avrLirpoacDTrov 
€K(f)popa<; fcaracTTrjcraL Kal irapeXeadai. tov Xojl- 
a/jLOP. he "Aparo? ovSep iv Tol<i vTro/jLV^/jbaaip 
elprjK€ TOtovrop, dX\d (^rjav Tpey\rdpL6Po<i TOV<i 
AltooXov^; Kal (f)6vyovat avveiaTreawv eh Trjv ttoXlp 
i^eXdaac Kara KpdTO<;, eTrra/cocrtou? Be diroKTel- 
pac. TO Be epyop ip tol<; fieyLaroL^; Bie^o'^drj, Kal 
Ti/jLdp6r]<i 6 ^o)ypd(j)o<; iTrolrjaep e^KJiaPTCKCo^: rfj 
Biadeaei rr)p /j,d^r]p e'^ovaav. 

XXXIIL Ov firjp dXXa ttoXXcjp eOp(OP kuI 
BvpacTTCop eirl TOv<i ^A')(aiov<i avpiara/iepcop evOvs 
o "A/oaro? eirparre (^iXiap Trpcxi tou9 Alra)Xov<i , 
Kai llupTaXeoPTi ro) TrXelarop AlrwXwp Bvpafxepco 
(Tvpepyw ')(p)]crd/jLepof; ov jjlopop elprjvrjp, dXXa Kal 
(Tv/jb/j.ax^ap rah 'A^atoi? tt^oo? tov<; AItcoXov^; 
iiroirjae. 

2 Tou9 Be ^Adr)vaiov(; (TTTovBd^cop iXevdepaxrai. 
Bie^XrjOr] Kal KaKO)<^ rjKovcrep vtto tcov 'A^j^atwj/, 
OTL GTzopBd'^ TreirotrjfjLepcop avrwp tt/oo? toi'9 Ma/f6- 
B6pa<i Kal dpox^^; dyoPTcop €'ir€)(^eip'qae tov Ueipatd 

74 



ARATUS xxxii. 2-xxA'iii. 2 

of more than human majesty, wliile the enemy 
thought they saw an apparition from heaven and 
were struck with amazement and terror, so that not 
a man of them tliought of defending himself. 

But the Pellenians themselves tell us that the 
image of the goddess usually stands untouched, and 
that when it is removed by the priestess and carried 
forth from the temple, no man looks upon it, but all 
turn tiieir ffaze away ; for not only to mankind is it 
a grievous and terrible sight, but trees also, past 
which it may be carried, become barren and cast 
their fruit. This image, then, they say, the priestess 
carried forth from the temple at this time, and by 
ever turning it in the faces of the AetoHans robbed 
them of their senses and took away their reason. 
Aratus, however, in his Commentaries, makes no 
mention of such a thing, but says that after routing 
the AetoHans and bursting into the city with them 
as they fled, lie drove them out by main force, and 
slew seven hundred of them. The action was ex- 
tolled as among the greatest exploits, and Timanthes 
the painter made a picture of the battle which in its 
composition vividly pourtrayed the event. 

XXXI 11. Notwithstanding, since many peoples and 
dynasts were combining against the Achaeans, Aratus 
at once sought to make friends of the AetoHans, and 
with the assistance of Pantaleon, their most in- 
fluential man, not only made peace, but also an 
alliance between them and the Achaeans. 

But in his eagerness to set Athens free he incurred 
the bitter reproaches of the Achaeans, because, 
though they had made a truce and suspended hos- 
tilities with the Macedonians, he attempted to seize 

75 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaraXa/Setv. avro<; Be apvovfjuevo^ iv rol^ vtto- 
fxvr'jfiacnv ol<; airoXeXoiirev ']^p'ylvov alridraL, fieO* 

3 ov ra irepi tov A^KpoKopivOov eirpa^ev. eKelvov 
'yap lBlo, Tfp Yleipaiel irpoa^aXovia koI tt}? kKl- 
fiUKo^i awrpL^eiai]'; Btw/cofievov ovofid^etv kol 
KoXelv (Tvve-)(^co(; "Aparov axrirep irapovra, kuI Bta- 
(fyvyeiv ovtco^ e^airari^aavTa rov^ TroXefilov^;. ov 
fir)v Bofcel TTLOavo)'^ diroXoyelaO at,' tov yap Ep7t- 
voVy avOpwirov ISicorijv Kal ^vpov, dir^ ovBevo^ rjv 
eLKOTOf; iirl vovv ^aXeaOai rrjv rrjXiKavrrjv Trpd^iv, 
€L /jlt) tov ^ ApaTOv el'^ev rjyefiova Kal Trap' €K€lvov 
Tr)v Bvva/jiiv Kal rov Kaipov elXijcfiei TTyoo? r^j/ eVt- 

4 Oeatv. iSijXcoae Be Kal aiyro? 6 "A/aaro? ov Bl<; 
ovBe T/Dt9, dXXd ttoXXciki^, wairep ol Bv(Tep(OTe<;, 
iTrf)(eLprjaa^ tw Tieipaiel Kal tt/oo? ra? Bia/JLapTLaf; 
ovK aTroKa/jicov, dXXd tw Trapa p-iKpov del Kal 
avveyyvi; diroac^dXXeaO ai tmv iXTTiBcov Trpo? to 
dappelv dvaKaXovfMevo<;. cLTra^ Be Kal to aKeXo<i 
ecrrraae Bia tov ^piaaiov (fyevycov Kal Top,d<i 
eXa/Se ttoXXa? 0epa7r€v6/ievo<;, Kal ttoXvv ypovov 
ev (^opei(p Kop.i^6/ievo<; eiroLelTO Ta? crT/oareta?. 

XXXIV. ^ AvTLyovov Be d7ro0av6vTO<; Kal Ar;- 
fxriTpiov TTjv ^acnXeiav TrapaXa^6vT0<^ eVt /xdXXov 
eveKeiTo Tal^i ^AOrjvai^ Kal oXco^; KaT€cf)p6vei tS)v 
^laKcBovwv. Blo Kal KpaTTjOevTO^ avTOv p-d^ij 
Trepl ^vXaKiav viro ^iOvo^ tov ArjfnjTpiov aTpa- 
T7)yov, Kal Xoyov yevofievov iroXXov fiev, ox? 
edXroKe, ttoXXov Be co? TeOvrjKev, 6 fiev tov Uec- 1043 
2 paid <f)povp(ov ALoy€V7j<; eTrefM-yjrev iTTiaToXrjv ecs 

^ Antigoiius Conatas died in 239 b.c , and was succeeded 
by his sou Demetrius II., who reigned len years. 

76 



ARATUS XXXIII. 2-xxxiv. 2 

the Peiraeus. He himself, however, in the Com- 
mentaries which he left, lays the blame for this 
attempt upon Erginus, with whose aid he had 
effected the capture of Acrocorinthus. He says that 
Erginus attacked the Peiraeus on his own private 
account, and that when his scaling-ladder broke and 
the enemy were pursuing him, he kept calling upon 
Aratus by name, as if Aratus were there, and thus 
deceived and made his escape from them. But this 
defence does not seem to be convincing. For Erginus 
was a private man and a Syrian, and there is no 
likelihood that he would have conceived of so great an 
undertaking if he had not been under the guidance 
of Aratus and obtained from him the force and the 
fitting time for the attack. And Aratus himself also 
made this plain, since he assaulted the Peiraeus, not 
twice or thrice, but many times, like a desperate 
lover, and would not desist in spite of his failures, 
but was roused to fresh courage by the very narrow- 
ness of the slight margin by which he was dis- 
appointed of his hopes. And once he actually put 
his leg out of joint as he fled through the Thriasian 
plain ; and while he was under treatment for this, 
the knife was often used upon him, and for a long 
time he was carried in a litter upon his campaigns. 

XXXIV. When Antigonus died and Demetrius 
succeeded to the throne,^ Aratus was all the more 
bent upon getting Athens, and wholly despised the 
Macedonians. And so, after he had been overcome 
in a battle at Phylacia by Bithys the general of 
Demetrius, and reports were rife, one that he had 
been captured, and another that he was dead, Dio- 
genes, the guardian of the Peiraeus, sent a letter to 

77 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

K.opLv6ov e^idTaaOaL Trj<; TroXeo)? KeXevoiV rov^ 
'A;^afou9, eiT€ihr]WpaTO^ arreOavev erv^e Ee rSv 
ypa/jLfidrcov KO/jLiadevrmv rrrapwv avrb^; iv K.opiv$a), 
Kol Biarpi^rjv ol tov ^toyevov<; Kai yeXrora ttoXvv 
'Trapao-')(uvTe<; airTJXkdyrjcrav. avTO<; he 6 ^aaikev^ 
€K yiaKehovia^ vavv eTrepL-yfrev, e(f 77? KopbLadrjaeTai 

3 7r/?09 avTOV 6 "Aparo^; BeSep,€vo<;. iraaav Be 
^AOrjvaloi Kov<f>oTr]Ta KoXaKeiaq tt}? Trpo? ^laKcBo- 
va<; v7r€pl3aWovTe<; ecrTe(f)av7}(f)op7](Tav oreTrpcorov 
r/yyeXOrj re6vr)K(i)<;. Blo koX tt/jo? opyrjv evOv'; €k- 
aTpaT€vaa<; iir avrov<; d')(^pL ri]<; ^KKaBrjpbeia^ 
irporfKOev' elra Treiadelf; ovBev i^BiKrjcrev. 

Ot Be ^ AOrjvdloi avpL(f)povr}(TavTe<i avrov rrjv dp€- 
rr)v, iirel ^7] jjLrjT piov reXevrrjcravTO^ oypfirjaav ewl 

4 rrjv eXevOepiav, eKelvov eKoXovv. 6 Be, Kaiirep ere- 
pov p,€V dp-^ovro<i t6t€ rwv ^Ay^aLcov, avTo<; Be 
dppwarla paKpa K\tvr]p7j<; VTrdp'^cov, 6p,co<; iv 
(jyopeiO) KopL^6p^evo<i viTrjvT^jae rfj iroXei irpo^ rrjv 
')(^peiavy Koi tov eirl t^9 <f>povpa<^ ^loyevr) crvveireL- 
irev CLTroBovvai tov t€ Heipaid kuI ttjv Mc>vvv)(iav 
/cat TT)v XaXapLLva kol to ^ovviov toi<; ^ A6r]valoL^ 
iirl irevTrjKOVTa kol cKaTov TaXdvTOL<;, o)V avTo<; o 

5 'ApaTO<; eiKoat ttj ttoXcl avve^dXero. iTpoae')((i>- 
prjaav 5' evOv^ AlyLvijTai fcal E^ppnovel^ TOt<? 
^ A')(^aLol<; , r) re irXeiaTrj T779 ^ApKaBia^ at'Tot? cruv- 
€TeXec. Koi Is/laKeBovwv p.(v da^uXwv ovtcov Bid 
TLva^ 7rpoaoiKov<; koX 6ju6pov<; 7ro\e/ioU9, AtTfo- 
Xcov Be crvp.paxovvT(ov, eTriCOQ^V peydXrjv rj --0/^ 
^A-)(^ai€)v eXdp^^ave Byyap,L^^ 

78. 



ARATUS xxxTv. 2-5 

Corinth ordering the xAchaeans to quit the city, since 
Aratus had been killed ; but when the letter arrived 
at Corinth, Aratus chanced to be there in person, 
and so the messengers of Diogenes, after furnishing 
much diversion and laughter, went away. Moreover, 
the king himself sent a ship from Macedonia, on 
which Aratus was to be brought to him in chains. 
And the Athenians, carrying their flattery of the 
Macedonians to the highest pitch of levity, crowned 
themselves with garlands as soon as they heard that 
Aratus was dead. Therefore he was wroth, and at 
once made an expedition against them, and advanced 
as far as the Academy ; then he listened to their 
entreaties and did them no harm. 

So the Athenians came to recognize the excellence 
of his character, and when, upon the death of 
Demetrius,^ they set out to regain their freedom, 
they called upon him. Then Aratus, although 
another was at that time general of the Achaeans, 
and he himself was confined to his bed by a long 
sickness, nevertheless was carried in a litter to help 
the city in its time of need, and joined in persuading 
Diogenes, the commander of the garrison, to give up 
the Peiraeus, Munychia, Salamis, and Suniura to the 
Athenians for a hundred and fifty talents, twenty of 
which Aratus contributed himself. Moreover, Aegina 
and Hermione at once came over to the Achaeans, 
and the greater part of Arcadia joined their league. 
And since the Macedonians were busy witii certain 
neighbouring and adjacent wars, and the Aetolians 
were in alliance with the Achaeans, the power of 
the Achaean League was greatly increased. 

^ In 229 B.C. He was succeeded by Antigonus Doson, who 
reigned nine years, 

1^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXV. O 5e "Aparof; i^epya^ofievo^ rrjv ira- 
Xatav vTToOecriv, kol hvcravaa')(eT(x}v rr)v iv "Apyet 
rvpavviha yeirvtcjaav avTol<;, eireide Trefnrcov rov 
^ApLdTOfiayov el^ fieaov Oelvav kol irpoaayayelv 
Tot9 'A^a^ofc? Tr]v iToXtv, kol ^rjXcoaavra AvSidSrjv 
Wvov^ rrfkiKOVTOv [xer €V(f)7]fMia<; fcal t^/xt;? arpa- 
TTjyov elvai fiaWov t) ixia<; 7r6\€co<; Kivhvvevovra 

2 Kal pLiaovfjievov rvpavvov. viraKovcravTO'^ he tov 
^ ApL<noiJLd')(ov fcal KeXevcravro'^ avrw irevTrjKovra 
ToXavra Tre/jL-yjrat rov 'Aparov, oirco^ diTaWd^r} 
Kal hiaXvar^rai tov<; irap avT(p arparevo/jLevov^;, 
Kol ro)v ')(^pr]fidTa)v iropi^o/jievcov, 6 AvBidSrj'^ en 
<TrpaT7]ycov Kal (f)L\oTi./jLoufi€vo^ lSiov avrov iroXi- 
revfia tovto 7rp6<; roi)? 'A^aiOL'9 yevicrdai, rov 
fxev ^Apdrov KarrfyopeL 7rpo<; ^ApicrT6/jLa')(^ov o)? 
Svcrfievoj'; Kal dSiaXXdKTco<; del Trpo? Tot'9 rvpdv- 
vov<; e^oi^T09, avTM Se ireiaa^ rrjv irpd^iv eVt- 
TpiyjraL Trpoaijyaye tol^ 'A;Yaiot9 tov dvOpwirov. 

3 evOa St) fidXiara (j>avepdv eTToiTjaav ol avveSpoi 
Twv 'A')(^aia)v rj]v 7r/909 rov "Aparov evvoiav Kal 
TTiCTTLv. dvTeL7r6vTO<s filv ydp avrov Sl^ opyrjv 
dTTTJXaaav tov<; rrepl rov ApLar6fia')(ov' eirel he 
(jvixTTei(j6el^ irdXiv avro<; ijp^aro irepl avrcjv Sea- 
XeyeaOai irapwv, irdvra ra')(ew<; Kal rrpoOviiw<; 
iyjrTjipLaavro, Kal irpoaeSe^avro fiev rov^ ^Apyeiovs 
Kal ^Xtaaiov^ eh rrjv rroXireiav, euiavrcp he 
varepov kol rov ^ApLar6fxa-)(pv elXovro arparijyov. 

4 'O he €vrj/jL€pc!)v rrapd rot<; ^ A')(^aLol^ Kal /3ovX6- 
fievo<; eh ttjv AaKcovLKrju efx^aXelv eKoXei rov 

Aparov e^ ^ AOrjvwv. 6 he eypac^e fiev avrw rrjV 
arpareiav dirayopeucov Kal ^ rfo KXeofievei Opdao^ 

* KCki bracketed by Sint.'* 
8o 



ARATUS XXXV. 1-4 

XXXV. And now Aratus, seeking to effect his 
long-standing purpose, and impatient of the tyranny 
so near the Achaeans in Argos, sent messengers and 
tried to persuade Aristomachus to give his city free- 
dom and attach it to the Achaean League, urging 
him to imitate Lydiades and be general of so great 
a nation with praise and honour, rather than tyrant 
of a single city with peril and hatred. Aristomachus 
consented, and told Aratus to send him fifty talents, 
in order that he might disband and send away the 
soldiers under him, and the money was being pro- 
vided. Upon this, Lydiades, who was still general 
and had an ambition that the Achaeans should regard 
this transaction as his own work, denounced Aratus 
to Aristomachus as a man who had always been an 
implacable enemy of tyrants, and after persuading 
Aristomachus to entrust the matter to himself, 
brought him before the Achaean council. Then 
the members of the council put into clearest light 
their goodwill towards Aratus and their confidence 
in him. For when he angrily opposed the project, 
they drove Aristomachus away ; but when he had 
been won over again, and came before them in 
person, and began to argue for the project, they 
speedily and readily adopted all his proposals, 
admitted Argos and Phlius into the league, and a 
year later ^ actually choose Aristomachus general. 

Aristomachus, then, being in high favour with the 
Achaeans, and wishing to invade Laconia, summoned 
Aratus from Athens. Aratus wrote him a letter in 
which he tried to dissuade him from the expedition, 
and expressed unwillingness to involve the Achaeans 
in hostilities with Cleomenes, who was daring and 
» In 227 B.C. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€)(pVTL Ka\ 7rapa^6Xo)<; av^avofxeuM (TV/uLTrXiKeadai 
TOV<; 'A^atou? firj ^ov\6fi€vo<^, wp/jLrjfievov ^e irdv- 
f) T&)9 viriqKovcre Kal irapcov crvvearpaTevev. ore Brj 
KoX K(oXvcra<; irepi to llaWdvrcov rov KX,€o- 
fjL€VOV<; e7n<^avevT0^ avrol^ pbdyrjv crvvd^ai rov 
^ Kpiaroixay^ov vtto AvStdSov Karr)yopr)6rjy Kal 
rrepl rrj's arpar7]yLa<; eh djMua Kal avrcrrrapay- 
yeXiav avrqy Karaara^ eKpdrrjae rfj '^(^etporovla 
Kal TO hwheKarov fipedr) arpar^jyofi. 

XXXVI. 'Ei^ ravrrj rfj arparrjyia rrepl ro 
AvKaLOV TjrrrjOel^; vrro rov KXeofxevov; e^vyc Kal 1044 
TrXavrjOel^i vvKrb<s eSo^e fiev reOvdvai Kal irdXtv 
ovrc; 6 Xoyo'i Kar avrov ttoXt;? e^e^oirrjaev et<? 
rov<; '^EiXXr]va(;' dvaaayOel^; he Kal rov<; arparico- 
ra? avvayayoyv ovk i^yaTrrjcrev dcr(f)aX(t)<; drreXdelv, 

2 aX-X' dpiara rw Kaipw ')(^prj(Tdfievo<; ovS€vo<^ irpocr- 
hoKOivrof; ovSe crvXXoyi^ofJievov rb /jteXXoi^ e^aicf)- 
vrj<; €7re7r€(T€ M.avrivev(7i avp.pdyoi'; oven rov 
K.Xeo/ievov<;' Kal rrjv itoXlv eXcov <^povpav eve/3aXe 
Kal T01/9 fieroiKOv^ 7roXira<; eTroLr/dep avrcov, Kal 
li6vo<i a viKoyvre^ ovk av pahi(o<; ea)(^ov eKrijcraro 
vevtKrj/jLevoi^; rot<; 'A^atot?. 

3 Avdi^ he TMV AaKeSaipovicov eirl MeydXrjv 
TToXiv arparevadvrcov ^oq6rjaa<; coKvet fxev d-^jri- 
p.a\ovvrL r(p KXeopevei Xa^t]V 7rapacr')(^6iv Kal 
roL<; M€yaXo7roXiraL<; ^la^o^evoLf; dvr€l')(^ev, ovre 
aXX(D<i TTyOO? ra<; Kara ar6p,a /Lta';^a9 ev 7T€(f>VKco<; 
Kal rore Xeirropievo^ re irXijOeL Kal 7rp6<; duBpa 
roXp,rjTr)V Kal veov r]hr] irapaicp.dt^ovrL rS) dvpufp 
Kal KeKoXaa fxevr) rfj (^iXonpua crvvecrr^jKctx;, Kau 

^ See the Clcomenes, iv. 3-4. 

2 226 B.C. Cf. the Oleomenea, v. ' Cf. the Cleomencs, vi. 

82 



ARATUS XXXV. 4-xxxvi. 3 

growing marvellously in power ; but, since Aristo- 
machus was altogether insistent, Aratus obeyed 
orders and accompanied the expedition in person. 
It was at this time that he prevented Aristomachus 
from joining battle when Cleomenes came upon them 
at Pallantium,^ and was denounced therefore bv 
Lydiades, with whom he came into contest and 
competition for the office of general, Avinning the 
vote and being chosen general for the twelfth time. 

XXXVI. In the campaign of this year ^ he was 
defeated by Cleomenes near Mount Lycaeum, and 
took to flight ; and, since he lost his way in the 
night, he was thought to be dead, and once more 
a story to this eifect had wide currency among the 
Greeks. But he escaped alive and rallied his soldiers, 
and then was not content to come off safely, but 
making the best use of his opportunity, w^hen no 
one expected or had any idea of what was to happen, 
he suddenly made an assault upon Mantineia, which 
was in alliance with Cleomenes ; and having taken 
the city, he set a garrison there, and made its alien 
residents full citizens, thus acquiring single-handed 
for the conquered Achaeans what they could not 
easily have obtained as conquerors. 

And again, when the Lacedaemonians made an 
expedition against Megalopolis,^ he went to the aid 
of the city, but was loth to give Cleomenes a chance 
for the hand-to-hand fighthig which he desired, and 
resisted the importunities of the Megalopolitans. 
For he was never at any time well fitted by nature 
for set battles, and at this time in particular he was 
inferior in numbers, and was matched against a man 
who was young and daring, while his own courage 
was past its prime, and his ambition chastened. He 

83 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vofxl^cov rjv Bta rov ToX/j,dv eKelvo<; i^ oy^ virap- 
"^ovrwv eKTCLTO Bo^av avrco fceKrrjfievw (pvXaKTeov 
elvat Sia T>J9 €v\a/3eLa<;. 

XXXVIL Ov fjbyv aXXa rcav ylnXcou ifcBpa/jLov- 
T(i)v Kol Q3aa/jb€V0)V Tov<; XTTapTidra^ ^XP^ "^^^ 
aTparoTreSov kol irepl la^; CTKrjva^ StaaTrapii^rcov, 
6 fjL€V "ApaTO<i ovB^ 0)9 iTTrjyayev, a)OC iv fxearw 
Xa^obv ')(apdBpav eireaTi^cre Kal KareKcokvae Bia- 
/Srjvac TOL'9 OTrXtra?* o Be AvBidBrj^; TrepLiraOMv 
TTpo<; ra yiyvo/jbeva Kal rov "Aparov kukl^cdv 
dvcKaXelro rov<i tTTTret? tw? avrov, d^Lwv iTTKpavr]- 
vai T0t9 BiooKovcrc Kal /jLt) TrpoecrOat ro vLKrj/jba 
fjLTjBe iyKaraXtTrelv avrov virep t?}? irarpiBo^ dyco- 

2 VL^ofievov. TToWcjv Be avaTpa(pevT(ov Kal dya- 
6oiv eTTippayaOel^ eve/SaXe rS Be^to) tmv iroXefxioiv 
Kal Tp€ylrdfjb€vo<; eBicoKev, vtto Ovfjiov kol (f)cXoTi- 
/jLLa<; drafjULevro)^ eTTL(T7raa6el^ eU ')((opia crKoXtd 
Kal fieard BevBpcov 7re(f)VT€v/jL€va)v Kal Td<f)pu>v 
TrXareicov, ev ol<i eTnOefievov rov KXeo/jtevov^; cTrecre 
Xa/MTrpcb^ dywviadfxevo^; rov KdXXiarov rcbv dyco- 

3 VQ)V eirl 6vpai<^ r?}? TrarpiBo^;. ol 8' aXXoL ^ev- 
yovre^i eh rrjv c^dXayya Kal crvprapd^avTe^ rou<; 
07rXtTa9 oXov to arpdrev/jia rfj<s 7]TTr]<; eveTrX^t^arav, 
auTiav Be fieydXrjv o "ApaTO<^ eXa^e Bo^a^; irpoe- 
(jQai TOP AvBidBrjv Kal ^LaaOel^i vtto to3v ^ kyaiwv 
direp^ojxevdiv irpo^ opyrjv r]KoXov6'r](jev avrol^ €l<; 
Atyiov. eK€c Be avveX66vTe<^ e^jrrjcpLaavTo fxr) Bc- 
Bovai ')(^pi'^fiaTa avrw firjBe fiL(j6o(^6pov^ rpe^eiv, 
dXX* auT(p TTopi^ecv, el Beouo TroXejielv. 

84 



ARATUS XXXVI. 3-xxxvii. 3 

also thought that the glory which his adversary was 
trying to acquire by his daring and did not possess, 
had already been acquired by himself and must be 
preserved by his caution. 

XXX VI I. Nevertheless, his light infantry once 
made a sally, drove the Spartans as far as to their 
camp, and were scattered about among the tents. 
Aratus, however^ would not even then lead up his 
men, but putting a ravine between himself and the 
enemy, halted there, and would not suffer his men- 
at-arms to cross it. Then Lydiades, distressed at 
what was going on, and loading Aratus with re- 
proaches, called his horsemen to him and exhorted 
them to go to the help of the pursuers, and not to 
let tlie victory slip out of their hands nor leave in the 
lurch a commander who was fighting in behalf of his 
native city. Many brave men gathering at his call, 
he was emboldened to charge upon the right wing 
of the enemy, which he routed and pursued. But 
his ardour and ambition robbed him of discretion, 
and he was drawn on into places that were intricate 
and full of planted trees and broad trenches. Here 
Cleomenes attacked him and he fell, after a brilliant 
and most honourable combat at the gates of his 
native city. The rest of his men fled to their main 
line, threw the men-at-arms into confusion, and thus 
infected the whole army with their defeat. Aratus 
was severely blamed for this, being thought to have 
betrayed Lydiades; and when the Achaeans left the 
field in anger, they forced him to accompany them 
to Aegium. Here they held an assembly, and voted 
not to give him money and not to maintain mer- 
cenaries for him ; if he wanted to wage war, he must 
provide the means himself. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXVIII. OvTco Se irpoTrrfKaKKrOel'^i e^ovXev- 
aaro fjuev evOi)^ aTroOeaOai ttjv a^paylha fcal t^jv 
arpari^'yiav cKpeli'ai, Xoyia/jLO) 8e ')(^pr]ad/j.6vo<i Tore 
/jbev {nrepL€Lve, fcal irpb^i ^Op)(OfjL6vov i^ayaycbv Tov<i 
'A^atoi)? fjbdxv^ eOero 7rp6<; Meytarovovv rov 
K.\€o/jLevov<i irarpcooVy ev rj Kpari]aa^ rpiaKOcriov^i 
fxev direKTeive, ^oivra he rbv MejKTTovovv jvv- 

2 ekd^ev. elcoOco^; he arparrjyelp irap" eviavrov, 
6t)9 1] ra^i? avTw TrepLrjXOe, KuXov/ievo^i e^cofio- 
craro, fcal Ti/ju6^evo<; rjpeOt] CFTparrfyos. eSo/cet he 
t) fiev irpo^i Tou? o-^^Xov; bpyr) 7rp6<paai'i; elvai 
Xeyo/juevrj rrj<; €^co/jioala<i dTrWavo^iy alria 8' dXr)- 
6r)(i TCI TT€piecrTCi)Ta tov<; A^aiou?, ovKeO oo? irpo- 
Tepov drpefia Kal (j\ehriv tov KXeofievov; einlSaL- 
vovTo<s ovh^ €/jL7rX€Kop,evov Tal<i TToXiTtKal*; dp^al^, 

3 dXX^ eVel rou? e(f)6pov<; d7roKTeiva<; koI ttjv ^oopav 
dvahaadfxevo^ kol ttoXXou? TOiv fieroLKoyv i/x/Sa- 
Xa)v eh Trjv iroXiTeiav ecr')(6v laxvv dwirevOvvov, 
ev6v<i eTTLKei/jLepov to^9 'A;)^atot9 Kal rrji; rjye/xovLa^ 
eavTOP d^LovvTO<;. hib /cal ixefx^ovrat tov "Apa- 
TOV ev adX(p fxeydXoj fcal ')(ei/jL(Jt)vi, rcuj/ Trpay/xdTcov 
(pepo/jLevoyv oicrTrep KV^epvqTrjv ucf)evTa Kal irpoe- 1045 
jxevov erepcp tov<; OLaKa<;, ore KaXo)^ el')(^€ Kal ukov- 

4 TO)v eiTLGTdvTa aco^eLV to kolvov el 3' drreyvcoKei 
Ta TTpdyp.aTa Kal t^j^ hvvafXLv twv 'A;)^ataj^', et^ai 
Tft> Y^Xaojxevei, Kal p,r) irdXiv rrjv lleXonovvrjaov 
€K^ap^apa)aat (f>povpal<i MaKeh6v(ov, /jurjhe TrXrjpw- 
aat Toi^ 'AKpOKopivOov ''iXXvptKCOv ottXcov Kai 
TaXaTLKCJV, firjhe ov<; avTO<s ev rat? irpd^ecn Kara- 

^ Cf. the Cleomenes, xv. 1. 

- For the year 224 B C. 

' Cf. the Cleo7iienes, viii., xi. 

86 



ARATUS XXXVIII. 1-4 

XXXVlll. Smarting under this insult, he resolved 
to give up his seal at once, and resign the office of 
general, but upon reflection he held on for the 
))resent, and after leading the Achaeans forth to 
Orchomenus, fought a battle there with Megistonoiis, 
the stepfather of Cleomenes, in which he got the 
upper hand, killing three hundred of the enemy and 
taking Megistonoiis prisoner. But when, accustomed 
as he was to be general every other year, his turn 
came round again and he was invited to take the 
office, he formally declined,^ and Timoxenus was 
chosen general. ^ Now the grounds usually given 
for this refusal of Aratus, namely, his anger at the 
people, were not thought to be convincing, and 
the real reason for it was the situation of the 
Achaeans. For the invasions of Cleomenes were no 
longer quiet and restrained, as formerly, nor was he 
fettered by the civil authorities, but after he had 
killed the ephors, divided up the land, advanced 
many resident aliens to the citizenship, and thus got 
an irresponsible power,^ he immediately pressed the 
Achaeans hard, and demanded the supreme leader- 
ship for himself. And therefore men blame Aratus, 
because, when the ship of state was driving in a 
great surge and storm, he forsook the pilot's helm 
and left it to another, although it had been well, 
even if the people were unwilling, to remain at their 
head and save them ; and if he despaired of the 
government and power of the Achaeans, he ought 
to have yielded to Cleomenes, and not to have made 
Peloponnesus quite barbarous again under Mace- 
donian garrisons, nor to have filled Acrocorinthus 
with Tllyrian and Gallic arms, nor, in the case of 

87 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dTpaTTfycdv KoX KaTaiTo\irev6ixevo<;, iv he roi^ 
viTO^jLvrjixaai XoiSopcov SieriXei,, tovtov^ eirdyeaOai 
B€a7r6Ta<i rat? iroXeai (Jvixixd')(^ov<^ viroKopi^oiievov. 
6 el he KX€0/jLevr]<; rjv, XeyecrOco yap ovtw<^, irapdvo- 
/xo? KaX TvpavviK6<;, dW HpuKXethai irarepe^; 
avTw Koi XTrdprr] rrarpL^;, 779 rbv d<^ave<TTaTov 
d^iov dvri Tov irpdirov lS,iaKehovwv i)ye\xdva iroiel- 
aOat, T0U9 ev tvl Xoyco rrfv 'EWrjpLfcyv nOefxevov^ 
evyeveiav. Katroi KXeo/jiev7]<; yrei rrjv dp^rjv 
irapa twv ^ h^yaiC^v (09 iroKXa Troirjacov dyaOd ra<^ 
iroXei^ avrl rri^; Ti,/JLrj<i /cal TrJ9 irpoarjyopia^ eKeiv))<i, 

6 ' AvTiyovo^ he Kal Kara yrjv xal Kara OdXarrav 
avTOKpdrayp rjye/jLcov dvayopevOei^ 01)^ virrjKovo'e 
irpiv TOV fiiaOov avrw Trj<; r)y€/jLOVLa<; OfMoXoyrjOrj- 
vai TOV ^ KKpoKopLvdov, dre')(y(i)^ tov AlaooTrov /jll- 
/jL7jad/ievo(; Kvvrjyov. ov yap irpoTepov iire^r) T0t9 
'A^a£or9 heofievoi<^ /cal v7ro/3dXXovcnv avTov^ htd 
T(ov irpecrlSeLMv Kal tmv yfrrjipLafxaTcov rj ttj (j>povpa 
Kal TOt<; ofirjpoL^ coairep ')(aXtvov fxevov^ dvaay^e- 

7 aOai. KaLTOi Trdaav 6 "ApaTO'; dcfyirjai (pcovijv utto- 
XoyL^ofievo^ ttjv dvdy/crjv. 6 UoXv^tof; he avTov 
ex TToXXov (f)r]crc Kal rrpo t^9 dvdyKri<i v(j)opd)/jLe- 
vov TO Opdao<; to tov K\eo/x6vof9 Kpvcpa tw 
'Ai^TiYOi^o) hiaXeyeaSai, Kal tou9 Mey aXoiroXiTa's 
TrpoKaOiivai heo/ievov<i 'Ap^^aioir eiTLKaXeladai tov 
^ AvTiyovov. ovTOL yap eirie^ovTO tw TroXe/iO) 
fidXtaTa, (Tvv€^0}<i dyovTo^i avTov<s fcai (f>epovTO^ 

8 TOV KXeofievov<;. 6/jL0Lct)<; he Kal ^uXapxo^i laTo- 

^ ITistorics, ii. 47, 4flf. 

88 



ARATUS XXXVIII. 4-8 

men whom he was always defeating in tlie fields of 
war and statesmanship and abusing in the pages 
of his Commentaries^ to have made these men lords 
over the cities under the endearing name of allies. 
And if Cleomenes was, as must be granted, lawless 
and arbitrary, still, Heracleidae were his ancestors, 
and Sparta was his native land, the meanest citizen 
of which was more worthy than the foremost Mace- 
donian to be made their leader by those who had 
any regard for Greek nobility of birth. And yet 
Cleomenes asked the Achaeans for the office, with 
the promise that he would confer many benefits 
upon their cities in return for that honour and its 
title, whereas Antigonus, although he was proclaimed 
leader with full powers by land and sea, would not 
accept the office until Acrocorinthus had been 
promised him as the pay for his leadership. In this 
he acted just like Aesop's hunter. For he would not 
mount the Achaeans, although they prayed him to 
do so and presented their backs to him by way of 
embassies and decrees, until they consented to wear 
the bit and bridle of the garrison they received and 
the hostages they gave. And yet Aratus says every- 
thing that he can say in explaining the necessity 
that was upon him. Polybius, however, says ^ that 
for a long time, and before the necessity arose, 
Aratus mistrusted the daring temper of Cleomenes 
and made secret overtures to Antigonus, besides 
putting the Megalopolitans forward to beg the 
Achaeans to call in Antigonus. For the Megalo- 
politans were most oppressed by the war, since 
Cleomenes was continually plundering their territory. 
A similar account of these matters is given by 
Phylarchus also, in whom, but for the testimony of 

VOL. XI. J-, 89 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

prjKe irepX Tovrwvt w /ir) rod YioXv^iov fjLaprvpovv- 
ro<s ov Trdvv tl Tncrreveiv a^wv rjv. ivOovaia yap 
orav dylrrfrat rov KXeo/xez/ou9, inr^ evvoia^, koI 
KaOd-rrep ev Slkt] ttj laropia rm fxev dvriBiKcop 
SiareXet, tw Se (Tvvayopevwv. 

XXXIX. 'Aire/SaXov 3' ovv ol 'A^^afol rrjv 
MavTLveiav, irdXiv €\6vto<; avrrjv rov KXeofii- 
vov^, KoX P'd')(r] fieydXr} irepi to ^tcarofx^aLOV 
r)TTr)6evTe^ ovrco KareirXdyrjcrav Mare irefxireLv 
€v6v<; e^' yyefwvia rov ILXeofJuevr} Ka\ovvT€<; et? 

2 "Ap709. 6 he "A/oaro? cos" rjadero /SaSl^ovTa Kal 
irepl Aepvav ovra fiera rrj^ Bui'd/jL€co<;, <f>opri6el<^ 
(iTriareWe TrpecrySet? tov<; d^Lovvra^ (h<; irapd 
<f)iXov<; KoX (rv/jL/jLd')(^ov<i avrov rjKeiv jierd rpi- 
afcoo-Lcov, el Be afnarel, Xa^elv 6firjpov<;. ravja 
v^piv elvai Kal '^(Xevaafiov avrov (f)r)aa<; o 
KXeo/jLev7]<; dve^ev^ev, einaroXi^v 'ypd'^a<i rot<; 
^ A.')(^aiol<^ eyKXiifiara iroXXd Kara rov ^Apdrov 

3 Kal 8ia/3oXd'; e^ovaav. eypa(f>€ Be KdKelvo<; eiri- 
aroXd^ Kara rov KXeo/jbiuov;' Kal icpepovro 
XoiBopiai Kal ffXaa^cfirjfilai P'^XP^ ydficov kxl 
yvvaiKcop aXX7]Xov<; KaK(x)<; Xeyovrwv. 

'Ea: rovrov KrjpVKa Tre/^-v^a? o KXeo/jLevri<; 
rroXe/jiov irpoepovvra rol^ 'A^a^oZ?, fxiKpov puev 
cXaOe rrjv X'.kvcovlcov ttoXiv dprrdcja^i Bia irpoBo- 
aia<s, eyyvQev ^ Be dir or parrel'^ T[eXXi]vrj irpoae^a- 
Xe Kal rov crrparrjyov rcov 'A^aiwi^ eK7T€aovro<^ 
ecr^e rrfV rroXiv, oXlyw Be varepov Kai ^eveov 

4 eXa^e Kal UevreXeiov. elr €vOv<; Wpyeloi irpoa- 
€xd>pV(^^^ ai^Tw Kal ^XtdaLot (f)povpav eBe^avro' 
Kal oXft)? ovBev en rcov eTTiKrrjrcov ^e^aiov rjv 

^ fyyvdfv Bekker reads iKtlOtv, with the Aldine. 
90 



ARATUS XXXVIII. 8-xxxix. 4 

PolybiuSj one should not put entire credence. For 
goodwill makes his every mention of Cleomenes 
ecstatic_, and as if he were pleading in a court of 
laWj he is for ever accusing Aratus in his history, 
and defending Cleomenes. 

XXXIX. So, then, the Achaeans lost Mantineia, 
which was taken again by Cleomenes, and after 
being defeated in a great battle at Hecatombaeum 
they were so dismayed that they sent at once and 
invited Cleomenes to come to Argos and assume the 
leadership. But Aratus, when he learned that 
Cleomenes was on the way and at Lerna with his 
forces, feared the issue, and sent an embassy to 
demand that he should come with three hundred 
men only, as to friends and allies, and that if he was 
distrustful, he should accept hostages. Cleomenes 
declared that he was insulted and mocked by this 
demand, and retired with his army, after writing a 
letter to the Achaeans which was full of bitter accu- 
sations against Aratus. Aratus also wrote letters 
against Cleomenes ; and their mutual abuse and 
defamation reached the point of maligning one 
another's marriages and wives. 

As a result of this, Cleomenes sent a herald to 
declare war against the Achaeans, and almost 
succeeded in seizing the city of Sicyon with the 
help of traitors; he turned aside, however, when 
close at hand, and assaulted and took the city of 
Pellene, from which the Achaean commander Hed. 
And not long afterwards he took Pheneus also and 
Penteleium. Then Argos went over to his side, and 
Phlius received a garrison which he sent. In a word, 
not one of their acquisitions longer held firm to the 

91 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T0fc9 A^atot?, a\Xa 66pv^o<; 7roXv<; a(f)V(o irepi- 
eLCFTrjKet rov "Aparov, opcovra rr]P UeXoTrovprjaov 
fcpaBatvo/jL€vr}v /cat ra? TroXei? i^apcarafiiva^ vtto 
Tcov vecoTepii^ovTwv iravTa^oOev. 

AL. tirpe/jLei yap ovdev ovce earepyev ein tol<; 
TTapovcFLV, aWa koI ^iKvwviwv avrcov koI J^opiv- 1046 
Olcov eyevovTO ttoWoI Karacpavelf; BoeiXey/juipoi 
TO) l^Xeofievei fcau TraXai 7rp6<; to kolvov IBlcov 

2 iiTLOvpiia SvvaaTetMV vttovXco^ e^ovre^. iirl rov- 
TOf? i^ovaiav avvirevOvvov 6 "ApaTO<; Xa^cov 
TOv<; fjL€v iv '^iKvoiVi Bi€(f)dappepov<s aTrcKreipe, 
T0L/9 Be ip K-opipdo) 7r€ipcofji€PO<; apa^rjrecp kuI 
KoXd^eiv i^ijypiaipe to ttXtjOo^ t^Bt] poaovp Kal 
l3apvp6/i€POP rrjp vtto tol<; 'A^atot? TroXiTeiap. 
avpBpa/j,6pT6<; ovp eh rb rod 'AttoXXwi/o? iepop 
pLereirefXTTOPTO top "ApaTop, apeXelp 7) avXXa^elp 

3 irpo TTJf; dirodTdaecof! iypcoKOTe^. 6 Be rjKe fiep 
avTo^ icfyeXKopepo^i top lttttop ot)? ovk dirLcrTOiP 
ovBe VTTOTTTevwp, dpa7rr)Br,crdpTa}p Be ttoXXmp koI 
XoiBopov/iepcop avTM kol KaTrjyopovPToyp ev 7ro)9 
KaOeaTcoTL tcd TrpoacoTro) fcal Ta> Xoyo) 7rpao)<; 
eKeXeve KaOiaai kol p^rj ^oap uTaKTCOf; ecrTwra?, 
dXXd Kal rov<s irepl 6vpa<^ 6pTa<; etaco rrapiepar 
Kal TavO^ dpa Xeywp vire^rjei /SdBrjp co? irapa- 

4 B(0(T(i)P tipI top lttttop. outco<; Be vTr€KBv<; Kal 
Toh VTTaPTOXjL T(ji)P K.optp6ia}p d6opvl3(D^ BiaXe- 
yop^epo'^ Kal KcXevcop Trpo? to ^AttoXXcoplop ^aBi- 
teip, ft)9 eXade TTXrjalop t7}9 ciKpa^; yep6p.epo<;, 
dpaTT7]Bi]aa<i irrl top 'lttttop Kal KXeoTrdTpw tm 
dp^oPTi T/79 <f)povp!}^ BiaKeXev(jdpLepo<; €yKpaT(o<; 



* With this chapter cf. the Cleomenes, xvii. — xix. 1. 
^ See chap. xli. 1. 



92 



ARATUS XXXIX. 4-XL. 4 

AchaeanSj but a vast confusion suddenly encompassed 
Aratus. He saw Peloponnesus shaking, and its cities 
everywhere stirred to revolt by restless agitators.^ 

XL. For there was no quiet anywhere, and no 
contentment with present conditions, but even 
among the Sicyonians and Corinthians themselves 
there were many who were known to have been in 
conference with Cleomenes, men whom a desire for 
private domination had long ago led into secret 
hostility towards the common interests. For the 
punishment of these men Aratus was clothed with 
absolute power,^ and seizing those in Sicyon who 
were thus corrupted he put them to death ; but 
when he tried to seek out and chastise those in 
Corinth, he roused the resentment of the populace 
there, which was already disaffected and ill at ease 
under the Achaean administration. So they as- 
sembled hastily in the temple of Apollo and sent 
for Aratus, determined to kill him or seize him, and 
then to revolt. He came, accordingly, leading his 
horse after him, as though he had no distrust or 
suspicion, and when many sprang up and abused and 
denounced him, with a composed countenance and 
gentle words he bade them sit down and not stand 
there shouting in disorderly fashion, but to admit 
also those who were outside at the door ; and as he 
spoke, he withdrew slowly, as if he would hand his 
liorse over to somebody. Having thus slipped out 
of the crowd, he conversed calmly with the 
Corinthians who met him, bidding them go to tlie 
temple of Apollo, and so, before his enemies were 
aware of it, came nigh the citadel. Then he leaped 
upon his horse, and after giving orders to Cleopater 
the commander of the garrison in the citadel to guard 

93 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(f)v\dTT€LP ai^lTTirevaev €t9 ^i/cvcopa, TpLUfcovra 
fi€V avTw arpaTccoToyv eTrofiei'cov, rcov Be aWcov 
iy/caTaXiTTovTcov /cal Biappvevrcov. 

5 Ala06/Ji€voc 8' ol Ys.opivdtot jxer oXuyov rrfv 
airoBpacnv avrov koI Btco^avre's, 609 ov Kareka- 
^ov, ixereTTefJU'^avTO top KXeo/jievrj fcal irapiBo- 
aav T^]V TToXiv ovBev olofxevw Xafi^dvetv Trap 
avTOiv TocrovTOV oaov Bi,t]papT6v dcfyivTcov^'AparoV' 
ouTO? fjLCV ovVt irpocF^evopevwv avrcp T(t)v Trjv 
Xe'yofievTjv ^ Akttjv /caroiKovvrcov Kai ra^ iroXei^; 
iy^eipLaciPTcov, direaravpov fcal Trepierei^i^e tov 
^A/cpoKopipQov, 

XLI. Ta> Be *ApaTa) avvrjXOov eh ^iKvcova Ta>i> 
*A')(^aiOJV ov TToXXor ^ koI yevofievrjf; iKKXTjala^; 
rjpeOrj (tt parrj'yh'^ avTOfcpdrcop. Kal irepLeaTrjaaro 
(ppovpav eK TO)v eavrov ttoXltcjv, rpidKOvra p.lv 
errj /cal Tpia ireiroXirevpLevo^; ev roU A')(^aLol<;, 
TreTrpcorevKO)^ Be /cal Bwdpuei /cal Bo^y r(ov EX- 
Xtjvcov, T0T6 Be eprjp^o^ Kal d'iropo<i (TVvreTpipbpLevo<i, 
axnrep eirl vavayiov r?)? iraTpiBo^ ev rocrovTw 

2 cydXcp Kal kivBvvw Bca(j)epop^evo<;. Kal yap At- 
TcoXol Beofiepov jSorjOeLv direiiravTOy Kai ttjv 

^A0t]VaL(OV TToXiV X^pLTC TOV ^ ApdTOV TTpoOvpLOV 

ovaav ol nepl EvpvKXeiBrjv Kal M.iKia)va Bl6K(i)' 
Xvaav. 6vT0)v Be tw ^ApuTO) Kal '^(prjiiidTcov iv 
KopLvOo) Kal oLKLa^, 6 KXeofxivTjf; -^-ylraTo fjLev 
ovBevof; ovBe dXXov ecaae, p,eTa7rep,'\jrdp,epo<i Be 
Tou? (f>LXov<; avTov Kal tou? BwiKrjTa'i eKeXeve 

^ oit voWol Ziegler, with Sk and most good MSS. : ol 
voWoL 



94 



ARATUS XL. 4-XL1. 2 

it with a strong hand, he rode off to Sicyon, followed 
by only thirty of his soldiers ; the rest deserted him 
and dispersed. 

After a little while the Corinthians learned of his 
flight and pursued him^ but did not overtake him. 
Then they sent for Cleomenes and delivered their 
city into his hands/ although he thought that he had 
gained by what they gave him far less than he had 
lost by their letting Aratus get away. Cleomenes, 
accordingly, after the accession to him of the 
inhabitants of Acte, as the district is called, who 
placed their cities in his hands, proceeded to run a 
wall and palisade about Acrocorinthus. 

XLI. But a few of the Achaeans came together 
with Aratus at Sicyon ; and in an assembly there 
held he was chosen general with full powers. And 
now he surrounded himself with a guard from among 
his own citizens. For three-and- thirty years he had 
directed public affairs among the Achaeans, and 
had enjoyed more power and reputation than any 
other Greek; but now, abandoned by his allies and 
iielplessly crushed, he was like one drifting about in 
great surge and peril on the wreck of his native city. 
For the .\etolians refused him their aid when he 
asked for it, and the Athenians, whom gratitude 
made eager to help him, were prevented by Eury- 
cleides and Micion.^ As for the house and property 
belonging to Aratus in Corinth, Cleomenes would 
not touch them at all, nor permit anyone else to do 
so, but sent for the friends and stewards of Aratus 
and ordered them to administer and watch over 

^ Early in 223 B.C. The story is told very differently in 
the Cleomenes. xix. 1 f. 

" Two leading orators of the time. 

95 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irdvra hioiKeLv ^ /cat (puXdaaetv &)? Apdro) \6yov 

3 v(f)6^ovTa<;' Ihia he rrpo^; avrov eirefx-y^re TpiirvXov 
Kol irdkiv MeyLaroi^ovv rov irarpwov VTria^vov- 
fjievo<^ dWa re ttoWcl teal SooSeKa rdXavra 
avvra^LV ivLavcriov, vrrep^aWopevo'; tco rj/uLcrei 
YlroXefialov' eKelvo<i yap e^ rdXavra tw Apdrat 
Kar iviavTov direaTeWev. tj^lov Sk tcov *A%atwi^ 
rjye/ioov dvayopevOrjvaL koI koivtj fier avrcov 

4 (f)v\dacr€i.v rov ^ A-KpoKoptvOov. rov Be ^Apdrov 
(p'^cravTOf; ft)? ovK e')(^oi, rd irpdyixara, /jbdWov he 
utt' avToyv 6)(oito, koI /caTeipcovevaaadac So- 
^avTo<i, ifM/BaXcov 6vOv<; rrjv ^iKvcoviav cTropOei 
/cat KarecfyOeipe koI irpoaeKddrjTO rjj TroXei Tyoet? 
/jLtjva'^, eyKapTepovvTo<^ rov ^Apdrov Kal Sia- 
iTOpovvro^ el Several rov Avi ly ovov eirl ra> 
rrapahovvai rov W/cpofcopivdov dXXco<; yap ov/c 
e(3ovXeTO (SoviOelv. 

XLIL Ot /x€^' ovv 'A;^aiOfc avveX'r]Xv66re<; 6t9 
Alyiov ifcel rov 'Aparov eKdXovv. tjv he klvSwo^;, 
rov YiXeoixevov^ tt/jo? rfj iroXet arparorrehevovro^s, 
hieXOelv. Kal Karel')(ov ol rroXlrai, heofxevoL Kal 1047 
TTpor]o-ea6ai ro acjfia rcov rroXefxicdV iyyi)^ 6vt(i)v 
ov (pdcTKovre^;' i^rjprrjvro he avrov /cal yvualKe^ 
rjhrj Kal iralhe^ loairep rrarpo<^ kolvov Kal aoyrrjpo^ 
2 irepie'y^^o/jLevoi, Kal haKpvovre^. ov /jurjv dXXd 6ap- 
pvva'^ Kal 7rapa/jiv07}adfjLevof; avroix; e^iTnrevo-ev 
iirl rrjv OdXarrav, ey^wv SeKa <^iXov<^ Kal rov 

^ hioiK^'iv suggested by Sintenis, with comparison of 
C'leomeneSy xix. 3 : ttoic^v. 

96 



ARATUS XLI. 2-XLII. 2 

everything as though they are to render an account 
to Aratus. Moreover, he privately sent Tripylus to 
Aratus, and afterwards Megistonoiis, his stepfather, 
promising to give him, besides many other things, 
H yearly pension of twelve talents, thus doubling 
the amount which Aratus received annually from 
Ptolemy ; for he sent six talents each year to 
Aratus.^ Cleomenes demanded, however, that he 
should be proclaimed leader of the Achaeans, and 
together with them should have the keeping of 
Acrocorinthus. Aratus made answer that he did not 
control affairs, but rather was controlled by them ; 
whereupon Cleomenes, thinking himself mocked, at 
once invaded the territory of Sicyon, ravaged and 
laid it waste, and encamped before the city three 
months. All this while Aratus held out patiently, 
and debated with himself whether he should accept 
Antigonus as an ally on condition of handing over 
to him Acrocorinthus ! for on any other terms 
Antigonus was unwilling to give him help.^ 

XLI I. Accordingly, the Achaeans came together 
at Aegium and invited Aratus thither. But there 
was danger in his trying to get there, since Cleomenes 
was encamped before Sicyon. Besides, the citizens 
tried to detain him, beseeching him not to go and 
refusing to let him expose himself while the enemy 
were near; and presently the women and children 
were clinging to liim and tearfully embracing him 
as a common father and preserv^er. Nevertheless, 
after encouraging and comforting them, he rode out 
to the sea, accompanied by ten friends and by his 

^ Ptolemy III., siirnamed Euergetes, king of Egypt 217 — 
•22-2 BC. 

• Cf. the Cleomenes, xix. 3 £• 

97 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vlov tjBt) veaviav oura' koX TrapopfiovPTcov ifceX 
TrXolcov, iTTi^dvre^ et? Atjiov TrapeKOfjiiaOrjcrav 
cttI TTjv eKKXrjaiav, iv y Kokelv top ^ Avriyovov 
€yjr7j(l)iaavT0 koX TrapaSiSovac top 'AKpo/coptvdov. 
3 €7r 6 fiyjre Be Kal top vlov "ApaTo<i 7rp6<i avrov fiera 
rcov dW(ov 6/jLT]pci)V. icf)' 0I9 01 YLopivOtoi ')(aXe'TTS}^ 
(^epovTe<i rd re 'X^pijp^aTa SujpTracrav avrov koI 
Trjv OLKLav TO) KXeofievec Bcopedv eBonKav. 

XLIII. ToO 8' WvTiyovov irpoaiovro^ rjBii p,€rd 
T^? Svpd/jL€(o<; (rjye Be 7re^ov<; Bi<T/j,vpLov<i MuKe- 
B6va<;, L'mrel<i Be ^(^iXiOV^ koX TptaKoaiovsi) dirrivra 
fierd Tcav Brj/iiovpycop 6 "Aparo^; avT^ Kara 
OdXarrav eh Ur}yd<i, XaOoDP rov<; TroXefilov;, ov 
irdvv ri dappcop rov ^ Aprlyopop ovBe mcrrevwp 
roh ^aKeBoaip. yBec yap rjii^rj/xepov eavrop 
i^ o)P eKeipov<i /ca/coj? e7roir)(je Kal Trpcorrjp elXr)- 
(f)UTa fjLeytarrjp virodeaip rrj<i rroXtreia'i rrjp TTpo<; 

2 ^ Avriyopop rov iraXaiop ex^pap. dXXd opeop dira- 
pairrjTOP einKeifieprjp dvdyKrfP Kai rov Kaipop, o) 
BovXevovGLP ol BoKovpre<i dp^^LP, ixcopei 7rpo<i ro 
Beipop. 6 Be ^AprLyopo<;, w? ri<; avro) rrpoa-iopra 
rov " Aparop €(f)paa€, rov<; pLep dXXovs rjcnrdcraro 
fierpL(i)<; Kal koipco<;, cKelpop Be Kal rrepl rrjv 
rrpoorijp dirdprrja-ip iBe^aro rrj rcfirj irepirroy's, 
Kal raXXa Treipcop^ePd dvBpo^; dyaOoD Kal vovp 
e')(OPro<i epBorepw t?)? ^j^/oeia? rrpoarjydyero. 

3 Kal yap -qp 6 ^' Aparo^ ov /iopop €p Trpdyfiaai 
98 



ARATUS xLir. 2-xliii. 3 

son, who was now a young man. Vessels were lying 
at anchor off the shore, and upon these the party 
were conveyed to Aegium, where the assembly was 
sitting. Here it was voted to call in Antigonus and 
hand over to him Acrocorinthus.^ Aratus even sent 
his son to Antigonus with the other hostages. At 
this the Corinthians were indignant ; they plundered 
his property and made a present of his house to 
Cleomenes. 

XLIIl. And now, as Antigonus was approaching 
with his forces (he was followed by twenty thousand 
Macedonian footmen and thirteen hundred horse), 
Aratus, in company with his High Councillors,^ went 
by sea to meet him at Pegae, eluding the enemy. 
lie had no very great confidence in Antigonus, and 
put no trust in the Macedonians. For he knew that 
his own rise to power had been a consequence of tlie 
harm he had done to them, and that he had found 
the first and the chief basis for his conduct of afliairs 
in his hatred towards the former Antigonus.^ But 
seeing how inexorable was the necessity laid upon 
him in the demands of the hour, to which those we 
call rulers are slaves, he went on towards the dread 
ordeal. But Antigonus, when he was told that 
Aratus was coming to him, gave the rest of the party 
an ordinary and moderate welcome ; Aratus, however, 
he received at this first meeting with suj)erlative 
honour, and afterwards, finding him to be a man of 
worth and wisdom, drew him in closer intimacy to 
himself. 

For Aratus was not only helpful in large under- 

* In the spring of 223 B.C. Of. the Cleomenes, xix. 4. 

^ A body of ten men, chosen as admirers of the generaL 

* Antigonus Gonatas. See the note on xxxiv. 1 . 

99 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/jLeydXoi<i (jD(f)6\LfjL0<i, dXXa Kal ay^oXd^^ovTi /BaaiXel 
avyyeveadai Trap ovTivovv e7rt;y[a/3f9. Sto, Kaiirep 
^v veo<^ 6 ^ AvTi<yovo<^, co? Karevorjae ttjv (pvaip 
rov dvhpo<; fjurjhev dpyov et? (^iXlav ^aaiXiKyv 
ouaav, ov jjlovov ^ A.'^aioiv, dXXa Kal ^laKeSovcov 
rcov avv avrw nrdvrwv jidXicrra ^ ')(^p<j)fievo<^ 

4 €K€iP(i) SiereXer fcal to aijfLelov aTre^aivev co? o 
d€o<i iirl Tcop lepojv eheu^e. Xeyerat, <ydp ov irpo 
TToXXov dvovri rw 'Aparo) 8vo '^oXa<i ev yTran 
(f)apr)vaL fiid Tri/jieXfj Trepie^o/jLepaf;' Kai top 
jxdpTLP elirelp o)? Ta%L' Trpo? ra e^Oiara Kal 
TToXefiictiTaTa avpeiaiu ei? aKpap (fytXiap. Tore 
/jL6p ovp 7rapy']PeyK€ to prjdep, ovSe dXXco^i iroXv 
pificop TTtcrTeo)? Upol*; Kal pLapTev/jiaaip, dXXa toG 

5 Xoyiafiu) ')^pd)/x€P0<;. iirel Se vaTepop ev ^copovp- 
TL T(p 7roXe/jL(p cTVPayaycop o ApTLyopo<i eaTiacrip 
ip J^opipdo) Kal TToXXov^ V7roSe^6/jL€Po<; top' Apa- 
TOP indpco KaTCKXcpep eavTov, Kal fxeTa /iiKpop 
aiTr^aaq Trepi^oXaiop ypcoTTjaep el BoKel KaKeipw 
■\lrv)(0's eJpai, tov he Kal irdpv piyovp <p7]aapT0'i, 
eKeXevae Trpocr^^copelp eyyvTepco Kal SaTTiSo? ko/jli,- 
aOeiari<^ d/xcfyoTepov^ ojjlov Trepce^aXop ol TratSe?, 
Tore Br) top "ApaTOP dpa/xprjaOePTa tcuj' lepojp 
€KeLPCop yeX(i)<i eXa^e, Kal hirjyelTO tw ^aacXel 
TO arjfielop Kal ttjp irpoayopevaip. dXXd TavTa 
fiep eTrpd^Oi) -ypopoi^ vaTepop. 

XLIV. ^Ep 66 Tal^ Ilr]yal<; S6pTe<; Kal Xa/^oz^re? 
6pKov<; €vOv<; e^dSi^op eirl Tov<i iroXe^iov^. Kal 
Trepl Tr]p tvoXlp dy(i)pe<; rjcrap, ev irecfypayiiepov 

* iravTOiiv ixaKiara Coratis and Ziegler, after Reiske : trdura. 



loo 



ARATUS xLiii. 3-XLIV. I 

takings, but also more acceptable than anyone else 
as a companion in the king's leisure hours. There- 
fore, although Antigonus was young, as soon as he 
perceived that Aratus was naturally well fitted to be a 
king's friend, he continually treated him with greater 
intimacy than anyone else, whether of the Achaeans, 
or of the Macedonians in his following ; and thus the 
omen proved true which the god had given to Aratus 
in his sacrificial victims. For it is related that as he 
was sacrificing a little while before this, a liver was 
found which had two gall-bladders enclosed in a 
single coil of fat; whereupon the seer had declared 
that Aratus would soon enter into close friendship 
with what he most hated and fought against. At the 
time, then,- Aratus paid no heed to the utterance, 
since in general he put little faith in victims and 
divinations, and trusted rather to his reasoning 
powers. Later, however, when the war was going 
on well, Antigonus gave a feast in Corinth, at which 
he had many guests, and made Aratus recline just 
above himself After a little while the king called 
for a coverlet, and asked Aratus if he too did not 
think it cold ; and when Aratus replied that he was 
very chilly, the king ordered him to come nearer; so 
that the rug which the servants brought was thrown 
over both of them together. Then, indeed, Aratus 
called to mind his sacrificial victims and burst out 
laughing, and told the king about the omen and the 
seer's prediction. But this took place at a later 
time. 

XLIV. At Pegae Antigonus and Aratus exchanged 
oaths of fidelity, and straightway marched against 
the enemy at Corinth. And there were conflicts 
about the city, Cleomenes being well fortified, and 

loi 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rov KXeofievov^ koI tcov KopivOlcov a/xwofievayv 
'7rpoOv/jLco<i. iv TOVTw Be ^ApiaToreXr/f; 6 ^Apy€io<i 
^tXo? o)v Apdrov BiairifiTrerai Kpv(f)a tt/oo? 
avrov, 009 aTrorrrrjcrcov rrjv ttoXlv, el aTpaTLa)Ta<; 

2 €K€Lvo<; e^ft)!^ eXOoL. rov Be ^Apdrov (f)pd(7avT0<; 
Tft) ^ AvTiyovw fcal fiera ')(^L\iwv xal irevTaKoaicov 
el's ^RiTiSavpov e^ ^\a6fiov 7t\oiol<; KOfii^ofxevov 
Kara Td')(o<;, ol fiev ^Apyeloi Trpoe^avaaravref; 
eireOevTo rol<^ rov K\€o/xevov<; xal KareKXeiaav 

eh rr)v aKpoiroXiv, 6 Be KXeo /jl€V7)<; rrvdo/juevo'; 1048 
ravra, Kal Vetera? fjurj Kara(T')(pvre<i ol iroXepnoi 
ro ^ Apyo^ uTTOfco'^axTiv avrov rrj<; OLKaBe acorr)- 
pla<;, eKXiTTOiv rov ^ AKpoKoptvOov en vvxro's e^orf- 

3 del. Kal irapeXOcbv fxev eh "Apyo? • e(f)Or} kuI 
rpoirrjv riva rcov iroXefiioov eTroirja-ev, 6Xiy(p Be 
varepov ^Apdrov 7rpoa(f)€pop.evov Kal rov jSacri- 
Xea)<; eiTL^aivofxevov p.erd t^9 Bvvdpiew^ drr- 
€')(^ct)pTjaev eh ^lavriveiav, ck rovrov roh /xev 
^ A')(^aioh irdXiv at rroXet^ aTracrai Trpotre^cop?;- 
aav, "" Avriyovo<; Be rov ^ AKpoKopivOov TrapeXa^ev, 
'Aparo<s Be arparTjyo^ aipedeh vtt' ^Apyeccov 
eTreicrev avrov^ ^ Avnyovto rd re reov rvpdvvwv 
Kal rd rwv rrpoBoroiv ')(^pi]fiara Bwpedv Bovvai. 

4 rov Be ^ Apidrofia^ov iv ^ey')(^peah arpe^Xooaavre^; 
Kareirovriaav, e<^' o5 Kal pudXiara KaKta^i rjKovaev 
6 "Aparo?, CO? dvOpwiTOv ov rrovrjpov, dXXd Kal 
K€')(pr] fievov eKelvw Kal ireTreLapLevov d^elvac rrjv 
apynrjv fcai rrpoaayayeiv rah A')(ai,oh rrjv ttoXiv, 
op.cD<; TrepuBcov rrapavopbw^ drroXXvpLevov. 

XLV. HBrj Be Kal ro)V dXXayv eKelvw rd<; 
alrla^ eire^epov, olov on rrjv fMCv l^optvdlwv ttoXlv 



I03 



J 



ARATUS xLiv. i-xLv. i 

the Corinthians defending themselves with ardour. 
Meanwhile, however, Aristotle the Argive, who was 
a friend of Aratus. sent secretly to him and promised 
to brincr his citv to revolt from Cleomenes if Aratus 
would come thither with soldiers. So Aratus, after 
informing Antigonus, took fifteen hundred men and 
sailed from the Isthmus to Epidaurus with all speed. ^ 
But the Argives, revolting prematurely, attacked the 
garrison of Cleomenes and shut them up in the 
citadel, and Cleomenes, learning of this, and fearing 
that if his enemies got possession of Argos they 
would cut him off from a safe return home, abandoned 
Acrocorinthus while it was still night and went to 
their aid. He succeeded in getting into Argos first, 
routing some of the enemy on the way ; but shortly 
afterwards Aratus came up, and Antigonus showed 
himself with his forces, and Cleomenes therefore 
retreated to Mantineia. Upon this the cities all 
came over to the Achaeans again, Acrocorinthus was 
handed over to Antigonus, and Aratus, having been 
chosen general by the Argives, persuaded them to 
make a present to Antigonus of the property of the 
tyrants and of the traitors. As for Aristomachus, 
he was tortured at Cenchreae and then thrown into 
the sea ; for which deed, more than any other, Aratus 
was reproached, on the ground that he had allowed 
a man to be lawlessly put to death who was not 
wicked, but iiad cooperated with him, and at his 
persuasion had renounced his power and attached 
his city to the Achaean League. ^ 

XLV. Presently, too, men began to blame Aratus 
for whatever else was done, as, for instance, that the 

* Cf. the Cleomenes, xx. 3 f. 

• Cf. chap. XXXV. 

103 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

* Avrfyovcti Scopeav ehcoKav, wavep km/jltjv rrjv rv- 
y^ovaav, rov ^Op^ojievov he avve')((joprfaav avrm 
Siapirdcravri (ppovpav i/jLJSaXelv ^aKcSoviK'^v, 
iyl/r)(f)L<Tavro Se dWo) fit) ypd^eiv ^aaiXel fiTjSe 
rrpeafSevetv tt/jo? dWov dK0VT0<; 'Avriyovov, 

2 rpecj^av re koX fiiaOohoTelv r/vayKa^ovro rov; 
Ma^eSoi^o.?, Ovaia^i he kuX iroixira'; koI dySiva^; 
WvTtyovfp crvveTeXow, dp^afievcov tmv Apdrov iro- 
XiTOJV Kol he^ap^evwv rfj irokei rov Avriyovov vtt 
^Apdrov ^€vi^6pevov, yricovro Trdvrcov ifcecvov, 
dyvoovvre^ on ra? r)VLa<; ifcelvo) TTapahehwKcoi; 
Ka\ rfj pvpLTj tt}? ^aaiXLKr]<; €(f)€XK6/i€V0<s i^ovai,a<i 
ovhej>b<; rjv t) pLovrjf; <f)0)vr]<; en Kvpio'i, eTTia-^aXrj 

3 rrjv irappyjalav e')(^ovcr7]^. eireX ^avep(o<; ye ttoXXcl 
Tojv Trparro/xevcov eXuirei rov "Aparov, wairep to 
rrepl roiv eiKovcov 6 yap ^Avruyovo'^ rd<; fiev r5)v 
€v 'Apyet rupdvvcov Kara^e,8X7]pLeva<; dvearrjcre, 
Td<; he tmv eXovroyv rov *AKpoic6pLv6ov earoDcras; 
dverpe'^e irXyjv pud's rrj'; e/ceivov koI woXXa irepX 

4 rovrwv 5e>/^ei9 6 'Aparo<; ovk eireiaev. iho/cei he 
Kal rd irepl ^lavriveiav ov)(^ 'EXXrjvcKQ)<i hiq)Krj- 
aOai roL<; 'A;^aiOt9. Kparrjaavre^; yap avrcov hi' 
^Avriyovov rov<i /xev evho^ordrov^ fcal irpcorov; 
aTTeKreLvav, rcov S' dXXwv rov<; fiev dirihovro, 
Tou? 5' et? ^iaKehoviav drreareiXav ev 7rehaL<!^ 
hehe/jL€vov^, rralha's he kol yvvatKa<; rjvhparrohi- 
cravTO, rov he GVva-^6evro<; dpyvpiov ro rpirov 
avrol hielXovro, ra? he hvo pLoipa^ eveipbav roL<i 

^ iu ire^ais Sint.', followed by Ziegler : iriZais. 
104 



ARATUS xLv. 1-4 

Achaeans made a present to Antigonus of the city 
of Corinthj as if it had been an ordinary village ; 
that they allowed the king to plunder Orchomenus 
and put a Macedonian garrison in it ; that tliey 
decreed not to write or send an embassy to any other 
king against the wishes of Antigonus; that they 
were forced to furnish supplies and pay for the 
Macedonian troops ; and that they celebrated sacri- 
fices^ processions, and games in honour of Antigonus. 
the fellow-citizens of Aratus leading the way and 
receiving Antigonus into their city, where he was the 
guest of Aratus. For all these things men blamed 
Aratus, not knowing that, since he had entrusted the 
reins to the king and was dragged along in the wake 
of the king s power, he was no longer master of 
anything except his tongue, which it was dangerous 
for hi in to use with freedom. At any rate Aratus 
was plainly annoyed at many acts of the king, and 
especially at his treatment of the statues in Argos ; 
for those of the tyrants, which had been cast down, 
Antigonus set up again, while those of the captors 
of Acrocorinthus, which were standing, he threw 
down, that of Aratus only excepted ; and though 
Aratus made many appeals to him in the matter, he 
could not persuade him. It was thought also that the 
treatment of Mantineia by the Achaeans was not 
in accord with the Greek spirit. For after mastering 
that city with the aid of Antigonus, they put to 
death the leading and most noted citizens, and of 
the rest, some they sold into slavery, while others 
they sent off into Macedonia in chains, and made 
slaves of their wives and children, dividing a third 
of the money thus raised among themselves, and 
giving the remaining two-thirds to the Macedonians. 

105 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 Ma/ce86(TL, Kal ravra fjuev €<r^6 rov t% afjLvvrj<; 
vofiov Kal yap el heivov avhpa<; ofjbocfivXov^ Kal 
avyy€V€L<; ovrco /jLera^^eipicraa-OaL ^i' 6py7]v, dW^ 
€V dvdyKai^ yXv/cv yiverai Kal (JKXrjpov,^ Kara 
^Lfiwvihrjv, Mairep dXyovvTi rw dufiM Kal (f)Xey- 
fiaivovTL OepaTTclav Kal dvairXi^pwcTLv 7rpo(T(f>€- 
p6vTQ)v. rd Se /juerd ravra irpayOkvra irepl rrjv 
TToXiv OUT et<? KaXrjv ovr el<i dvayKaiav earl 

6 Oeadai rw 'Aparw irpo^aatv. rcov yap 'A^atwy 
TT]v ttoXlv irap \vTiyovov Scopedv XaQovrcov Kal 
KaroiKi^eiv iyvayKorcov avTO<; olKiarr}^ aip€0€l<; 
Kal (7TpaT7jyo<i wv i-^rj^^iaaro /j,r)KeTL KaXelv 
yiavTLveiav, dXX^ ^Avriyoveiav, o Kal fi^xpi vvv 
KaXelrai. Kal Sokel Si* eKelvov rj fiev ipareivT} 
^avTLveia iravrdiraaLV i^aXrjXicfyOai, Biafievec Be 
Y) TToXif; €7ra)vv/j,o<; row diroXecrdvTwv Kal dveXov- 

XIjVL Ek rovTov KX€0/JLevr)<; puev rjTTijOelf; 
fidxjj p.eydXrj irepl XeXXaaiav e^eXtire rrjv 
^TrdpTTjv Kal aTTeirXevaev et? Atyvrrrov, Avri- 
yovo<; Se iravra rd SiKaia Kal (piXdvO pcorra rtp 
Apdro) TreirotrjKcof; di'e^ev^ev et9 ^laKeBovlav, 1049 
KuKec voaoyv rjhrj rov hidho')(ov t?}? ^aatXeia^ 
^lXittttov, ovttw irdvv fxeipaKtov ovra, irefXTroiv 
€L<; YleXoTTovvrjaov ^ Apdrco fxdXiaTa irpocrkyeLV 
eKeXevae Kal St^ eKeivov rat? iroXeaiv evTV)(^6lv 
2 Kal yvwpiaOrjvaL TOi? Ayaiol^. Kal fxivToi Kal 

^ ho). (TK\r]p6v with Bergk {Poet. Lyr. Gr. iii.* p. 530): Koi 
oh <TKK-r)p6v. 

^ The repeated treaclieiies of the Mantineians towards the 
Achaeans are related at length in Polybius, ii. 57 f. 
* Homer, lliady ii. 607. 

io6 



ARATUS xLv. 4-XLV1. 2 

It is true that this came under the law of reprisal ; ^ 
for though it is a terrible thing to treat men of the 
same race and blood in this way, out of anger, still 
" in dire stress even cruelty is sweet/' as Simonides 
says, when men, as it were, give satisfaction and heal- 
ing care to a mind that is in anguish and inflamed. 
But the subsequent treatment of the city by Aratus 
was neither necessary nor honourable, and cannot 
be excused. For after the Achaeans had received 
the city from Antigonus as a present and had decided 
to colonize it, Aratus himself was chosen to be the 
founder of the new settlement, and being then 
general, got a decree passed that the city should no 
longer be called Mantineia, but Antigoneia, and this 
is its name down to the present time. And so it was 
due to Aratus that the name of " lovely Mantineia " ^ 
was altogether extinguished, and the city continues 
to bear the name of him who destroyed and slew its 
former citizens.^ 

XLV^I. After this, Cleomenes, having been de- 
feated in a great battle at Sellasia,* forsook Sparta 
and sailed off to Egypt, and Antigonus, after having 
accorded to Aratus fair and kindly treatment in every 
way, led his army back to Macedonia. There, being 
now a sick man, he sent Philip, his successor in the 
kingdom, wlio was still a stripling, into the Pelopon- 
nesus, and urged him to attach himself to Aratus 
above all others, and through him to deal with the 
cities and make the acquaintance of the Achaeans. 

' The old name of the city was restored by the Emperor 
Hi\drian. Pausanias, viji. 8. 12. 

* In 221 B.C., of. the Cleomenes, xxTiii. flF. 

107 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

■napaka^oiv avrov 6 "A/jaro? oi/ro)? BieOrjKev ware 
ttoXX-t}? fiev €vvoia<^ 7rpo<; avrov, 7roWrj<; Se TTyoo? 
Ta9 FjWrjviKa^; irpd^eL<; ^iXoTLfiia^ Kal opfirj'^ 
fxecFTOv 669 ^laKeZoviav aTToarelXai. 

XLVIL T€\€VT7]aavT0<; Be ^Avriyopov Kara- 
<f)poP't]aavr€<; AlrcoXol rwv ^ A^aiSiv Sia rrjv padv- 
fxiav (^edidOevTe^; 'yap aXXorpiaL<; aw^eadai ^epcrl 
Kai TO?? ^laKehovwv oirXoL^i aurov^; vrrearaXK ore's 
iv apyia TToW-p xal dra^la SLrjyov) eireOevro 
rot(; Kara UeXoTrovpijaov irpdypaar Kal rrjp fiev 
Harpecov Kal Av/jLaLcov Xerfkaaiav oBov rrdpepyov 
eirotrjcTavro, rT)V Be Mecrai'jvyv efji^aXovre^ eirop- 

2 Oovv. ecf)' 069 o "A/oaro? dyavaKrayv Kal rov 
crrparrjyovvra rore rcbv ^A')(^ac(ov Vijio^evov 6po)v 
OKvovvra Kal Biarpl/Sovra rov \p6i'OV, ijBrj rrj<i 
arpar7]yia<i avrw reX€vr(t)ar]<^, «uto9 T^prffxevo^ 
dp')(€Lv pier eKelvov rrpoeXa^ev 7)p,epaL<; irevre rr)V 
ap-^r)v eveKa rov ^orjdrjaai l^''iecra7]VL0L<;. Kal 
(Tvvayaycov rov<s ^ A')(aiov<s roU re aco/juaaLV dyv- 
pLvdcrrov<i 6vra<; Kal ral^ Biavolai^; eKX€Xvp,€vov<; 

3 7rp6<; rov iroXep^ov r]rrdrat rrepl Ka(j)va<;' Kal 
OvpiKoorepov earparrjyrjKevai B6^a<; ovr(o<; av 
iraXiv a7rr]/ji,/3XvvOi] Kal 7rpoijf(aTO rd irpdypbara 
Kai ra^ eXiTiBa<s^ (oare 7roX>>dKi<; XajS'ip' rov<; 
Air(oXov<; iTapaa')(^6vra<; dve')(€odat Kal irepiopav 
oidrrep Kcopid^ovra^ ev rrj JleXoTrnvinjao) p,erd 

4 7ro\.X^9 daeXyeia^ Kal dpaavrrjro^. av6i<; ovv 
ra<; ■^(elpa^ opeyovre^ eh MaKeBovlav eirecnrayvro 
Kai Karrjyov eirt rd<^ 'EjXXr]viKd<; 7rpd^€i<; rov 
^^lXlttttov, ov)^ i]KL(jra Bid rrjv 7rpb<i rov ^Aparou 

^ In 221 B.C. See the Cleomeries, xxx. 
•^ In 220 B.C. See the Cleomcnes, xxxiv. 1. 
lo8 



ARATUS xLvi. 2-xLvii. 4 

And indeed Aratus did take the prince in hand, and 
managed matters so us to send him back to Mace- 
donia full of great goodwill towards his patron and 
of ardour and ambition for the conduct of Hellenic 
affairs. 

XLVI I. But upon the death of Antigonus ^ the 
AetolianSj despising the Achaeans on account of their 
slothful ways (for now that they were accustomed 
to save themselves by other men's prowess and had 
taken shelter behind the Macedonian arms, they 
were living in great inactivity and lack of discipline), 
proceeded to interfere in the affairs of Pelopon- 
nesus ; - and after plundering the territories of 
Patrae and Dyme on their way, they invaded 
Messenia and ravaged it. At this Aratus was 
incensed, and seeing that Timoxenus, who at that 
time was general of the Achaeans, was hesitant and 
dilatory, since his term of office was just about to 
expire, he himself, having been chosen to succeed 
Timoxenus, anticipated his term of office by five 
days for the sake of giving aid to the Messenians. 
And having assembled the Achaeans, who were 
physically and mentally unfit for war, he met with 
defeat at Caphyae. Then, being thought to have 
conducted the campaign with too much ardour, his 
purposes were once more blunted and he gave up 
the cause and his hopes for lost, so that oftentimes, 
when the Aetolians gave him an advantage, he 
neglected it, and suffered them to revel, as it were, 
in Peloponnesus, with great boldness and wanton- 
ness. Once more, therelbre, the Achaeans stretched 
out their hands imploringly to Macedonia, and 
brought Philip down to take part in Hellenic affairs, 
above all things because his goodwill towards Aratus 

109 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

evvoiav avrov koI Tnariv iXTrl^ovre^ euK6X(p irepl 
TTCLvra ')(^priaea6aL Koi ')(^ipo)j6eL 

XLVIII. Kal T0T6 TTpMTov ' AttgWov koX Meya- 
\eov Kai rtveov avXtKcov dWcou BLa^aWovrcov 
TOP "Aparov avaTTEKjOei^ 6 (Saaikev'i, Kal avv- 
ap)(aipeaid(Ta<; TOL<i diro tt}? erai'TLa<^ ardaews, 
iaiTovhaae T01/9 ^A^(^aLov<; eXeadac arparrjyov 

2 ^EiTnjparou. &)<? 3' eKeuvov fxev Karacjypovov fxevov 
TeXeoj? vTTo tmv ' A')(aio)v, rov Se ^Apdrov irap- 
apLe\o\JVTO<=; iylveTo tcov '^prjalficov ovSev, eyvcd 
hiapapTuvaiV rov iravTO'^ 6 ^lXlittto'^, kol dva- 
Kpovad/jL6vo^ av0i<; iirl rov "Aparov 6\o(; r/p i/ceivov, 
/cat T(OP TTpayfidrcov avTM rrpo^ re SvvafjLiv /cat 
Trpo? ev^^o^lav eTTiSiSovrcov e^rjprrjTO rov ai/Spo9, 

3 (09 Sl^ ifceliov evZoKi^Siv koX av^6/A,€vo<;. iBoKCt. 
T6 irdaiV 6 "Aparo<; ov [lovov hrjp^oK par La's, dXka 
Kal ^aaiXela^i dyaOo^i elvai iracSayoyyo^' rj yap 
Trpoaipeacf; avrov Kal to r}0o<^ a}<i ')(^pa)/j,a Ta2<; 
irpd^ecTL Tov ^aaiXeco^ i7re(f)aLV€T0. Kal yap r) 
7Tpo<; AaKehaifJioviov^ dfiaprovra^ /j,6rpL0T7)<; rov 
veavLcTKOv Kal tj Trpo'i Kprjra^i ofiiXLa, Sl* >^9 oXrjv 
Trpoaijydyero rrjv vrjaov r)fiepai<; oXLyaL<i, tj re 
TTyoo? Air(oXov<; arpareta yevo/xiur} Oavfiaaray^; 
evepyo<s evr,ei6eia<; fxev rrp ^lXlttttcp Bo^av, ev^ov- 

4 Xia<i Be rfp ^Apdro) rrpoaerlOeL. Kal Bia ravra 
fxaXXov ol ^ao-iXiKol cf)Oopovvre<;, co? ovBev errepat- 
vov Kpv(f>a Bta^dXXovre^, dva(f)avBov eXoiBopovvro 
Kal irpoaeKpovov avrip irapa rou<; ttotou? fxera 

I (;f. Polybius, V. 30. 
no 



ARATUS XLVii. 4-XLV111. 4 

and his confidence in him led them to liope that 
they would find him easy-tempered in all things and 
manageable. 

XLVIII, And now for the first time Apelles, 
Megaleas, and sundry other courtiers made false 
charges against Aratus to which the king listened, 
and joining in the canvass made by those of the 
opposite faction, he favoured the election of Epera- 
tus as general of the Achaeans. But Eperatus 
was altogether despised by the Achaeans,^ and 
as long as Aratus gave little heed to public matters 
nothing went well. Philip therefore perceived that 
he had been entirely wrong. So he reversed his 
course, went back to Aratus, and was wholly his ; 
and since the progress of events now brought 
him increased j)Ower and reputation, he depended 
altogether upon Aratus, convinced that his repute 
and strength were due to him. And all the world 
thought that Aratus was a good guardian and tutor 
for a kingdom no less than for a democracy ; for 
his principles and character were manifest, like 
colour in a fabric, in the actions of the king. For 
instance, the moderation of the young prince in 
dealing with the offending Lacedaemonians, his 
engaging behaviour towards the Cretans, by means 
of which he won the whole island to obedience in 
a few days, and the astonishingly vigorous conduct 
of his campaign against the Aetolians, all added 
to the reputation of Piiilip for taking good advice, 
and to that of Aratus for giving it. For this 
reason, too, the royal courtiers were all the more 
envious of him, and since they could accomplish 
nothing by their secret calumnies, they took to 
abusing and insulting him openly at their banquets, 

III 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToW^'}? dae\y€ia<; koX ^(d fjLo\o'x^ia<i' arra^ he fcal 

TO Sglttvop Kazehico^av, e^* ol? o ^Lki-mro^ 
opyiaOei'^ euOu^ /lev avTov<; f^^ti/iicDcrep ccKoaL 
TaXdvTOi's, varepov he XvfialveaOat, rd Trpdyfiara 
fcal rapdrreiv hoKOvvraf; direKTeivev. 

ALIA. h,TT€i 0€ T//9 TV)(r]<i €upoovar)<; eiratpo- 
pLevo^ Totf TrpdypLacri TroWd^ piev dvecpve fcal 
pL€yd\a<; eVi^u/xta?, rj h €pL(f)VTo<; KaKia, rov irapd 1050 
<f)vai,v a')(iipLaTLapu)v eK^ia^op,ev7} Kal dvahvovaa, 
Kara puKpov direyvpLvov xal hte4>aivev avrov to 
ydo<;, irpMTov piev Ihia top vediTcpov ^KpaTov 
7]hiK€i irepX rrjv yvvacKa Kal iroXvv y^pbvov e\dv- 
Bavev e(^e(TTLo^ wv koI ^eviiopievo's vtt* avTcov 
tTrecTa tt/oo? Td<i ^KW^pcKaf €^€Tpa)(vveTO 7ro\t- 
reta? fcal ^av€po<^ rjv rjhrj top ^ ApaTOP diro- 

2 aeiopLevo^. dp^ijp he v'7ro'\lria<; Td M.€cra7)PiaKd 
irapea^e. aTaataadpTcop ydp auTCOP 6 pL€P*'ApaT0<i 
voTepei ^ovjOodP, 6 he ^i\L7r'Tro<i r)p,€pa pna irpo- 
repop €\Ou>p eh ttjp ttoXlp €vOu<^ olaTpop Tiva 
KaT dWyXcop cve^aXe roi? dpOpMiroi^, Ihia piev 
epcDTOJp T0v<i aTpaTr]yov<; tmp ^lecrcrrjviaip el Pupov<^ 
KaTd Tcop iroXkayp ovk e\ov(JiP, Ihia he irdXip 
Toi)? T(i)P iroXXdyv irpoeaTWTa^s el ')(elpa'^ KaTd 

3 TWl/ TVpaVPOVPTCDP OVK €')(OVaiP. €K he TOVTOV 

Oapp/jaavTe^ ol pev dp)(0VTe^ iireXap^dpoPTO tcov 
C;t)payct)ycov, eKelvot, he perd tCjv ttoXXcov eireX- 

112 



ARATUS xLviii. 4-xMx. 3 

with great wantonness and scurrility ; and once 
they actually pursued and threw stones at him as he 
was going to his tent after supper. At this Philip 
was enraged, and for the nonce fined them twenty 
talents ; afterwards, howev^er, regarding them as a 
noxious and confusing element in his affairs, he put 
them to death. 1 

XLIX. But soon, as the king's fortune flowed 
smoothly on, he was hfted up by his success, and 
developed many inordinate desires ; his inherent 
badness, too, forcing aside the unnatural restraints 
of his assumed deportment and making its way to 
the light, little by little laid bare and revealed his 
true character. In the first place he inflicted a 
private wrong upon the younger Aratus by corrupt- 
ing his wife, and was for a long time undetected, 
since he was a housemate and a guest of the family ; 
in the second place, he began to show hostility 
towards the civil polities of the Greeks, and it was 
presently clear that he was trying to shake oft' 
Aratus. First grounds of suspicion were afforded by 
his conduct at Messene. For there was factional 
strife in the city, and Aratus was tardy in coming to 
its aid, and Philip, who got to the city a day before 
Aratus, at once goaded on the two parties against 
one another. In private he asked the generals of 
the Messenians if they had not laws to enforce 
against the common people, and again in private he 
asked the leaders of the common people if they had 
not hands to lift against the tyrants. Upon this 
the officials plucked up courage and tried to lay 
hands upon the leaders of the people, and they, 
coming to the attack at the head of their followers, 

» Cf. Polybiu8, V. 15 f. 

113 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

06vT€<; TOv<; T€ apxovTa<i aireicTeivav koI tS)v 
aWcov 6\i<yov niroXeiiTovTa^ hiaKoaiwv. 

L. Oi^TCt) he heivov epyov i^ecpyacr/jbevov rov 
^iXIttttov, Kol crvyKpovovTO^ ere p^aWov eavrol'i 
Tov<s ^€(TarjvLOv<;, eireXOoiv o ' Aparo^ avTo<i re 
877X09 rjp (fyepcov ^apeco^; koX rov vlov eiTLTip.oyvra 

TTLKpO)^ Tft) ^iKiTTTTW fCal XoihopOVfieVOV OVK eKcii- 

\vaev. iBofcei Se veaviaKO<; epav rov ^iXlttttov 
fcal Tore \iycov elrre irpo^ avrov co? ovhe Kokof; 
en (^aivoLTO rrjv oyjrip avrw roiavra Spdcraf;, 

2 dWa irdvToav aia^iaro^. 6 Se ^lXitttto^ eKeivw 
fiev ovSev avrelire, KaiTrep e7riho^o<^ wv, vtt 6pyrj<^ 
KoX 7roXXdKi<; e^uXaKrijaaf; \€yovTO<; avrov, rov 
he Trpecr/Bvrepov, a)<; evr)vo')(^cjo<; irpdo)'; rd Xeyjdevra 
fcal Tt9 cof /jL€rpL0<; Koi iroXinKo^ rrjv (f>vai,v, dv- 
e<j-^i)oev eK rov Oedrpov rrjV Be^idv i/ji^dXcov, kul 
TTpoarjyev eh rov ^Wwpdrav rw re Au Ovacov koI 

3 6eo)p^(T(ov rov roirov. eart yap 01)^ r^rrov evepKrj^; 
rov ^AKpofcopLvOov, Kal Xa^cov (f)povpdv yiverat, 
^aXeiro'^ Kal hvaeK^iaaro^ rol<; rrapoiKOvcnv. 
dva^d<; he xal 6vcra<i, &)9 irpoarjveyKev avrw ra 
airXdy-yva rov ^00^ o pidvri^, d/x<f)orepai<; rah 
')(^epa\v v7roXa/3ci)V eSeLKvve rw re 'Apdr(o Kat, toJ 
^api(p Ar)fj,r]rplo), irapd fiepo^ dTTOKXivwv eh exa- 
repov Kal Trvvdavofievo^ ri KaOopcoacv ev roh 
Ufjoh, Kparovvra T779 dKpa<; avrov rj roh MecrcrT;- 

4 viot,<i dirohiBovra. yeXdaa^ ovv 6 Ai]p7]rpio<i, ** Et 
fiev,^' €<j}r], *' pdvrew^ 6%6f9 "^vxv^f d(t)^o^eL<; rov 
rorrov el he ^aatXeco^, dp,(f)or€p(Ov rwv Kepdrcov 
rov ^ovv Ka9e^ei<sy^ alvtrro/jL€vo<; rrjv UeXoTTOV- 

* A precinct of Zeus, on the summit of Mt. Ithorae. Cf. 
Pausanias, iv. 3. 9. 

114 



ARATUS xLix. 3-L. 4 

slew the officials and nearly two hundred citizens 
besides. 

L. After this outrageous deed of Philip's, and 
while he was striving more than ever to set the 
Messenians by the ears, Aratus reached the city. 
He showed clearly that he was indignant himself, and 
would not check his son when he bitterly reproached 
and reviled Philip. Now, it would seem that the 
young man was a lover of Philip; and so at this 
time he told Philip, among other things, that he 
no longer thought him fair to look upon, after so 
foul a deed, but the most repulsive of men. Philip 
made no answer to him, although it was expected 
that he would, since in his anger he had many times 
cried out savagely while the young man was speaking, 
but as though he meekly submitted to what had 
been said and was a person of moderation and not 
above the ordinary citizen, he gave the elder Aratus 
his hand, led him forth from the theatre, and brought 
him to the Ithomatas,^ in order to sacrifice to Zeus 
and take a view of the place. For it is quite as well 
walled in as Acrocorinthus, and with a garrison in it 
is difficult of access and a hard place for its neigh- 
bours to take by force. Thither Philip went up, and 
offered sacrifice, and when the seer brought him the 
entrails of the ox, he took them in both hands and 
showed them to Aratus and Demetrius of Pharos, 
leaning towards each one in turn and asking them 
what indications they saw in the omens ; was he 
to be master of the citadel, or to give it back to the 
Messenians ? Demetrius, with a laugh, replied : " If 
thou hast the spirit of a seer, thou wilt give up the 
place ; but if that of a king, thou wilt hold the ox by 
both its horns," speaking darkly of Peloponnesus, 

'IS 



PLUTARCH S LIVES 

vrjaov, ft)?, el TrpoaXdfioirov *Wco/jLdrav rw ^Axpo- 
KopivOw, TravTaTraatP iao/xeprjv viro^eipiou kuI 

5 TaireLPJjv. 6 Se "A/oaro? eVl ttoXv fiev T)(rvxci-^€, 
oeofxevov he rov ^iXlTnTov to (^aivofxevov \eyeLV, 
" HoXXa fievT elirev, ** w ^iKLinrey K.pr)T(ov opr) 
Kai fieydXa, TroXXal Be ^olcotcou dfcpaL /cat 
^coKerov eKTTe(f>vKaai 7% y*}?' elal Si ttov ttoXXoI 
Kai T7]<; AKapvdvwv tovto fiev ^(^epaaloi, rovro 
h evaXoL ToiTOL Oavfiaard'^ 6')(yp6Tr)Ta<; e^oire?* 
aXV ovheva tovtcov KaT€LXr}(f)a<;, koI Trdvre^ 

6 e/cov(TL(o<i (JOL TTOLovcn TO TrpoaTaaaofiepov. XrjaTal 
yap ificpvovTai 7reTpat<; koX Kpi^p,vo)v TrepLe^ovTai, 
SaatXel 8e iriaTew'^ koI ^dpiTO<i la-^vpoTepov 
ovSev ovBe 6-)(^up(i)Tepov. TavTa act, to K.prfTtKov 
dvoiyei TreXayo^;, TavTa ttjv TieXoTrovvrjcrov. dirb 
TOVTwv opfjL(»)fiepo<; av TOaovTO<^ rjXLKiav to)v /juev 
r)ye/ji(i)v, tS}v Be Kvpio^ ijBr) KaOecrTrjKa'^r eTi 
XeyovTO^; avTov tcl /lev cirXdy^^pa ro) /idvTet 
irapeBcoKep 6 ^iXnnTo^;, e/celvov Be r^? ')(eLpo<^ 
eiT KTiracF dfievo'^ , " Aevpo Tolvvvj'^ ^'f^V' " '^V^' ^i^t?)v 
oBov icofiev'^^ co<T7rep eK^efBiaanevo^ vir avTov Kal 
Trjv TToXiv a(f)r]pr}/j.euo<;. 

LL O Be " \paTO<i ciTToppeodv yBr) Trj<; avXrj'i xal 
KUTa /jLiKpop eavTov dpaK0/jLt,^6p.€P0<i €K tt}? tt/oo? 
TOP ^^lXittttop avpr)9ela^y BLa^aLP0PT0<; et? ^'Hnei- 1051 
pop avTov Kal Beopbipov avaTpuTeveiP, aTTeiTraTO 
Kal KaTepueipe, BeBiux; dpaTrXtjadrjpai Bo^rjf; iroprj- 
2 pd<; a(f) cjp eKelpo^ enpaTTep. eirel Be ra? re pav^ 
VTTo Pco/xaLMP diroXecraf; aiayicrTa kuI 6\a)<; diro- 
TV')(u>p Tal<i irpd^eatp eTraprjXOep et? YleXoTTOPPr)- 
aop, Kal Tou? Mea-aTjpiovi avOif; eTTL')(eLpriaa^ 
(l>€PaKL^eiP Kal fxr) XaOuiP rjBiKet, (^apepui^ Kal Trjp 

ii6 



ARATUS L. 4-Li. 2 

which, if Philip added the Ithomatas to Acrocorin- 
thiis, would be altogether subject and submissive to 
him. Aratus held his peace for a long time, but 
upon Philip's asking him to express his opinion, said : 
" There are many lofty hills in Crete, O Philip, and 
many towering citadels in Boeotia and Phocis ; in 
Acarnania, too, I suppose, as well inland as on its 
shores, there are many places which show an amazing 
strength ; but not one of these dost thou occupy, and 
yet all these peoples gladly do thy bidding. For it is 
robbers that cling to cliffs and crags, but for a king 
there is no stronger or more secure defence than 
trust and gratitude. These open up for thee the 
Cretan sea, these the Peloponnesus. Relying upon 
these, young as thou art, thou hast already made 
thyself leader here, and master there." While he 
was yet speaking, Philip handed the entrails to the 
seer, and drawing x\ratus to him by the hand, said : 
" Come hither, then, and let us take the same road," 
implying that he had been constrained by him and 
made to give up the city. 

LI. But Aratus presently began to withdraw from 
the court and little by little to retire from his 
intimacy with Philip. When the king was about 
to cross into Epeirus ^ and asked him to join the ex- 
pedition, he refused and remained at home, fearing 
that he would be covered with ignominy by the 
king's proceedings. Philip lost his fleet most shame- 
fully at the hands of the Romans, and after utter 
failure in his undertakings, came back into Pelopon- 
nesus. Here he tried once more to hoodwink the 
Messenians, and after being detected in this, wronged 

^ In 215 B c. Philip had made an alliance with the 
Carthaginians against the Romans. 

1^7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ycopav avToyv iiropOei, TravraTraaiv 6 'ApaTO<; 
aTr€(TTpd(^ri koI Stej^XTJOr) 7rpo<; aurov, tjStj kol 
rS)V Trepl ttjv yvvaifcoyvLTLv aSL/crj/mdrcop alcrOo- 
fi€vo<; /cat (pepcdp dviapo)<^ avTO<;, aTro/c/juTrro/uez^o? 
3 Be TOP vlov elheuai yap v^piapbevov Trepirjvy dWo 
Be ovBev, dfjLvvaaOai p.r) Svvafi€va>. fieyLarijv 
yap 6 ^iXtTTTTo? SoK€L Kal TrapaXoycordrrjv fiera- 
^aXeaOai /lera^oXyjv, ef rjfiepov ^aatXeca^ Kal 
fieipaKiov (roo(f)povo<; dvrjp dcreXyrj^ /col rvpavpo'^ 
e^coXr](; yevofxevo^;. to Be ovfc rjv dpa puera^oXii 
(l)UG€(i)<;, aXV eiTiBei^L'^ ev dteia KaKia^ ttoXvv 
Xpopov Bid ^o^ov dyvo7}0€L(T7}<;. 

LII. "Ore yap -qv jJLefJLiyfxevov ala')(^vvr) Kal <p6/3q) 
TO Trpo? TOP ' Aparop avrou TrdOo^; dir dp'^r\^ 
avpTeO pafjLfjbepop, eBr)\(oaep ol<; eirpa^e irepl aurop. 
€7nOv/jL(t)p yap dpeXeop top dpBpa Kal po/il^cop ovB^ 
dv iXevdepo^; eKeipov ^capTO<; elpai, /jlij tl ye Tvpap- 
vo<i Tj ffacn,X€v<;, Pla fiev ovBep eTrex^iprjae, Tav- 
pifopa Be T(ji)P aTpaTTjycov TiPa Kal (fiiXcov CKeXeuaep 
dBijXrp TpoTTcp TovTO TTpd^ai, /idXiaTa Bid (papfid- 

2 Kcop, avTOv firj 7rap6pTO<;. 6 Be 7roLr)crd/ji€PO<; top 
"ApaTOP (Tvv>']Ori (f)dp/j,aKOP avTW BoBcoaLP, ovfC 
o^u Kal acf)o^pop, dXXa t6)p Oep/j,a<i re fiaXaKd<; 

TO TTpOiTOP €P Tfp (TCOfiaTt Kal ^ijX^ KLPOVPTWP 

dfifiXelap, eiTa oi/rcej? KaTa puKpop et9 (f)Oopdp 
TrepaiPOPTOiP. ov /irjp eXaOe ye top ' ApaTOP' aW* 
ft)? ovBep rjp 6(j)€Xo(; iXey')(^0PTL, irpaw'^ Kal criwrry 
to Tcddo^, (jo<i B>] Ttpa poaop kolptjv Kal avprjOrj 

3 vocrcop, BirjVTXei. ttXtjp €p6<; ye twp avprjOwp ev 

ii8 



ARATUS LI. 2-Ln. 3 

them openly and ravaged their territory. Then 
Aratus was altogether estranged and filled with dis- 
trust of the king, being now aware also of the crime 
committed against his domestic life. At this he was 
sorely vexed himself, but kept it hidden from his son, 
who could only know that he had been shamefully 
abused, seeing that he was not able to avenge him- 
self. For Philip would seem to have undergone a very 
great and inexplicable change,^ in that from a gentle 
prince and chaste youth he became a lascivious man 
and a pernicious tyrant. In fact, however, this was 
not a change of nature, but a showing forth, in time 
of security, of a baseness which his fears had long 
led him to conceal. 

LII. For that the feelings which he had cherished 
from the beffinnincr towards Aratus had an admix- 
ture of shame and fear, was made plain by what he 
did to him at the last. For he desired to kill Aratus, 
and thought he could not be a free man while Aratus 
lived, much less a tyrant or a king. In a violent 
way, however, he made no attempt upon him, but 
ordered Taurion, one of his officers and friends, to do 
this in a secret way, preferably by poison, when the 
king was absent. So Taurion made an intimate 
companion of Aratus, and gave him poison, not of a 
sharp and violent sort, but one of those which first 
induce gentle heats in the body, and a dull cough, 
and then little by little bring on consumption. The 
thing was not hidden from Aratus, but since it was 
no use for him to convict the criminal, he calmly and 
silently drank his cup of suffering to the dregs, as if 
his sickness had been of a common and familiar 
type. However, when one of his intimate com- 
^ Cf. Polybius, vii. 1.?. 

119 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO) ScofiarLo) irapovro^ avaiTTVcra^ Siatfiov, 186vto<; 
€K€ivov Koi Oav/jLciaavTo<^, ** TaOra/' eiTreVy " co 
K.€(j)dXcov, e7ri)(^eLpa t^? /3a<7c\i,Krj<; ^L\ia<;!^ 

LIII. OvTO) 5e avTOv rekevrrjaavTo^s iv AlyUp 
TO eTTTaKaiSefcarov aTparrjyovvTO'i, Kal rcov 
A^ai(ov (piXoTCfiov/jLevcov i/cel yeveaOai Ta<^as 
fcal /jLVijfiaTa tt penrovra rw ^iw rou dvBpo^;, ^ckvco- 
VLOi av/ji<popdv iiTOLovvro fxrj irap avTOL<; reOrjvai 

2 TO (TMfia. fcal tol/? fiev 'Ap^a«ou9 eireiaav i(^ievai, 
vo/jlov 3e 6Vto9 dp^alov fjLTjSeva Odirreadai ret^MP 
€i^To<;, i(T^vpd<; re tm vojJiw S€i(Ti8ai/jiovla<s tt/ooct- 
ovarj<;, €7repiy\rav et? AeXc^ou? virep tovtwv epifao- 
fxevoi Trjv YlvOiav. y Be auTol^ dvaipel rov 
')(^priar fJLOV rovhe' 

^ovXevT], XiKvcov, ^codypiov alev ^ Apdrov, 
ap,j) oaurj da\irj re KaTOiy^opbevoio dvaKTO^ ; 
0)9 TO /3apvvofi6VOP TftiS' dvepi koX to ^apvvov 
yair)<; ear dae^rjfxa Kal ovpavov rjhe Oa\daarj<;. 

3 KOfjLiadeiai]<; he tPj<; pLavTeia<; oi re ^ Ayaiol avfi- 
iravTe^ yaOrjaav, fcal Sia(f)ep6i'Tco<; ol Xikvcovloo 
iieTa^a\6vTe<; eh (opTr)v to irevOo^ evOu<; €k tou 
Aiyiov Tov veKpov ecrTe^avwfjuevoi Kal Xev^eifJio- 
vovvTe^ viTO iraidvcDv Kal '-)(^op(hv eh Tr]v ttoXiv 
dvTjyoVy Kal tottov e^eXopbevoi Trepiomov oyairep 

4 OLKtcTrjv Kal awTtjpa Trj<; iroXew^ eKrjSevaav. Kal 
KaXecTat p.e')(pi vvu ^ ApdTeioVy Kal Ovovaip avTO) 

» In 213 B.C. 

I2G 



ARATUS Lii. 3-L111. 4 

panions who was with him in his chamber saw him 
spit blood, and ex})ressed surprise, '^ Such, my dear 
Cephalo," said Aratus, '* are the wages of royal 
friendship." 

LIII. And so he died/ at xVegium, while general 
tor the seventeenth time, and the Achaeans were 
very desirous that he should have burial there and 
memorials befitting his life. But the Sicyonians re- 
garded it as a calamity that he should not be buried 
in their city, and persuaded the Achaeans to sur- 
render his body to them. They had, however, an 
ancient law that no one should be buried inside the 
city walls, and the law was supported by strong feel- 
ings of superstition. So they sent to Delphi to get 
advice in the matter from the Pythian priestess, and 
she gave them the following oracular answer : — 

" Would'st thou, O Sicyon, pay Aratus lasting 

honour for the lives he saved, 
And join in pious funeral rites for thy departed 

lord ? 
Know that the place which vexes or is vexed by 

him 
Is sacrilegious, be it in earth or sky or sea." 

When the oracle was brought to them the Achaeans 
were all delighted, and the Sicyonians, in particular, 
changing their mourning into festival, at once put on 
garlands and white raiment and brought the body of 
Aratus from Aegium into their city, amid hymns of 
praise and choral dances ; and choosing out a com- 
manding place, they buried him there, calling him 
founder and saviour of the city. And the place is 
called to this day Arateium, and yearly sacrifices are 
made to Aratus there, one on the day when he 

vol, M. 1.- 121 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ovalav, TT)p fxeVy // Tr]v ttoXlv dir^Wa^e t?}? tl»- 
pavvlBo^ r}fJL€pa Tre/XTrr?; Aaccnov fjLTjvo^, ov ^AOrj- 
valoi KOkovaLv ^ AvOearrjpicova, teal ttjv dvaiav 
6K€Lvy]i^ ^(OTijpia Trpoaayopevovat, ttjv Be tov 
fjL7)vb<; iv r) tyeveaOat tov avBpa hiap^vrnjiovev overt, 
T^<? p,ev ovp TTpoTepa<i 6 tov Ai6<; tov XcoTrjpof; 1052 
KaTTjp-^eTO dvTjTToXof;, T^? Se SevTcpa^; o tov 
^ApaTOVf GTpo^Lov ov'^ oXoXevKov, aXXa /xecro- 
5 TTopcpvpov e)((i)v, piXj] Be rjBeTO irpo^ KcOdpav viro 
TWJ^ irepl TOV Aiovvaop Te^^viTCJV, kul crvveTrop,- 
irevev 6 yv/jLvaalapxo^ iiyovfji€vo<; tcov re TraiBcov 
fcal TOtiv e(f)r]/3(ov, eZra e(^eiiTeT0 i) ^ovXrj cTTCcpa- 
V7](f)opova-a /cal T(ov dXXcov ttoXltojv o ^ovX6p.€vo<i. 
oiv €Ti BelyfiaTa piKpa Tal^ r)pepai<; eKeivai^; 
e^oaiovfievoL Bia^vXarTovaLV ai Be rrXelaTac 

TMV Tt-fJL(OV VTTO ')(p6vOV KOI TT pay flCLT (OV oXXcOV 

eKXeXoLiraaLv. 

LIV. 'AXXa yap 6 fiev it pea fivTepo^ "ApaTO<i 
OVTO) ^Lcoaai /cat tolovto<^ yeveaOai ttjv (pvacv 
laTopetTar tov Be vlov avTOV p,iap6<i wv (jyvaei 
Kol fxeT ojp^oTrjTO'i v^pt(TTr)<; o ^lXittito^ ov Oava- 
aipoi,<i, dXXd fiaviKOL^ e^eaTt]<je tov Xoyia/JLOV 
(Pap/jLuKoi^' Kal TrapeTpeyjrev 619 Becvd<i fcal dXXo- 
KOTovf; €7ri(f)opd<i, irpd^ewv aTOTTCOV Kai aw at- 
a^vvr] TraHcov oXeOpicov opeyop^evov, coaTe tov 
BdvaTOv avT(p, Kaiirep ovtl via) Kal dvdovvTi, p>r) 
avp(f)opdv, aXX' dirokvaiv KaKOiv Kal awTrjplav 
2 yeveaOai. BiKa^ ye p>r)V 6 ^LXlttito^; ov //e/xTrra? 
Ati ^evlo) Kal (f)iXl(p tt}? dvoaLovpyia^ TavTT}^ 
TLvcov BieTeXeae. KaTairoXeprjOeL's pev yap viro 
^Vwpaiiov eTTeTpe-^ev €KeLVOL<; Ta KaO avTov, e/c- 



122 



ARATUS Liii. 4-LIV. 2 

freed the city from its tyranny — the fifth day of the 
moutli Daesius (which the Athenians call Anthes- 
terion), which sacrifice has the name Soteria, and 
one on tiie day of the month when, according to the 
records_, he was born. The first of these sacrifices 
was performed by the priest of Zeus the Saviour ; 
the second by the priest of Aratus^ who wore a 
headband^ not pure white but purple and white^ and 
hymns with accompaniment of lyre were sung by the 
artists of Dionysus, and the gymnasiarch took part 
in the procession, at the head of the boys and young 
men of military age ; then followed the councillors 
wearing garlands, and all other citizens who desired. 
Of these ceremonial rites the Sicyonians still 
preserve slight traces, celebrated on the same days 
of the year, but most of them, owing to the passage 
of time and the pressure of other matters, have 
lapsed. 

LIV. Such was the life and such the nature of 
the elder Aratus, as history tells us ; and as for his 
son, he was deprived of his reason by Philip, who 
had an abominable nature and added savage cruelty 
to his wanton exercise of power. He gave the 
young man poisons which did not kill, but crazed, 
and thus made him a prey to strange and dreadful 
impulses, under which he grasped at absurd activities, 
and exp.M'iences not only shameful but destructive, 
so that death came to him, although he was young 
and in the flower of his life, not as a calamity, but 
as release from evils, and salvation. For this unholy 
deed, however, Philip paid ample penalties to Zeus, 
the guardian of hospitality and friendship, as long 
as he lived. For after being subdued by the Romans 
and putting his fortunes in their hands, he was 

123 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Treacov 3e t?/? aW?;? ^PXV^ ^^^^ ''"^^ vav^; TrXrjv 
7revT6 7Td<Ta<i TrpoifJievo'^ Koi ^t\ia TrpoacKTicreip 
OfioXoyrjaa^ rdXavra kul tov vlov ofirjpevcrovra 
irapahov'; Bt oIktov ervx^ MaK€Sovia<; koI rcov 
crvvTeXovvTcov, diroKreivoov he ael tov<^ apiarovi 
Kol avy^evecrrdrov'^ <^piKr}<^ eveTrX-qae xat jiiaov^ 
3 aiXrjv rrjv ^aaCKelav Tvpo^; avrov. ev he fiovov ev 
ToaovroL<; KafCOL<; evrv-)(rjfia KTrjad/xevo'^, vlov 
dperfi hia^epovTay rovrov (f)Oovq) Kal i^rfKorviria 
Trj<; irapd 'VtofxaioL^ TL/irj^i dpetXe, Ylepcrel he 
darepcp ttjp dp')(riv irapehcoKev, ov ov yv^cnov, 
aXX' vtto^Xtjtov elvai (f>aaLV, €k TvaOacviov rivo^ 
aKearpiaf; yevofievov. rovrov AI/jllXio<s eOpLafi- 
^evac Kal Karearpe'^ev evravda rrj^; 'AvriyovtKrjfi 
^acriXeia^i rj hLaho)(^^. ro he Wpdrov yevo<i ev rfj 
^I-Kvcovt Kal rfj UeXXr^vrj hie/jieive KaO^ 7)/id<;, 



U4 



ARATUS Liv. 2-^ 

stripped of most of his dominions, surrendered all 
his ships but five, agreed to pay a thousand talents 
besides, gave up his son to serve as hostage, and 
only out of pity obtained Macedonia and its tribu- 
taries. But he was for ever putting to death the 
noblest of his subjects and his nearest kin, and 
thus filled his whole kingdom with horror and 
hatred of him. One piece of good fortune only was 
his, amid so many ills, and that was a son of sur- 
passing excellence ; but this son he killed, out of 
envy and jealousy of the honour paid him by the 
Romans, and left his kingdom to his other son, 
Perseus, who was not legitimate, as we are told, but 
supposititious, the child of a sempstress.Gnathaenion.^ 
This king graced the triumph of Aemilius, and with 
him ended the royal line of the Antigonids ; whereas 
the descendants of Aratus were living at Sicyon and 
Pellene in my time. 

* See the Aemiliu. Paulus, viii. 6 f . ; xxxiv., xxxvi. 



»25 



ARTAXERXES 



APTOHEPSH2 

I. '() /i€V 7rpct)T0<; 'Aprof 6/5^77?, rcov ev Ylepaai'^ 
^aatXewv TrpaorrjTL koI iJLe'ya\o'^v)(ia iTpwTevaa<^y 
^laKpo^eip eireKaKelTo rrju Se^iav piel^ova tt}? 
erepa^i 6)((ov, 'Bip^ov Be rjv vl6<;' 6 Se Sevrepo^;, 
irepl ov rdhe ypdcfyerai, ^lv/]/jLa)v iiriKXTjOel^; etc 
Ovyarpo^i r)v eKeivov. Aapeiov yap koX llapvad- 1012 
tlSo<; TratSe? iyevovro recrcrape?, TrpecySuraro? p,€v 

^ Apro^ep^T)^, p^er eKeivov Se Kupo?, vecorepoi Se 
2 rouT(ov^Ocrrdvrj(; koI ^O^d6prj<;. 6 p,ev ovv KOpo? 
diTO Ku/oou rov iraXaLov rovvopa €(7')(€v, etceivw he 
diTO Tov TjXiov yevecrdai ^aai' K.vpov yap KaXelv 
Wep(Ta<; rov tiXlov. 6 he 'Aprofe/jfr;? 'ApcrtAca? 
irporepov eKaXelro' fcairoi dk,eiv(i)V (fyyjcrlv on 
*Odpa7](;. dXXd rov J^Trjaiav, el /cat rdXXa pivdwv 
diriddvcdv Ka\ 7rapa(f)6po)v ep^/Be/SXrj/cev eh ra 
^i/SXla TravToSairrjv irvXaiav^ oxjk, eXko^ eariv 
dyvoelv rovvopia rov ^acnXico^ irap w Bierpi^e 
Oepairevcov avrov koX yvvalKa Kal puyjrepa /cat 

II. 'O pLev ovv K.vpo<; evTOvov ri Kal cr(j>ohpov 
€v0v<; etc TrpooTrjf; rfXiKia^ ei')(ev, dT€po<^ Be irpao- 
repo^ iBoKet irepl iravra koI rac^ op/jiaU (pvaet 
paXaKOi)T€po<; elvac. yvvaiKa Be KaXrjv /cat dya- 
6r}v eXa/Se puev rcov yovewv KeXevovrwv, i(^vXa^e 

^ ArtaxerxesI, 465-425 B.C. The parallel form Artaxerxes 
lias become fixed in English. 



128 



I 



ARTAXERXES 

I. The first Artaxerxes,^ preeminent among the 
kings of Persia for gentleness and magnanimity, was 
surnamed Longimanus, because his right hand was 
longer than his left, and was the son of Xerxes ; 
the second Artaxerxes,^ the subject of this Life, was 
surnamed Memor, or Mindful, and was the grandson 
of the first by his daughter Parysatis. For Dareius ^ 
and Parysatis had four sons — an eldest, Artaxerxes, 
and next to him Cyrus, and after these Ostanes and 
Oxathres. Cyrus took his name from Cyrus of old,* 
who, as they say, was named from the sun ; for 
" Cyrus " is the Persian word for sun. Artaxerxes 
was at first called Arsicas ; although Deinon gives 
the name as Oarses, But it is unlikely that Ctesias, 
even if he has put into his work a perfect farrago 
of extravagant and incredible tales, should be 
ignorant of the name of the king at whose court 
he lived as physician to the king's wife and mother 
and children. 

II. Now Cyrus, from his very earliest years, was 
high-strung and impetuous, but Artaxerxes seemed 
gentler in everything and naturally milder in his 
impulses. His wife, a beautiful and excellent woman, 
he married in compliance with his parents' bidding, 

= Artaxerxes II. 404-862 b c. 

■■' D.ircius II 424-401 n <:. 

* Cyius the Elder, 509-529 u.c. 

129 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

he KwkvovTwv rov yap aBeXcj^ov avrr}<i a7T0KT€Lva<; 

2 ^a(Ti\€v<; ijSovXevero KaKeivrjv ave\elvy o Be 
^Ap(TiKa<; Trj<; firjrpb's LKerrj':; yevofJievo's icaX iroyCKa 
KajaKkavaa^ fioXi^; eireicre /t^re aTroKrelvai, firfre 
avTov Biaorrrjaai rr)v avOpcoirov. t) Be fjurJTijp 
V7rrjp)^€ TOP K.vpop fiaXXov <^i\ovcra koI ^ovXofievrj 
^acnXeveiv i/celvov. Bco koI tov 7rarpo<^ voaovv- 
T09 yjBr] /jL€Td7re/jL7rT0<; diro Oa\d(T(Trj'; yevo/jL€VO<;. 
TravraTraaiv dve^aivev eveXirif; mv, w? Kareipya- 
(T/xevrj<; €K€Lvr](; BidBo-^ov avTOV diToB€L')(6r}vai Trj<; 

3 dp')(rj<:;. kol yap ely^ev evTrpf.Trrj \oyov rj Hapv- 
aari^, « Kal Hepf>79 o 7ra\atb<; e;^p?;<7aT0, Arjfia- 
pdrov Bi.Bd^avTO<i, cb? ' ApaiKav fjLCV IBlcottj, J^vpov 
Be ^aaiXevovTL Aapelfp refcelv.^ ov /xr)v hireiaeVt 
aXV irpecTpvTepo^ direBeixOri /t^arxtXcy?, 'Apro- 
^€p^r)^ fierovopuoO *:[<;, K.vpop Be AfSta? aaTpd'TTr}<^ 
Kal TOiv errX OaXdcrcrr)<; arparrjyof;. 

]IL ^OXiyo) B^ VGTepov rj reXevrrjaai i^apelov 
e^rjXaaev eU WaaapydBa^ 6 ^aatXev*;, ottci)? reXe- 
adelrj rrjv ^aaLXiK-qv reXerrjv vtto twv ev 11 eptrai? 
lepewv. ecTTL Be Oeaq iroXepiiKrj<; lepoVfTiv AOrjvdv 

2 dv Tt? eiKuaetev. eh tovto Bel rov reXovfievov 
irapeXdovra ttjv fxev IBiav diroOeaBai (iroXrjVy dva- 
Xafielv Be fjv Kvpo<; 6 7raXaio<; e(f)6p€L irplv 17 /5a- 
aiXev<; yeviaOac, Kal cjvkcov iraXdOrj^ efi^ayovra 
repfiivdov Kararpayelv Kal iroTijpiov eKirielv o^v- 
ydXaKTO<;. el Be tt/^o? tovtol^ erep' drra BpMcriv, 

3 dB-qXov €(TTi TOL<; dXXoL^, ravra Bpdv ' Apro^ep^ov 

' TfKUf Bekker has r4Kot, after Coraes. 
150 



ARTAXERXES it. i-iii. 3 

and kept her in defiance of them ; for after the king 
had put her brother to death, he wished to kill her 
also. But Arsicas, throwing himself at his mother's 
feet and supplicating her with many tears, at last 
obtained her promise that his wife should neither 
be killed nor separated from him. But the mother 
had more love for Cyrus, and wished that he should 
succeed to the throne. Therefore, when his father 
was now lying sick, Cyrus was summoned home from 
the sea-coast, and went up in full hope that by 
his mother's efforts he had been designated as suc- 
cessor to the kingdom. For Parysatis had a specious 
argument (the same that Xerxes the Elder employed 
on the advice of Demaratus ^), to the effect that she 
had borne Arsicas to Dareius when he was in private 
station, but Cyrus wlien he was a king. However, 
she could not prevail, but the elder son was declared 
king, under the new name of Artaxerxes, while 
Cyrus remained satrap of Lydia and commander of 
the forces in the maritime provinces/-' 

III. A little while after the death of Dareius, the 
new king made an expedition to Pasargadae, that 
he might receive the royal initiation at the hands 
of the Persian priests. Here there is a sanctuary of 
a warlike goddess whom one might conjecture to be 
Athena. Into this sanctuary the candidate for initia- 
tion must pass, and after laying aside his own proper 
robe, must ])ut on that which Cyrus the Elder used 
to wear before he became king ; then he must eat 
of a cake of figs, chew some turpentine-wood, and 
drink a cup of sour milk. Whatever else is done 
besides this is unknown to outsiders. As Artaxerxes 

' See Herodotus, vii. 3. 

' Cf. Xenophon, Anab. i. 1, 1. ff. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/jLiWovTO<; d<pLK€TO TLaa4)epvr)<; Trpo? avrov aycov 
eva roiv lepecov, o? iv Traial Kvpov tt)? i>ofic^(!fj.€VTj<; 
aycoyrj^; eTnardTrj^; y€v6/iiei'0<; kol hihd^a'^ /jLay€U€iv 
avTOV ovBevo's rjrrov iBoKCL TiepTCou dvidadai fir} 
d'Trohei'X,6evro'^ eKeivov /3aai\eci)<;' Slo /cat itlcttiv 

4 ecT^e KarrjyopMV Kupou. KaTrjyopei Be cb? /jl€\- 
X01/T09 evehpeveiv iv tw lepcp, koI iireihav iKSurjrat, 
TT)v iaOrjTa 6 /dacriXev^;, eTnriOeaOai kol hia- 
(pdeipeiv avrov. ol fiev i/c ravrijf; t?)? Eia^oXrj^ 
Tr)v avWrj-y^riv yeveadac (^acriv, ol he koI irapeX- 
delv Tov ILvpov eU to lepov koI TrapaSodrjvai 

5 KpuTTTO/jievov viTo TOV i€pea)<^. fieWovra he avrov 
rjhr) aTrodvyjcTKeLV t) fiyTrfp 7repi(T^ovaa rat? ayxa- 
A,ai9 KOL TOt? fSocTTpv^^oifi TrepieXl^aaa Kai av\- 
Xa^ovaa tov eKeivov rpd^V^ov tt/jo? tov avTrj^, 
ohvpo/uLevt] TToXXd koI TroTVicofievr] iraprjT^aaro 
Kol KaTeTrefjLyjrev avdi<^ e-Trl OdXuTTav, ovk aya~ 
TTCovTa rrjv dp-)(r)V €K€ivr)v, ovhe pe/jbVTjfievov tT;? 
hieaeco^;, dWd t% crvWi]'yjre(o<;, Kal hi opyrjv 
a-Trapycovra /xdWov rj rrpoTepov eirl Tr]v iBaaiX^iav. 

IV. "FjVLoi he (pad IV ovfc dpKovfievov ol<; eXdji- 
^avev et? to KaO^ rj/jLepav helirvov dTroaTrjvai 
/3aaLXe(o<;, evijOrj XeyovTe^;. el yap dXXo /juyiSev, 
dXXd 7) fjLTjrrjp virrjpx^, 'x^prjadat kol Xa/Ji/3dv€tv 
oaa ^ovXoLTO twv avri)^ irape^ovaa Kal hihovaa. 
fjiapTvpel he rw ttXovtw Kal to p.ia6o^opLKOV 
7ro\Xax66t hid rcov (t)LXcov Kal ^evoiv avrw irapa- 101 ^ 
Tp€(p6/JLevov, o)? B.evocj^cbv elprfKev. dOpoov^ fxev 
yap ov avvTjyayer, €ti rrjv jrapacTKtuijv eiriKpvKTo- 



» Aimh. i. 1, 6-11. 
'32 



ARTAXERXES iii. 3-iv. i 

was about to perform these rites, Tissaphernes 
brought to him a certain priest who had conducted 
Cyrus through the customary discipline for boys, had 
tauglit him the wisdom of the Magi, and was thought 
to be more distressed than anyone in Persia because 
!iis pupil had not been declared king. For this 
reason, too, his accusation against Cyrus won cre- 
dence. And he accused him of planning to lie in 
wait for the king in the sanctuary until he should 
put off his garment, and then to fall upon him and 
kill him. Some say that Cyrus was arrested in con- 
sequence of this false charge, others that he actually 
made his way into the sanctuary and hid himself 
there, and was delivered into custody by the priest. 
But now, as he was about to be put to death, his 
mother clasped him in her arms, twined her tresses 
about him, pressed his neck against her own, and 
by much lamentation and entreaty prevailed upon 
the king to spare him, and sent him back to the 
sea-coast. Here he was not satisfied with the office 
assigned to him, nor mindful of his release, but only 
of his arrest ; and his anger made him more eager 
than before to secure the kingdom. 

IV. Some say that he revolted from the king 
because his allowance did not suffice for his daily 
meals, which is absurd. For had no other resource 
been his, still, his mother was resource enough, who 
gave freely from her own wealth all that he wished 
to take and use. And that he had wealth is proved 
by the mercenary troops that were maintained for 
him in many places by his friends and connections, 
as Xenophon tells us.^ For he did not bring these 
together into one body, since he was still trying to 
conceal his preparations, but in one place and another, 

^33 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/i6vo<;, a\Xa)i^60i Be aWov<i iirl iroWal'i Trpoc^aaeai 

2 ^evo\oyovpra<; eZ^e. ffaai\i(o<; he tj t€ MTr]p 
wapovcra to.? uTrox^ta? a(f)f}pei, fcal KOpo? auTo? ael 
depairevTLKOi^ eypa^e, ra puev alrovfievo^ Trap" 
avTOV, ra Be Tiaacfyepvov^; avTLKarrjyopayv, co? 8;; 
7rpo9 etcelvov avro) ^t]\ov kul ayoyvo<i ovro^i. 

3 *Hi^ ^e Tt? Aral /i6XXr;crt? e^* r^ (f>v(7€L rov ^acn- 
XetM?, eTTieLfceia (paivofjuevT] roL<; 7roWoc<;. ev ap)(ij 
Be Koi TTcivv ^n^Xoifv eSoPe rr)v ^Apro^ep^ov rov 
oficovvfjiov irpaoTTjra, tjBlo) re eavrov 7rape)(^cov 
€UTvy)(^dvecrdai, koX irepl ro rifjuav koX xapl^ea-dai 
TO Kar a^iav virep^dWwv, KoXdcreco'^ Be Trdaq^ 
d(paip(ou rb €(f)vl3pL^ov kcu 7)B6/j,evov, ev Be rw 
Be)(e(T6aL ')(^dpLTa<; ovx ^ttoi/ roL<; BlBovctiv rj Tot9 
Xa/jL/3dvov(JLV ev rS) BtBovai (f>aiv6p,evo<i ev^api^; 

4 Koi <f)i\dvOpc^7ro<;. ovBev yap tjv ovro)<; fiifcpov ri 
rodv BiBojievcov o fjurj irpoaeBe^aro rrpo0u/jL(O<;, dWa 
Kol poav filav vwepcpvrj peyiOei 7rpo(jeveyKavTo<i 
^n,/jLLaov rLvo'^ vJrrtp, '* Nr; rov ^liOpaVy^ elirev, 
*' ovro<i 6 dvrjp Koi iroXiv av ifc ptKpd<i ra^i^ 
TTOLrjaete /jLeydXrjv Tnarevdei^. * 

V. ^Eirel Be dWa)v dXXa irpocKpepovrayv tcad^ 
oBov avrovpyo<; dvOpcoiro^ ovBev errl Kaipov cf)Odaa<; 
evpelv r^ irorapcp wpoaeBpafjue kol ralv ')(^epolv 
v7roXa^Q)v rov vBaro<; irpoai^vtyfcev, rjaOeU o 
^Apro^ep^rjf; (fudXrju eirep^'y^ev avra> ^pvarjv Koi 
')^iXiov<; BapeiKovf;. KvKXelBa Be rw Ad/cayvi, ttoX- 
Xd 7rappr)a la^o/ievcp tt/^o? avrov av6aBoi<;, eVe- 
\ei'crei' elirelv rov ')(^LXiap^ov on " Xol pev e^eariv 



ARTAXERXES iv. i-v. i 

and on many pretexts, he kept reeruiting-agents. 
And as for the king's suspicions, his mother, who 
was at court, tried to remove them, and Cyrus him- 
self would always write in a submissive vein, some- 
times asking favours from him, and sometimes making 
countercharges against Tissaphernes, as if his eager 
contention were against him. 

There was, too, a certain dilatoriness in the nature 
of the king, which most people took for clemency. 
Moreover, in the beginning he appeared to be 
altogether emulous of the gentleness of the Arta- 
xerxes whose name he bore, showing himself very 
agreeable in intercourse, and bestowing greater 
honours and favours than were really deserved, while 
from all his punishments he took away the element 
of insult or vindictive pleasure, and in his acceptance 
and bestowal of favours appeared no less gracious 
and kindly to the givers than to the recipients. 
For there was no gift so small that he did not 
accept it with alacrity ; indeed, when a certain 
Omisus brought him a single pomegranate of sur- 
passing size, he said : " By Mithra, this man would 
speedily make a city great instead of small were he 
entrusted with it." 

V. Once when he was on a journey and various 
people were presenting him with various things, a 
labouring man, who could find nothing else at the 
moment, ran to the river, and, taking some of the 
water in his hands, offered it to him ; at which 
Artaxerxes was so pleased that he sent him a goblet 
of gold and a thousand darics. To Eucleidas the 
Lacedaemonian, who would often say bold and im- 
pudent things to him, Jie sent this word by his 
officer of the guard : " It is in thy power to say 

135 



PLU'l'ARCH'S LIVES 

clirelv a ^ovXei, e/iol Se Kal XeysLv koI Trotelv.^' 

2 iv Se dqpa rivl Typi/Sd^ov hei^avTO^ avru) tov 
KavSvp i(j')(^L(TfievoVy }]pa)T7]a€i' 6 tl Bel Troielv. 
€Keivov he elrrovro^!, ""AWov avrb^i evBvaac, rov- 
rov he efiol ^09," ourco? eTToitjcrep, elTrwv, " Aihco/jii 
fiev, 0) Tr)pt/3a^€, aol rovrov, (^opelv he aira'yo- 
pfUft).*' TOV he Trjpi^d^ov fjut) (^povTlaavTO<^ (rfv 
yap ov 7rovr]p6<;, vit6kov^o<; he Kal 7rapd(f)Gpo<:), 
dWa TOV T€ Kdvhvv ev6v<; eKelvov evhvvTO<; Kal 
hepaia '^puad Kal yvvaiKela TOiv ^aaiXiKMv irepi- 
Oe/jLevou, irdvTC's fiev rjyavdKTOVV (ou yap e^rjv), 6 
fjLevTOi ffa(TiX€v<; KaTeyekaae Kal elire' " Alhco/jiL 
<TOL Kal TCL ')(pvaLa (f)opeLV co? yvvaiKl Kal T)]v 

3 aToXrjv co? /xaivofjuevq)." Tpa7re^7j<i he t?)<? avTr]<; 
/jirjh€v6<; p.eTe\ovTo^ dX)C r) /jL7]Tpo<; ^acn\e(o<i 7) 
yapLeri)'^ yvvaLKo<i, Kade^ofievwv tt}? fxev vtt ovtov, 
Tri<; he fir)Tpo<^ virep avTov, ' KpTO^ep^i]^ Kal tou? 
dh€\(f)ov<; enl ttjp avT-qv CKdXei, Tpdire^av, 'Ocrra- 
pr}i> Kal ^O^ddpy-jv, vecoTcpovf; ovTa^. ev he rot? 
fidXLaTa Kexci'pio'P'^PV^ o-^jriv Trapetx^ "^ot? Ileyo- 
o-at9 ^ tt}? yvvaiKo^ XTaTelpa^; dpfid/ia^a yu/ivrj 
TOiv 7rapa'7T€TaapdT(t)v del 7rpo<pepo/jLevr] Kal hLhov- 
aa rat? hijfioTiaiv dairdaacrOaL avTrjv Kal irpocr- 
eXdeip, oOev rjyairdTo toI<; 7ToWoL<i rj ^aaiXeia, 

V'l. 'Vov ixevTOi Kvpov ol vecoTepicrTal Kal ttoXv- 
7rpdypL0V€<; 009 XapLirpov dvhpa ttj '^v)(^fj Kal 
TToXepLiKOV hia<^ep6vT(o<i Kal (j>LXeTaipov (oovto to, 
TrpdypiaTa TroOelv, Kal to fieyeOo^ t/)9 r]yefiovia^ 
^a(TtXe(o<; heladai (^povr^pia Kal <f)iXori/jLLav e)(ov~ 

2 T09. 01);^ r^TTOV ovv TOtV dv(D TTidTeVWV o Yivpo^ 

rj T0t9 irepl avTov eVf^et/Det to5 iroXepiW' Kal 
136 



ARTAXERXES v. i-vi. 2 

what thou pleasest, but it is in mine both to say 
and to do." Again, when he was hunting once 
and Teribazus pointed out that the king's coat 
was rentj, he asked him wliat was to be done. And 
when Teribazus replied, '^ Put on another for thyself, 
but give this one to me/' the king did so, saying, 
" I give this to thee, Teribazus, but I forbid thee to 
wear it." Teribazus gave no heed to this command 
(being not a bad man, but rather light-headed and 
witless), and at once put on the king's coat, and 
decked himself with golden necklaces and women's 
ornaments of royal splendour. Everybody was in- 
dignant at this (for it was a forbidden thing) ; 
but the king merely laughed, and said : ^' I permit 
thee to wear the trinkets as a woman, and the 
robe as a madman." Again, no one shared the 
table of a Persian king except his mother or his 
wedded wife, the wife sitting below him, the mother 
above him ; but Artaxerxes invited to the same table 
A\ith him his brothers Ostanes and Oxathres, although 
they were his juniors. But what gratified the Persians 
most of all was the sight of his wife Stateira's carriage, 
which always appeared with its curtains up. and thus 
permitted the women of the people to approach and 
greet the queen. This made her beloved of the 
common folk. 

\T. Nevertheless, restless and factious men thought 
that affairs demanded Cyrus, a man who had a 
brilliant s{)irit, surpassing skill in war, and great love 
for his friends ; and that the magnitude of the empire 
required a king of lofty purpose and ambition. Ac- 
cordingly, Cyrus relied quite as much upon the 
people of the interior as upon those of his own 
province and command, when he began the war. 

137 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

AaKeBaLfiovLOi^ eypacfte irapaKaXoiv ^or]6elv Koi 
avv€K7re/.L7reLv dvSpa<i, ol? ecf)^ SaxieLV, av fxev 
Tre^oL irapcxiOiVi lttttov^^, av Be tTTTret?, avvaypiSaf;' 
eav S" d<ypov<; e^wat, K(o/xa<i' iav he Kcofxa^, TroXet?* 
/jLlctOov Be TOt? arparevofievoL^ ovk dpid^ov, dXKa 

3 jJLerpov eaeaOai. fieyaXrjyopcov Be iTepi avrov 
TToWa Koi KapBiav eipt] rov dBe\(j>ov ^opelv jSapv- 1014 
TepavKaL (f)L\ocro<f)6LV fxaWov koi fiayeveiv ^eXrcop, 
OLVov Be irXeiova iriveLv koX ^epeLv i/celvov Be 

VTTO BeiXuaf; kuI fjiaXaKia^ ev fxev rol^ Kvvrjy€aLot<i 
firjBe €(f)' LTTTTOV, ev Be tol^; KcvBuvoLf; fiTjBe eVl rov 
Opovov KaOrjaOai. AaKeBaLfiovLOL fjuev ovv cr/cvrd- 
X7]v 7rpo<i KXeap^ov direareiXav vwypereLV Kvpay 

4 TTuvra KeXevovre^;, 6 Be K{)/)09 dve^aivev eVl 
fiaatXea ^ap^apLKrjv re iroXXrjv €')(a)v Bvvafiiv 
Kal pLL(j6o(f>6pov<; "EXXr}va<; oXljo) TptaxiXlcov Kal 
pLvpicov diroBeovra';, dXXa^ eV dXXat,<; iroLovfievo^ 
'irpo(f)daeL(i t% aTpaTeia<^. ov fxrjv eXadi ye et? 
TToXvv 'x^povov, dXX^ r)Ke ffaatXet Tiaa<l)€pv'r}^ 
avTayyeXo^' Kal 7roXv<; 66pv^o<i el')(€. rd ffaalXeia, 
T^9 re UapvadriBof; 7r)v irXeiarrjv alriav tov 
iroXepLOv (f)epo/xevr)<;, /cal rcop <\>iXcov avTrj<i ev 

5 v'Troy^LaL<; ovtcov koI Bia^oXac<;. pLaXiara Be yvia 
rrjv Hapvaariv rf 'Erdreipa to) iroXefxto TrepcTra- 
dovaa Kal ^ocjaa, ** Uov vuv at iriareL^ cKelvai, ; 
TTov Be al Berj(J€Lf;, ah e^eXo/jLevrf rov ein^ovXev- 
aavra tc5 dBeX(j>w woXefiov Kal KaKOiv €fjL7r€7rXr)Ka<i 
r)ixd^ ; €K Brj tovtcov fjLLaovcra tt]v Srdreipav r] 
Tlapv(TaTi<i, Kal (f)vcr€i ^apv6vp,o(; ovaa Kal ^dp- 

* Cf. Xeijophon, Anab. i. 1, 9 ; 2, 21 ; 4, 3. 



ARTAXERXES vi. 2-5 

He also wrote to the Lacedaemonians, inviting them 
to aid him and send him men, and promising that 
he would give to those who came, if they were foot- 
men, horses ; if they were horsemen, chariots and 
pairs ; if they had farms, he would give them villages ; 
if they had villages, cities ; and the pay of the 
soldiers should not be counted, but measured out. 
Moreover, along with much high-sounding talk about 
himself, he said he carried a sturdier heart than his 
brother, was more of a philosopher, better versed in 
the wisdom of the Magi, and could drink and carry 
more wine than he. His brother, he said, was too 
effeminate and cowardly either to sit his horse in a 
hunt, or his throne in a time of peril. The Lacedae- 
monians, accordingly, sent a dispatch-roll to Clearchus 
ordering him to give Cyrus every assistance.^ So 
Cyrus marched up against the king with a large 
force of Barbarians and nearly thirteen thousand 
Greek mercenaries,^ alleging one pretext after 
another for his expedition. But the real object of 
it was not long concealed, for Tissaphernes went in 
person to the king and informed him of it. Then 
there was a great commotion at the court, Parysatis 
being most blamed for the war, and her friends 
undergoing suspicion and accusation. And above 
all was she vexed by Stateira, who was greatly dis- 
tressed at the war, and kept crying: "Where now 
are those pledges of thine .'' And where are the 
entreaties by which thou didst rescue the man who 
had f)lotted against the life of his brother, only to 
involve us in war and calamity ? " Therefore Pary- 
satis hated Stateira, and being naturally of a harsh 

* Cf. Xeiiophon, Anab. i. 7, 10, where the force of Bar- 
barians is said to have numbered one hundred thousand. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^po<; ev opyat's koI fivrjcnKaKiaL^i, iire^ovXevev 
6 aiirr^v aveXelv. eirei Be ^eivwv fiev iv rw TroXeyao) 
(TvvreXeaOi^iVai. rrjv eTTL^ovXrjv etprfKe, KrT^cr/a? Be 
varepovt ov ovre dyvoeiv rov y^povov eiVo? Igti 
irapovTa ral^ Trpd^eaiv, ovre ckcop alriav ely^ev eV 
Tov 'x^povov pLeraarrjaat, ro epyov, o)? eirpdyOri 
hirfyovfievo'^y ola 7rda')(ei TroWdKt^ 6 X0709 avrov 
7r/309 TO fiv6o}B6<; KoX BpafxariKov iKrpeTTOfievo^ 
tt}? dXrjOeia^, tovto fxev rjv eKelvo<; direBwxe 

VI L Ku/3ci) Be irpoaLovTi (pPj/juai kol Xojol irpoa- 
eTTLTTTOv, ft)? OV ixd^eaOai ^aaiKeft)^ eyOv<; iyvo)- 
Koro^ ovBe avvBpafxelv et? ')(€lpa<^ avrai aTrevBovro*^, 
dW ev UepaaL^ vTrofievcLv dy^pt dv at Bwd/ieif; 
eKel iravrayoOev crvveXOwcL, koI <ydp rdcppov 
evpo<; opyvLOiv BeKa kol /3d6o<^ taayv eirX dTaBiov^ 
Old rov TTeBiov TeTpaKoaiov^ eve^oKe' fcal ravrrf'^ 
re irepielBe rov Yi.vpov evro^ irapeXdovra kolI Ba- 

2 ySuXwi^o? avTT](; ov fiaKpav yevojxevov. Trjpi^d^ov 
Be, ft>9 (paai, irpwTOv ro\ixr)aavro<^ enrelv 0)9 ov 
Bel (pvyo/xaxetu ovBe Mr;5ta9 eKcrrdvra koX Ba- 
^v\Mvo<i d/jua ^ Kol Sovact)u evBveaOai rfj YLepalBi, 
TToWairXaaiav fxev eypi^ra Bvvafxtv roiv TroXe/iLcov, 
fivpLOVf; Be crarpdira'; Kal arpar7jyov<i Kuyoou Kal 
(f)POveLv Kol fidypcrOat ^eXriova'i, cjpfMTjae Biayo)- 
viaaadaL rr)v ra'\i(jrr}v. 

3 Kal ro fiev rrpojrov e^alcfivrj^ fcara(f>av6l<i evevrj- 
Kovra /jivpidaL crrparov BiaKeKoaixr]iJieuaL<; Xajx- 



1 'A 



a/jLu Bekker and Ziegler, after Corais : aWd. 



140 



ARTAXERXES vi. 5-vii. 3 

temper and savage in her wrath and resentment, she 
plotted to kill her. Deinon says that her plot was 
carried out during the war. Ctesias, however, says 
that it was accomplished afterwards, and neither is 
it likely that he was ignorant of the time since he 
was at the scene of action, nor had he any occasion, 
in his narrative of the deed, to change the time of 
it on purpose, however often his story turns aside 
from the truth into fable and romance. I shall 
therefore give the event the place which he has 
assigned to it.^ 

VII. As Cyrus proceeded on his march, rumours 
and reports kept coming to liis ears that the king 
had decided not to give battle at once, and was not 
desirous of coming to close quarters with him, but 
rather of waiting in Persia until liis forces should 
assemble there from all parts. For he had run a 
trench, ten fatlioms in width and as many in deptli, 
four hundred furlongs through the plain ; and yet 
he allowed Cyrus to cross this and to come within 
a short distance of Babylon itself.^ And it was 
Teribazus, as we are told, who first plucked up 
courage to tell the king that he ought not to shun 
a battle, nor to retire from Media and Babylon, as 
well as Susa, and hide himself in Persia, when he 
liad a force many times as numerous as that of the 
enemy, and countless satra])s and generals who sur- 
passed Cyrus in wisdom and military skill. The king 
therefore determined to fight the issue out as soon 
as possible. 

So, to begin with, by his sudden appearance with 
an army of nine hundred thousand men in brilliant 

^ See chap. xix. 

^ Of. Xenophon, Aaih. i. 7, 14-17. 

Ml 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7r/)W?, Tou? TToXe/Jiiov^ dauvraKTOvf; Kai avo7r\ov<; 
Bia TO dappelv kol Karacfypovetu 6Boi7ropovvTa<; 
e^eifKrj^e /col avverdpa^ev, (oare <tvv Oopv^qy fcal 
l3of} 'TToWfj /xoXt9 eh rd^LV KadiaTaa-Oai rov 
Kvpov eireira crtyfj koI a^eSrjv eirdycdv Oavfxa 
ToWEiXKr)ai Trj^; evra^ia^ 7rapel')(€, Kpavyd<; drd- 

KTOUf; /cat (TKCpT7]/jLaTa Kol TTOXVV Tdpa')(pV aVTOJV 

KoX hiacTiracrpov ev TrXyjdei roaovro) iTpo(jhe')(oixe- 
4 voL<^. ev he fcal Kara tov<;" E4\Xr}va<; avrera^e rwv 
Bp€navr)(f)6p(ov ra po)/jLa\ecoTara nrpo rrj^ eavrou 
<^d\ayyo<;, co? Trplv ev %€/3crl yevecrdac hiaKo^ovra 
rd<; Td^€i<; Qia t% eitreXacrew?. 

Vin. T^i^ he fid^rjv €K€Lvrjv ttoWcov fiev dirrjy- 
yeXKOTCOv, Hero<^aii/T09 he fjLOVOVOV')(l heLKVvovTo<{ 
oyjrei, koI roL<i Trpdyfiaaiv, &)? ov yeyevrj/juevoi';, 
dXXd yLVOfxevoL^, €(f)i(TTdvTO<; del rov aKpoarrjv 
ifjL7ra6rj koI crvyKLvhvvevovra hia Tqv ivdpyeiav, 
ovK eari vovv e')(pvTO<; €7re^r]yelaOai, irXrjv oaa 

2 TMV d^lwv Xoyov iraprjXOev elirelv eKelvov. o fiev 

ovv TOTTO?, ev (p Traperd^avTO, J^ovva^a KaXelrac 1016 
fcal Ba/SfXwz^o? drre^ei <TTahiov<; TrevTaKoaiovf;. 
}^vpov he iTpo T?}9 /jid')(ri(; KXedpxov jrapafca- 
XovvTO^ e^oTTiaOev rwv /xaxofievcov etvai fcal firf 
Kivhvveueiv avrov elirelv (f)a(TC, " Tt Xe7e<9, c5 
Kjkeap-)(e ; av /ceXeuei? fie rov ^aaiXeia'i opeyo- 

3 fievov dvd^Lov elvai ^aatXela<; ; " dfiaprovro*; he 
Kvpov fjbeya rw hvvai Tr/JOTrerw? €t? /lecra rd 
heivd Koi fiTj (f)vXd^aaOai, rov KLvhvvov, ov^ ^ttov 
ijfiaprev, el firj koI fidXXov, KXeayD^^o? avTiTa^at 

» Anah. i. 8, 

142 



ARTAXERXES vii. 3-viii. 3 

array, he so terrified and confounded the enemy, who 
were marching along in loose order and without arms 
because of their boldness and contempt for the king, 
that Cyrus could with difficulty bring them into 
battle array amid much tumult and shouting ; and 
again, by leading his forces up slowl}- and in silence, 
he filled the Greeks with amazement at his good 
discipline, since they had expected in so vast a host 
random shouting, and leaping, with great confusion 
and dissipation of their lines. Besides this, he did 
well to draw up in front of his own line, and over 
against the Greeks, the mightiest of his scythe- 
bearing chariots, in order that by the force of their 
charge they might cut to pieces the ranks of the 
Greeks before they had come to close quarters. 

VIII. Now, since many writers have reported to 
us this battle, and since Xenophon ^ brings it all but 
before our eyes, and by the vigour of his description 
makes his reader always a participant in the emotions 
and perils of the struggle, as though it belonged, not 
to the past, but to the present, it would be folly to 
describe it again, except so far as he has passed over 
things worthy of mention. The place, then, wliere 
the armies were drawn up, is called Cunaxa, and it 
is five hundred furlongs distant from Babylon. And 
we are told that Cyrus, before the battle, when 
Clearchus besought him to remain behind the com- 
batants and not risk his life, replied : " What sayest 
thou, Clearchus ? Dost thou bid me, who am reaching 
out for a kingdom, to be unworthy of a kingdom ? " 
It was a great mistake for Cyrus to plunge headlong 
into the midst of the fr.iy, instead of trying to avoid 
its dangers ; but it was no less a mistake, nay, even 
a greater one, for Clearchus to refuse to array his 

M3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kara rov /Saa-iXea fjuri dekrjaa^ rov<; " EWr]va<;, 
aWa irpoafii^a^ tw 'jTorafJL(p to Be^ioi^, co? /jltj 
KVKKwdeirj. ttjv <yap aac^aXeiav i^ airavro'^ Bico- 
Kovra Kal irXelcTTOv \6yov e^ovra rov /xriSev 

4 rraOelv oiKoi fxkveiv tjv Kpdricrrov. 6 5e ^vpiov^ 
crrahiov; cltto OaXdaa-q^ ei> 07r\oi<; dva^€^r]KQ}<; 
/jLTjSevo^; dvayK(i^ovro^, dW otto)? K.vpov et? rov 
Opovov KaOiar) rov ^aaiXeLov, elra TrepiaKOTraiv 
')((i)pav Kal rd^Lv, ovk dcf)* ?^9 crcoaeie rov r/ycfiova 
Kal fitaOoSorijv, dX}C iv rivL 6efi£V0<^ kavrov 
da(f)a\(i)<; fia^elrai KaO^ r)av')(^Lav, o/xoio<; rjv inro 
heov<^ ro)v irapovrwv eK^ejSXrjKorL rov<; irepl rayv 
oXoJvXo'yia/jLOv^ Kal Trpo'ie/jievq) rrjv t/)? arparela*; 

5 vTToOeaiv. on yap ouSei? dv VTre/jbeive rayv reray- 
fievfjov irepl ^aaiXea 701)9 ''EAXrjvaf; ifirreaovra*^, 
(oaOevroJv 8' eKeivwv Kal /SacnXeco^; (pvy6vro<; rj 
irea6vro<; V7rf]p)(^6 K.vp(p viKcovri aco^eaOac Kal 
^a(JiXev€LV, €K rcbv TreTrpay/Jtevcov StjXov eari. Sio 
ri]v K.X€dp)(^ov /jidXXov evXd^eiav rj rb rov Kvpov 
Opdao<; alriariov &)? rd rrpdypiara Kal Kvpov 

6 diroXeaacrav. el yap avro<^ eaKorrei /3acrtX€U9 
OTTOf rd^a^ rov<s '' EXXriva<; d^Xa^eardroi'^ XP^;- 
aerai rroXep^ioi^, ovk dv krepav i^evpev r) rijv 
dncordrco ')((t>pav kavrov Kal roiv irepl kavrov, d(f) 
^9 ovre viKrjOel^ avro<; fjcrdero Kal KO/309 e(i>6i] 
KaraKorrel^ 7) ^(^pTjad/xevo^ ri rfj KXeap^of VLKrj. 

7 KaiTOi K.vpo<i ro av/jLcp^pov ovk rjyvoijaev, dXX 
CKcl KXeapxof eKeXeve rdrrecrdai Kara /leaov. 
6 8' avro) fxeXiiv elncoy 07raJ9 €^ci KdXXtara, rb 
irav hik(^6€ipev, 



144 



ARTAXERXES viii. 3-7 

Greeks over against the king, and to keep his right 
wing close to the river, that lie might not be sur- 
rounded. For if he sought safety above everything 
else and made it his chief object to avoid losses, it 
had been best for him to stay at home. But he had 
marched ten thousand furlongs up from the sea-coast 
under arms, with no compulsion upon him, but in 
order that he might place Cyrus upon the royal 
throne ; and then, in looking about for a place and 
position which would enable him, not to save his 
leader and employer, but to fight safely and as he 
pleased, he was like one who, through fear of instant 
peril, had cast aside the plans made for general 
success and abandoned the object of the expedition. 
For had the Greeks charged upon the forces arrayed 
about the king, not a man of them would have stood 
his ground ; and had these been routed and the king 
either slain or put to flight, Cyrus would have won 
by his victory, not only safety, but a kingdom. This 
is clear from the course of the action. Therefore the 
caution of Clearchus rather than the temerity of 
Cyrus must be held responsible for the ruin of Cyrus 
and his cause. For if the king himself had sought 
out a place to arrav the Greeks in which their attack 
would be least injurious to him, he could have found 
no other than that which was most remote from 
himself and his immediate following, since he himself 
did not know that his forces had been defeated there, 
and Cvrus could take no advantage at all of the 
victory of Clearchus, because he was cut down too 
soon. And vet Cvrus well knew what was for the 
best, and ordered Clearchus to take his position 
accordingly in the centre. But Clearchus, after 
telling Cyrus he would see to it that the best was 
done, ruined everything. 

145 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

IX. Oi fikv yap "EWt/i/c? oaov ejSovXovro rov<; 
^ap^dpovf; iviKWv koI Si,cokovt€<; eVt nrXeicrrov 
TrporjXOov K.vpa> Se yevvalov 'ittitov, daro/jLOv Be 
Kol v^piaTrjv eXavvovTi, Tlaaafcdf KaXov/xevov, co? 
KxT/crta? (f)>](Tw, avre^rfkaaev o K^aBoucricov dp^cov 

2 Aprayepcnjf; fieya /Socov, "^12 to koXXicttov iv 
rieyocrat? ovofxa JLvpov KaTaia')(yv(t)v, dSiKcorare 
dvhpoiv Kol dcppovearare, KaKov<^ /lev "KXXy]va<; 
epxv fcaKTjv oBov dycov eVl rd Tlepcrcov dyaOd, 
BecrTTorrjv Be creavrov fcal dBeX(f)ov eXTri^(i)v dvai- 
prjaeiv, 09 (tov /JLvpidKi^ ixvpiov; BovXov<; e^^^ 
Kpeia<Tova<^. avTiKa Be TreLpdar)' irporepov yap 
diroXel'^ evravOa rr)v aeavrov Kecf^aXrjv r) 6ed- 

3 aacrOaL to l3a(TLXeco<; TrpocrcoTrov.^^ ravra elirodv 
e^rjKovTtcrev eir avrov. 6 Be Ocopa^ crrepeco? 
dvrea^e, Kal ovk erpooOrj p,ev 6 KOpo?, eKpaBdvOrj 
Be rrjf; irXrjyijf; l(T')(ypd<; TTpoaireaoiXTT]';. diro- 
<Trp€\lravro<; Be rov 'lttttov tov ^ ApTayepaov ^aXoiv 
6 Ki)/309 eVf^e, Ka\ BLrjXacre irapd ttjv KXelBa Bid 
TOV Tpaxv^ov TTJV al')(^iJbrjV. 

4 "Yov pev ovv ^ KpTayepar)v diroOavelv viro tov 
K.vpov a)(^eBov aTra/re? opLoXoyovar irepl Be rrj<; 
avTov Kvpov TeXevTTj^ eVet 'B,evo^(av (xttXw? Ka\ 
<jvvT6pco<;, aTe Br) pLVj irapcov avTO^, elnrep, ovBev 
i(T(o<; KwXveL Ta Aelvcovo^ loia Kal irdXiv Ta 
K.TTjo'Lov BieXOelv. 

X. <t>7;crli/ ovv 6 fiev Aelvcov otl tov 'ApTa- 
yepaov Trea6vT0<; elaeXdaa^ ^laiax; \\vpo<; et? 
Tou? TrpoTeTayp.evov<; tov ^aaiXenx; KaTeTpaxrev 
aVTOV TOV LTTTTOV, 6 Be dTTeppvT)' T7jpi^d^ov Be 



146 



ARTAXERXES ix. i-x. i 

IX. For the Greeks were victorious to their hearts' 
content over the Barbarians, and went forward a 
very great distance in pursuit of them ; but Cyrus, 
riding a horse that was high-bred, but fierce and hard 
to guide (his name was Pasacas, as Ctesias tells us), 
was met in full course by Artagerses, commander of 
the Cadusians, who cried with a loud voice : '^ O 
thou who disgracest the name of Cyrus, that noblest 
name among the Persians, thou most unjust and 
senseless of men, thou art come with evil Greeks on 
an evil journey after the good things of the Persians, 
and thou hopest to slay thine own brother and thy 
master, who hath a million servants that are better 
men than thou. And thou shalt at once have proof 
of this ; for thou shalt lose thine own head here 
before thou hast seen the face of the king." With 
these words he hurled his spear at Cyrus. But the 
breastplate of Cyrus stoutly resisted, and its wearer 
Avas not wounded, though he reeled under the shock 
of the mighty blow. Then, as Artagerses turned his 
horse away, Cyrus hurled his spear and hit him, and 
drove its head through his neck past the collar-bone. 

Thus Artagerses died at the hands of Cyrus, as 
nearly all writers are agreed in saying ; but as 
regards the death of Cyrus himself, since Xenophon 
makes simple and brief mention of it,^ because he 
was not present himself when it happened, there is 
no objection perhaps to my recounting, first what 
Deinon says about it, and then what Ctesias says. 

X. Accordingly, Deinon says that after Artagerses 
had fallen, Cyrus charged furiously into those drawn 
up in front of the king, and wounded the king's 
horse, and that the king fell to the ground ; but 

» Anab. i. viii. 2Rf. 

M7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ava/SdXovTO^ avrov eV* aXXov lttttov ra-^v Kal 
el'jTOVTO'^y "'n ^aaiXev, fxefivrjao t?}? r)^epa<^ 1016 
TavrT)<;' ou yap a^ia \ri6rj<^ iari,'' iraXiv o Ku/jo? 
€va€Laa<; rw 'iirirfp Kari^aXe rov ^ Apro^ep^rjv. 

2 7rpo<; Be rrjv rpirrjv iireXacrti' hv(Tava(T')(€rr)aa<; 6 
^acn\ev<^, Kal eliroyv irpo'^ tol'9 irapovra'; &)<? 
^eXTiov eVrt /ir/ ^'^v, dvTe^ifKavve rw ^vpw 
irpoTreTCtx; Kal aTrepiaKeiTTw<; eU Ivavria ^eKrj 
(f}epofi€vw. Kal ^ciXXec puev avro'^ aKOvriwy /3aX- 

3 XovaL he oi we pi avrov. TTLTnei he o KO/709, co^ 
/xev evLOL Xeyovai, 77X777619 vtto tou ^aaiXew^, 
ft)9 he erepoL Tive<;, Yiapo^ avOpcoirov TraTd^avTO<i, 
ft) <y€pa<; ehcoKe T779 7rpd^€(o<; ra-uTTj^ ^aaiXev^ 
dXeKTpvova y^pvaovv eirl h6paT0<; del irpo rr}^ 
Ta^€ft)9 iv Tat9 crTpaTeLaL<; Kopi^etV Kal yap 
avTov<: TOL'9 Ka/3a9 dXeKTpvova^ at Wepaat hia 
rov^ Xo</)Of9, 019 Koapovcn, ra Kpdvrj, Trpocr- 
■t]yopevov. 

XL 'H he K.rr]ai,ov hnjyr}(Tt<i, ft)9 eTnTe/jLovri 
TToXXa cruj/T0/ia)9 dirayyeTXai, roiavTTj ri<; eari. 
Kvpo<; d7T0KTeiva<; ^ Aprayepar^v ifXavvev et'9 avrov 
^aaiXea rov lttttov, Kal avro^ et9 iKelvov, d/iM(f)o- 
repoL cTKOTrfj. (pOdvei, he ^aXa>v ^ApiaLo<; 6 Kvpov 
(f>iXo<^ ^aaiXea, Kal ovk erpcoae- ^aacXevf; he 
d(f)e\<^ ro hopv K^vpov puev ovk erv^^e, ^arL<f)epvr]v 
he, TTiarbv dvhpa K^vpo) Kal yevvalov, e^aXe Kal 
2 drreKreLve. Kvpo'^ 8' eV avrov e^aKovrLaa<s hia 
rov OciipaKo^ erpcoae rb arrjOo^, oaov evhvvai hvo 
haKrvXovf; ro aKovrcov, rrecrelv he avrov vrro rf)^ 
TrXr}y7}<; aTTO rod lttttov. <^vyri<; he Kal rapa)(^fj<; 
ra>v rrepl avrov yevofievrj^;, 6 fiev dvaara^ pier 

148; 



ARTAXERXES x. t-xi. 2 

Teribazus quickly mounted him upon another horse, 
saying, '' O king, remember this day, for it deserves 
not to be forgotten " ; whereupon Cyrus again plunged 
in and dismounted Artaxerxes. But at his third 
assault, the king, being enraged, and saying to those 
who were with him that death was better, rode out 
against Cyrus, who was rashly and impetuously 
rushing upon the missiles of his opponents. The 
king himself hit him with a spear, and he was hit by 
the attendants of the king. Thus Cyrus fell, as some 
say, by a wound at the hands of the king, but as 
sundry others have it, from the blow of a Carian, who 
was rewarded by the king for this exploit with the 
privilege of always carrying a golden cock upon his 
spear in front of the line during an expedition ; for 
the Persians call the Carians themselves cocks, 
because of the crests with which they adorn their 
iielmets. 

XI. But the narrative of Ctesias, to give it in a 
much-abbreviated form, is something as follows 
After he had slain Artagerses, Cyrus rode against 
the king himself, and the king against him, both 
without a word. But Ariaeus, the friend of Cyrus, 
was beforehand in hurling his spear at the king, 
though he did not wound him. And the king, 
casting his spear at Cyrus, did not hit him, but 
struck and killed Satiphernes, a trusted friend of 
Cyrus and a man of noble birth. But Cyrus threw 
his spear at the king and wounded him in the 
breast through the cuirass, so that the weapon 
sank in two fingers deep, and the king fell from 
his horse with the blow. Amid the ensuing 
confusion and flight of his immediate followers, the 
king rose to his feet, and with a few companions 

149 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oXlyoov, ev oh koI }^rr)aLa<; rjv, Xo(f)ov riva 7r\rj- 
aiov KaraXa^ctiV rjav-)(al^e' K^vpov Be rot? iroXe- 
fjLLOi<; iveiXovfjievov 6 tTTTro? e^ecpepev vtto Ov/jlov 
fxaKpdv, 'i]Br) aKorov^ ovro^ ayvoov/juevov vtto tmu 

3 TToXefjLicov /cal ^i^rovpevov vtto Toyv (jyiXcov, iiraL- 
p6/jLevo<; Be TTj vifcr) Kal //,6crT09 (ov op/jurjf; koI 
Opdaov^ Bie^rjXavve /Soojv, " 'Fi^LaraaOe, irevi- 
'^poL''^ Tovro Be Tlepatarl 7roXXa/CL<; avrov 
/Socoi^TO?, ol fiev e^LaravTO Trpo(TfcvPGvvTe<;, airo- 
TTLTTTeL Be T?}9 K€<^aXrj(; i) ruipa rov K.vpou. Kal 
irapaTpex^fi^v veavia'^ Ilepcrrjf; ovojjui MiOpiBaTrj^i 
aKOVTiQ) /SdXXeL tov KpoTa^ov avrov irapa rov 

4 6(f)daX/jL6v, dyvocov ocrTL<i etrj' ttoXv Be alfia tov 
Tpav/jLaro<; eK/SaXovro^ IXcyyidcraf; Kal KapcodeU 
6 Kvpo<; eireae. Kal 6 fiev itttto? v7reK(pvya)v eirXd- 
^ero, TOV 8' icpLTTTreiov ttlXov diroppvevra Xa/JL^drei 
rov TOV K.vpov l3aX6vTO<s uKoXovd o^ alfxaTO^ irepL- 
TrXeo). TOV Be Kvpov Ik T179 7rXr)yf]<i dva(f)€povTa 
')(aXe7r(x)<i Kal /jl6Xl<; evvov)(OL Tive<; oXtyot iTapovTe<; 
eire'^elpovv eir dXXov Xitttov dvaOecOai Kal aco^eiv. 

6 dBwdTiOfi B' e^ovra Kal Bl avToO TTpoOvfiovpLevov 
^aBi^eLV vTroXaffovre^: r/yov, t& fiev acofxaTC KapTj- 
^apovvra Kal (T<f)aXX6/jbevov, olofxevov Be vlkciv 
uKovovTa T03V (^evyovTcov dvaKaXovp,ev(ov Kvpov 
^aathea Kal (^elBeaOat. Beopuevcov. ev Be tovto) 

K^avVLOL TLVe<i dvOpCOTTOl KaKO^lOL Kai ciTTopot Kai 

Taireivcjv vrrov pyif pdroiv eveKa Ty tov /BaaiXeco'i 
(JTpaTLa TvapaKoXovOovvTe^ eTv^ov avvavapax^ev- 

6 T69 0)9 ^iXoLfi Tols TTepl TOP KvpOV- 6t)9 Be p,oXL^ 

150 



ARTAXERXES xi. 2-6 

among whom also was Ctesias, took possession of 
a certain hill near by and remained there quietly ; 
but Cyrus, enveloped by his enemies, was borne on 
a long distance by his spirited horse, and since it 
was now dark, his enemies did not recognize him 
and his friends could not find him. But lifted up 
by his victory, and full of impetuosity and confi- 
dence, he rode on through his foes, crying out, 
^^ Clear the way, ye beggars!" Thus he cried out 
many times, in Persian, and they cleared the way, 
and made him their obeisance. But the turban of 
Cyrus fell from his head, and a young Persian, 
Mithridates by name, running to his side, smote him 
with his s})ear in the temple, near the eye, not 
knowing who he was. Much blood gushed from 
the wound, and Cyrus, stunned and giddy, fell to 
the ground. His horse escaped and wandered 
about the field, but the horse's saddle-cloth, which 
had slipped off, was captured by the attendant of 
the man who had struck Cyrus, and it was soaked 
with blood. Then, as Cyrus was slowly and with 
difficulty recovering from the blow, a few eunuchs 
who were at hand tried to put him upon another 
horse and bring him to a place of safety. But since 
he was unable to ride and desired to go on his own 
feet, they supported him and led him along. His 
head was heavy and he reeled to and fro, but he 
thought he was victorious because he heard the 
fugitives saluting Cyrus as king and begging him 
to spare them. Meanwhile some Caunians — low 
and poverty-stricken men who followed the king's 
army to do menial service — chanced to join the 
party about Cyrus, supposing them to be friends. 
But when at last they perceived that the tunics 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avvelhov ra iiriO't^paKLhia <f)oiviKa, XeuACO?? XP^' 
[xevwv Ttav ^acnXi/ccov airdvTwVy eyvaxrav TroXe- 
fiLOV<; 6vza<i. tl? ovv eKelvwv iroXfjurjaev ayvowv 
i^oiTLaOev ^akelv rov l^vpop aKovriw, Tr]<; Be 
Trepl rrjv lypvav (j)\€06<; avappayeiar)<i TreaoDV 6 
K0/)O9 afia iraiet Trpo? riVL XiOw rov rerpcofievov 
Kporacpov kol inroOvr^aKeL. tolovto<^ fxev o Krr]- 
aiov \6yo<;, M KaOdirep dju^Xel ^L^ihiw fi6Xi<i 
dvaipcov rov dvOpwirov dvyprjKev. 

XIL "HBt] Se avTov reOprj/corof; ' Apracrvpa^ o 
^aaiXeoa^ oc^OaXfio^ gtv^^v Xttttm irape^eXavvcov. 
yvcopiaa<i ovv toi;? eL'roi/^ou? oXo<pvpofievov<; 
r)pa)Tr)a€ rov TriaToraTov avrcov, '* Tlva rov- 1017 
rov, w TlaplaKa, KXaUcf; irapaKaO rj fievo^ ; " 6 3e 
elirev ** ^^X ^P^^> ^ 'Apraavpa, K.vpov reOvr]- 
Kora ; " OavjJidcra^ ovv 6 'Apraavpa^ tw fxev 
€vvovx<p Oappelv irapeKeXevaaro koX (f)vXdrT€iv 

2 rov v6Kp6v, av7o<i he (TvvTeiva<^ irpos: rov 'Apro- 
^ep^Tjv, aTTeyvcoKora fxev r/Br) rd rrpdyixara, KaKw^ 
he /cat ro aM/xa hiaKeifxevov vtto re hl\jrr)(; koI 
rov rpavfiara, x^^P^^ (f)pd^eL o)? avrb<; ihoi 
redvrjKora K.vpov. o he Trpcorov fiev evOu^ (op- 
lj.y)a€v avro^ levai, koI rov ^Apraavpav dyeiv 
exeXevcrev eVl rov roiroV iirel he ttoXl/? rjv X6yo<f 
ra>v 'KXXr]va)v kol <p6^0(; o)? hicoKovrcov xal rrdvra 
viKwvrcov Kal Kparovvrcov, eho^e TrXeiova^ Tre/jLyjrai 
rov^ KaroyjrofjLevovi' Kal rpidKOvra XafMrrdha^^ 

3 ex^vre^ e7re/jL(f)6r]crav. avrw he fxiKpov diroXei- 
TTOvri rov redvdvai hid ro hiyjrrjv ^art.^ap^dvr)<i 
152 



ARTAXERXES xi. 6-xii. 3 

over their breastplates were of a purple colour, 
whereas all the king's people wore white ones, they 
knew that they were enemies. Accordingly, one 
of them, not knowing who Cyrus was, ventured to 
smite him from behind with his spear. The vein 
in the ham of Cyrus was ruptured and he fell, and 
at the same time struck his wounded temple against 
a stone, and so died. Such is the story of Ctesias, 
in which, as with a blunt sword, he is long in killing 
Cyrus, but kills him at last. 

XII. VVlien Cyrus was now dead, Artasyras, the 
king's Eye,^ chanced to pass by on horseback, and 
recognizing the eunuchs as they lamented, he asked 
the trustiest of them, ^' Who is this man, Pariscas, 
by whom thou sittest mourning?" And Pariscas 
answered : " O Artasyras, dost thou not see Cyrus 
dead .^ " Astonished at this, then, Artasyras bade 
the eunuch be of good courage and guard the dead 
body, but he himself went in hot haste to Artaxerxes 
(who had already given up his cause for lost, and 
besides was physically in a wretched plight from 
thirst and from his wound), and joyfully told him 
that with his own eyes he had seen Cyrus dead. 
At first the king promptly set out to go in person 
to the place, and ordered Artasyras to conduct him 
thither; but since there was much talk about the 
Greeks, and it was feared that they were pursuing 
and conquering and making themselves masters 
everywhere, he decided to send a larger company 
to see where Cyrus lay. So thirty men were sent, 
with torches. Meanwhile, since the king was 
almost dead with thirst, Satibarzanes the eunuch 

* A confidential ofiicer of high rank, a Superintendent of 
the Realm. 

VOL. xr. F ^53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€vvov)(o<^ irepiOewv i^Tjrei ttotop' oxj yhp eZ^c 
TO ')((t)pinv vBcop, ovSe r)v iyyii<; to a-rparoTreSov- 
/jLoXc<; ovv eTTiTvy^^^dvec rcov J^avvlcov i/celvcov tcov 
KaKo^iwv kvo<i iv (ktklw (f)av\(p Bc€(f)dap/ji€Pov 
vScop Kol TTOvrjpov exovTOf;, ocrov oktcd KOTv\a<;' 
KUL XajScbv TOVTO KoX KOfjLlaa<; rat ^acriKel hlBcoa-iv. 
eKiriovra he airav r/pcorrjaep el /xt) irdvv Sucr^e- 

4 paivei TO TTOTov. 6 Be cofxoae tov<; 6€ov<^ /jltJtc 
olvov Tjhew's ol;t&)9 TrcoTrore TreiroDKivav fi7]T€ vScop 
TO KovcfiOTaTov Kol /cadapcoTaTOP, ^''Tlcrre/' e^r;, 
" TOP SoPTa (joi TOVTO dpOpcoTTOP, oiP iyo) fxrj 
SvprjOco ^r]T7](Ta<; cifxei'^aa-Oai, tov^ Oeov^i €V')(piJLaL 
7T0ir](Tat fjuaKapLOP koI 7r\ovaiop>^* 

XIII. 'Ei^ Se TOVTW irpocFrjXavpop at TptuKOPTa 
XafXTTpol KOL 7r€pi')(^ap€L<;, dpayyeKXoPTe^ avTw ttjp 
(ipeXiTicrTOP evTvx^ciP. rjhrj he Ka\ 'jfXrjOei tcov 
avpTpe^oPTcop ttoKlp irpo^; avTOP koI avpiaTUfie- 
pcop iddppet, KOL KaTe^atpep diro tov \6^ov (f)0)Tl 

2 TToXXft) 7T€pi\a/jL7r6/jLepo<^. o)? he eireaTrj tm peKpw, 
KoX KaTCL hrj TLPa pofiop Uepacop r) he^ia %etp 
direKoTTT] KoX r) KecpaXy tov (rQ>/iaT0<;, i/ceXevcre 
Tr)p Ke(j)aXrjp avTw Koiiiadrjpai' kol t% Ko/ir}<; 
hpa^dfiepo<i ovarj'i /Sadela^ koX Xaaia'; eireheLKPve 
Tot9 dfKpiho^ovaip eTL kol ^evyovaip. oi he 
eOavfia^oP koI TrpoaeKvvovp, waTC Ta')(v fivptdha^; 
efTTcnrepl avTOP yepeaOac Koi avpeKreXdaai TraXtp 

3 €69 TO cTTpaTorrehoP' i^eXriXuKei he, oo? o K.T7](Tia<i 
(f)i]aLP, eirl ttjp fid^r^p Teaaapd/copra /jLvpidcriP' 

01 he irepl Aelpcopa Kal 'E^eporjiSypTa iroXv 7rXeiOPa<i 
yepeaOai Xeyovai Ta<; fie/j,axvf^^^^'^' dpiOfiop he 
peKpcop 6 KTrjaLa<; epaKL(T^iXiov<; dpepex'^^vai 

154 



ARTAXERXES xtt. 3-xiii. 3 

ran about in quest of a drink for him ; for the place 
had no water, and the camp was far away. At last, 
then, he came upon one of those low Caunians, who 
had vile and polluted water in a wretched skin, 
about two quarts in all : this he took, brought it to 
the king, and gave it to him. After the king had 
drunk it all off, the eunuch asked him if he was not 
altogether disgusted with the drink. But the king 
swore by the gods that he had never drunk wine, 
or the lightest and purest water, with so much 
pleasure. "Therefore," said the king, '^if I should 
be unable to find and reward the man w'ho gave 
thee this drink, I pniy the gods to make him ricli 
and happy." 

XIII. And now the thirty messengers came riding 
up with joy and exultation in their faces, announcing 
to the king his unexpected good fortune. Presently^ 
too, he was encouraged by the number of men who 
flocked back to him and formed in battle array, and 
so he came down from the hill under the light of 
many torclies. And after he had halted at the dead 
body of Cyrus, and its right hand and head had been 
cut off (in accordance with a law of the Persians), 
he ordered the head to be brought to him ; and 
grasping it by the hair, which was long and bushy, 
he showed it to those who were still wavering and 
disposed to fly. These were amazed, and made 
obeisance to the king, so that very soon seventy 
thousand men were about him and marched back 
with him to their camp. He had marched out to 
the battle, as Ctesias says, with four hundred 
thousand men. But Deinon and Xenophon say that 
the army which fought under him was much larger. 
As to the number of his dead, Ctesias says that it 

155 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<f>'r](rt. 7rpo9 rov Apro^ep^rjv, avTO) Be Bia/jLvpicov 
ovK iXdrrov; <^avr}vai tov<; Keifievov^. ravra jiev 
ovv e^ei Sia/jL(f)ia,8^T7jaiv' ixetvo he rov Krrjatov 
Xa/jLirpov ijBr) xjreva/j^a, to 7r€fjb(j)0rjvaL (pdvat 7rpb<{ 
rou^'' EWr}va<i avrbv fierd ^aXivov rov ZaKvvdiov 
4 /cat TLVodv dWcoV' o yap 'E<€VO(f>(ov rjTrLararo 
(Tvphiar pil3ovTa fiaaiXel J^rrjcrlav' fjbi/jivfjrai <ydp 

aVTOV Kol Tol'^ yStySXtOi? T0UT0f9 . ivT€rV')(T]KQ}<; 

5?}Xo<? iariv' ouk av ovv eXOovra kol Xoycov 
ToaovTcov epfirjvea yevofievov iraprfKev clvcovv/jLOv, 
<i>aXti>ov Be rov ZukvpOlov oavofia^ev- dXXd Bai- 
u,ovi(i}<^ o K.r7j(TLa<;, co? eoiKe, (J>lX6tiixo<; k)v fcal 
^^X V'^'^ov (jiiXoXaKcov kol ^iXoKXeap^o^ del TLva<; 
iv rrj BirjyrjcreL ')(d>pa<; eavrco BiBcoaiv, ev al<; 
yevo/jLevof; iroXXd kul KaXd fxefivrjaeTai K.X€dp)(^ov 
Koi r?)? AaKehaifxovo^. 

XIV. Mera Be rr-jv fid')(7)v Boypa KuXXiara jxev 
e^eTre/jLyjre Kal i-ieyiGja rw \\pTayep<Jov iraiBl rov 
7rea6vTo<; vtto Js^vpov, KaXct)<; Be /cat KrrjcrLav 
fcal TOv<; ttXXof ? irifirja-e. rov Be J^avviov eKslvov 
i^av€vp(i)v, 0? CTreBcoKe to daKtov, e^ uBo^ov Kal 
7rivr)T0<i evri/iov Kal TrXovcLov e7roor)(reV' r)v Be ti<; 
eiTifieXeia Kal irepl Ta9 rayv e^aixapTovTwv BiKat- 
2 (ioa€i<;. ^Ap/3dK)]v fiev ydp riva MrjBov ev rrj p-d')(rj 101 J 
Trpo? Kvpov (pvyoura Kal irdXiv eKeivov ireaovro^; 
fxeraaravra, BeiXiav Kal fiaXaKiav KaTayvov<^, ov 
irpoBoaiav ovBe KaKovoiav, eKeXevae yv/ivyv dva- 
Xnj36vTa TTopvrjv irepi^dB'qv eirl rov t pa')(i'^Xov Bl 
r)pbepa<; oXrj'^ ev dyopa irepK^epeiV' erepov Be Trpo? 



1 A>iab. ii. 1. 7-23. 
'56 



i 



ARTAXERXES xiii. 3-xiv. 2 

\v:\s reported to Artaxerxes as nine thousand, but 
that he himself thought the slain no fewer than 
twenty thousand. This matter, then, is in dispute. 
But it is certainly a glaring falsehood on the part of 
Ctesias to say that he was sent to the Greeks along 
with Phalinus the Zacynthian and certain others. 
For Xenoj)hon knew that Ctesias was in attendance 
upon the king, since he makes mention of him and 
had evidently read his works ; if, then, Ctesias had 
come to the Greeks and served as an interpeter in 
so momentous a colloquy, Xenophon would not 
have left him nameless and named only Phalinus 
the Zacynthian. 1 The truth is that Ctesias, being 
prodigiously ambitious, as it would seem, and none 
the less partial to Sparta and to Clearchus, always 
allows considerable space in his narrative for himself, 
and there he will say many fine things about 
Clearchus and Sparta. 

XIV. After the battle, the king sent the largest 
and most beautiful gifts to the son of that Artagerses 
who fell at the hands of Cyrus ; he also gave gener- 
ous rewards to Ctesias and others, and when he had 
found out the Caunian who had given him the skin 
of water, he raised him from obscurity and poverty 
to honour and wealth. There was much watchful 
care also in his punishment of those who had 
gone wrong. For example, in the case of Arbaces, a 
Mede, who had run away to Cyrus during the battle, 
and, when Cyrus fell, had changed back again, the 
king pronounced him guilty, not of treachery, nor 
even of malice, but of cowardice and weakness, and 
ordered him to take a naked harlot astride his neck 
and carry her about in the market-place for a whole 
day. And in the case of another man, who, besides 

157 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ra> fji€TaaTr}vaL yjrevcrafJLevov Kara/SaXeLv Bvo tmv 
TToXe/iLcov, irpoaera^e SiairelpaL rpicrl ^ekovat<; 

3 Tr]v yXcjTTav. olojjievo^ he fcal ^ovX6/i€Vo<; SokcIv 
Koi \e<y€iv 7rdvTa<; avOpcoTrov^ tw? avro^i anreKTovoL 
K.vpov, ^liOpiSdrr] re rw ^aXovTL TrpcoTM K.vpov 
i^eTTe/jLyjre Saypa kol Xeyecv CKeXevae roi/? BiBovTa<i 
ft)9 ** TouTOt? a€ TLfia 6 /SacrtXeL'? ort tov c^itt- 
ireiov J^vpov ttlXov evpoov dvrjveyKa^'^^ rov he 
Kap6<;, ixp^ ov T7)v lyvvav TrXTjyel'; 6 Kvpo<; eirecre, 
KOL avrov hcopeav alTOvvro<^, eKeXevaev eiirelv tou? 
hihovra^i OTi "2ol ravra hthcoaiv ^acrtXeu? evay- 
yeXicov hevrepela' 7rpcoro<; yap 'ApTaavpa<;, fier 
ifcetvov he av rrjv ¥ivpov reXevrrjv dirrjyyeLXa'^^* 

4 6 ix€v ovv MiOpihdT7)(; dirrfxOe aicoTrfj XvTTOVfxevo^' 
TOV he aOXiov Kapa koivov tl irdOo^ e^ d^eXrepia^t 
Karecr^e, hia(pOapel<; yap virb tcjv irapovrcov, co? 
eoiKev, dyaOoiV, kul dvaTTeL(Tde\<i evOv^ avrLiroiel- 
adai Twi' virep avrov, ovk ^^lov ra hoOevra 
fxidOov evayyeXicov €)(^€LV, dX\^ rjyavdKret fiaprvpo- 
fjL€vo<i Kal /Socov 6t(, Kvpov ovheU €T€po<;, aW' 
auTO? direKTovoi, Kal rrjv ho^av dhiKa><i diroare- 
potro. raura he dfcovaa<; o /3ao"tXet'9 (T(f>6hpa 
Trapfo^vvdT] Kal ttjv KecfiaXyjv cKeXeuaev dnoTe/jLelv 

6 rov dvdpdiTTOV. irapovcra 3' »; /jbrjrrjp, " M?) au 
ye," elirev, ** ovtco tov }Ldpa tovtov, w ^aaiXev, 
TOV oXeOpov diT aXXd^7}<; , dXXa Trap efxov tov 
a^LOV diroXrj^eTat. fnadov wv ToXfia Xeyeiv.^* 
eTTLTpe-ylravTOf; he tov ^ao-iXeco^i CKeXevae tol/? 
eirl Twi^ Tificopicjv rj TlapvcraTi<i Xa^6vTa<i top 
.j8 



ARTAXERXES xiv. 2-5 

going over to the enemy, had lyingly boasted that 
he had slain two of them, the king ordered that his 
tongue should be pierced with three needles. 
Moreover, believing, and wishing all men to think, 
and say, that he had killed Cyrus with his own hand, 
he sent gifts to Mithridates, the one who first hit 
Cyrus, and ordered the bearers of the gifts to say : 
"This is thy reward from the king because thou 
didst find and bring to him the trappings of the 
horse of Cyrus." Again, when the Carian, from 
whom Cyrus received the blow in the ham which 
brought him down, asked that he also should receive 
a gift, the king ordered its bearers to say : " The 
king gives thee these things as a second prize for 
i^ood tidings ; for Artasyras came first, and after him 
thou didst come, with tidings of the death of Cyrus." 
Now, Mithridates went away without a word, 
although he was vexed ; but the wretched Carian, in 
his folly, gave way to a common feeling. That is, 
he was corrupted, it would seem, by the good things 
which he had, and led by them to aspire at once to 
things beyond his reach, so that he would not deign 
to take the gifts as a reward for good tidings, but 
was indignant, calling men to witness and crying in 
loud tones that it was he himself, and no one else, 
who had killed Cyrus, and that he was unjustly 
robbed of his glory. When the king heard of this, 
he was vehemently angry and gave orders that the 
man should be beheaded. Whereupon the king's 
mother, who was present, said to him : " O King, do 
not let this accursed Carian off so easily, but leave 
him to me, and he shall receive the fitting reward 
for his daring words." So the king consigned the 
man to Parysatis, who ordered the executioners to 

159 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dvOpcoirov i(p' r)/jL€pa<; Sefca arpe&Kovv, elra toi/? 
6(f>daX/jLov<; e^opv^avra^ eh ra ayja Oepfibv ivrrj- 
Keiv ')(a\Kov ea)<; airoddvr}. 

XV. Ka/to)? ^6 dircoXero koX M.1O piSdrrjfi fier 
oXiyov 'X^povov Ik t/^9 avrr}^ dpeX.T€pia<;, kXtjOcU 
yap €7rl heliTvov evOa koI ^aaiXeco^^; Kal rfj^i [xr)- 
T/309 evvov')(pL 'jraprjaav, r)Kev iadr^Tt Kal y^puaw 

2 KeKoa/jLi-jfiivo^; oh eXajSe irapd /3aaL\e(t)<i. irrel Be 
eh TO iTiveLV d(fiLKOvrOy Xiyet tt/oo? avrop 6 /xeyc- 
arov Bvpd/ievo<; rayv YlapvadTi8o<i evvov)(^cop' " 12? 
KaXifV fiev ea-Orjrd aoi ravT7]v, &> M-LOpiBdra, 
^aaiXevs BeBcoKe, KoXd Be arpeirrd koI '^eXiw 
TToXXov Be d^io<; 6 dKivdKr)<;. i) p,aKdpi6v ere Kal 
TTepi^XeTTTov diracn TTeiroii^KevJ^ ijBrf Be fieOvoyv 
o Mi9pLBdTT]<^, **Tfc Be rauTa iariv,'^ elirev, " o) 
'^TTapap.L^rj ; jjiei^ovcou yap eyco Kal KaXXiovcov 
/SacrtXel ri^v rj/juepav eKeiV7]v d^iov i/xavrov irap- 

3 eayov^ Kal 6 ^Trapa/xt^?;? eiri fieiBidaa^i, " ^06vo<; 
fiei' ouSe/?, 0) M.iOpiBuTa,'' elirev ** enrel Be (fiacriv 
' EXXr/i^e? OLvov Kal dXrjOeiav elvai, tl Xa/jLirpov, co 
rap, 7] fieya, ttlXop evpelv Xttttov Trepcppuepra Kal 
TOVTOP dpeveyKeiP ; " ravTa Be ovk dypooop to 
aA,77^e9 eXeyep, dXXd /3ovX6p,epo<; eKKaXvyjraL 7rpo<i 
TOv<i TrapGPTaf; VTreKipei ttjp Kov<^6rr}Ta rov dv- 
OpcoTTov XdXov Kal aKparov^ yeyoporo^; Bid top 

4 oIpop. elirep ovp firj Karaa^cop' "'TyueZ? flip, 6 ri 
^ovXeade, ttlXov^ Xeyere Kal (j)Xvdpov^' 670) Be 
vpup Xeyco BLapptjBrjp viro Tavrrjf; dprjpTjaOai 
Kvpop T^9 ')(^eip6^. ov yap oi)^ ^ A pTay€par)<; -j^kop- 
riaa Kepop Kal fidraLOP, dXXa rov fiep 6(f)0aX/jLov 



160 



ARTAXERXES xiv. 5-xv. 4 

take him and rack him on the wheel for ten days, 
then to gouge out his eyes, and finally to drop molten 
brass into his ears until he died. 

XV. Mithridates also came to a miserable end a 
little while after, owing to the same folly. For 
being invited to a banquet at which eunuchs of the 
king and of the queen-mother were present, he 
came decked out with raiment and gold which he 
had received from the king. And when the company 
were at their cups, the chief eunuch of Parysatis 
said to him : " Mithridates, how beautiful this 
raiment is which the king gave thee, and how 
beautiful the collars and bracelets ! Costly, too, is 
thy scimitar. Verily the king has made thee happy 
in the admiring eyes of all men." Then Mithridates, 
now flushed with wine, replied : ^'Sparamizes, what 
do these things amount to? Surely my services to 
the king on that day were worthy of greater and 
more beautiful gifts." Here Si)aramizes smiled at 
him and said : " There's no grudging them to thee, 
Mithridates ; but since, according to the Greek 
maxim, there is truth in wine, what great or brilliant 
exploit was it, my good fellow, to find a horse's 
trappings that had slipped off, and bring them to the 
king.'*" In saying this, Sparamizes was not ignor- 
ant of the truth, but he wished to unveil Mithridates 
to the company, and therefore slyly stirred up his 
vanity when wine had made him talkative and 
robbed him of self-control. Accordingly, Mithridates 
threw away constraint and said : " Ve may talk as 
ye please about horse-trappings and such nonsense ; 
but 1 declare to you explicitly that Cyrus was slain 
by this hand of mine ; for I did not, like Artagerses, 
make a futile and an idle cast of spear, but I 

161 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fiiKpov rffiapTov, rov Be Kpordcpov rv)(^oi)v koX BieXd' 
aa<; Kare/SaXov rov dvhpa' xal ridvrjKCv utt' ixel- 
5 vov Tov rpavp,aTO^y ol fiev ovv dWoi to r€.\,o<; 
riBrj Tov MiOpLhdrov koX ttjv KaKohatfioviav opcov- 
T€9 6t? Tr)v yi]v eKvyjrav' 6 3' ecmwv avrov^, "^fl 1019 
rav^^ €(f)y], ** MiOpiSdra, Trlvcopev ev ro) wapovri 
KoX €adiwp,ev tov l3aaL\ecD<; Baip^ova irpoaKWOvv- 
T€9, X070U9 Bk /xet^of? rj Kad r)pa^ €acra)/A€^»." 

XVL 'Ea: rovTov rfj p.ev YVapvadTLBi, (f>pd^ei 
TOV \6yov 6 6vvov)(^o';, €k€LV7} Be jSaaiXel' ^acriXev^ 
Be rj^avaKTrjaev coairep e^eXey^^op^evoi; kcu to 
KdWiaTOV KoX 7]BicrTOV diroWvdiv r^? VLKr}<;. 
i^ovXeTO yap ^ap^dpov<; drravTaf; Treireladai, KaX 
"K\X7)va<i &)? ev rcti? e^eXdaecn xal crvp^TrXoKalf; 
Sou? Kol Xa^(i)v TrXrjyrjv eTpcodrj pev auTO?, e/c- 
T€Lve Be eKelvov. eKeXevaev ovv tov M.tOptBdTr]v 
diToOavelv aKa(f)ev6evTa. 

2 To Be aKacfievOfjvac tolovtov ccrrt* aKd^afj Bvo 
TreTTOirjpeva'i e(l)app,6^€iv dXX7J\ai<; XaffovTe^;, €t? 
T7)v eTepav KaTaKXivovat tov KoXa^6p.evov vtttiov 
elra t7]v eTepav eirdyovTe^ Kal avvapp,6^ovTe<i, 
coaTe Ti]v K€(f)aXr}v Kal ra? ')(^elpa^ e^co xal T0v<i 
iroBa^i diroXap^dveadaLt to Be dXXo a(t)p,a irdv 
d7roKeKpv(p6ai, BiBoacrtv eadieLv tS) dvOpcoTTM, xdv 
p>Tj deXr}, Trpoaj^id^ovTai K€vtovvt€^ tcl 6pp,aTa' 
(f>ay6vTc Be ircelv p^eXt, Kal ydXa (rvyK€Kpap,€Vov 
ey')(eovaLV 6^9 to <JTo/xa Kal KaTa tov TrpoacoTrov 

3 KaTa')(eovo-t,v. elTa 7rp6<i tov rjXtov del aTp€<f>ov- 
aiv iuavTLa to, oppaTa, Kal p,vici>v TrpoaKadrjpe- 
162 



ARTAXERXES xv. 4-xvi. 3 

narrowly missed his eye, struck him in the temple, 
pierced it, and brought the man down ; and it was 
of that wound that he died." The rest of the com- 
pany, then, who already saw the end of Mithridates 
and his hapless fate, bowed their faces towards the 
ground ; and tlieir host said : " My good Mithridates, 
let us eat and drink now, revering the good genius 
of the king, and let us waive discourse that is too 
weighty for us." 

XVI. Afterwards the eunuch told the matter 
to Parysatis, and she to the king ; and the king 
was incensed, as being openly convicted of false- 
hood, and likely to forfeit the fairest and most 
pleasing feature of his victory. For he wished that 
all Barbarians and all Greeks should be fully 
persuaded that when he and his brother had charged 
and grappled with each other, he had given and 
received a blow, being only wounded himself, but 
killing his brother. He therefore gave orders that 
Mithridates should be put to death by the torture 
of the boats. 

Now, this torture of the boats is as follows. Two 
boats are taken, which are so made as to fit over one 
another closely ; in one of these the victim is laid, 
flat upon his back ; then the other is laid over the 
first and carefully adjusted, so that the victim's head, 
hands, and feet are left projecting, while the rest of 
his body is completely covered up. I'hen they give 
him food to eat, and if he refuse it, they force him to 
take it by pricking his eyes. After he has eaten, 
they give him a mixture of milk and honey to drink, 
pouring it into his mouth, and also deluge his face 
with it. Then they keep his eyes always turned 
towards the sun, and a swarm of flies settles down 

163 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

V03V 7rXri6o<; irav dTroKpvirTerac to TrpoacoiTov. 
ivTo^i Be TTOiovvTO^ oaa TToielv avayKolov iariv 
ea9L0VTa<^ avdpoorrov^i koI TTivovra^;, evXal Kal 
aKCjo\7]Ke<s VTTO (^6opa<; koI (T7]7r€S6vo<; €k rov 
7r6pLTTco/j.aT0<; ava^eovaiv, vcf)^ oop avaXLorKerai to 
4 aoyfia SiaSvo/iepcov et? to. evr6<;. orav yap i^Sy 
<^avepo<; y reOpiiKoof; 6 dvOpo)7ro<;, cK^aLpedeidrji; 
rrj^ 67ruva) aKd(f)y<; opcoai, rrjv fiev crapxa Kareu/j- 
h€(T/jL€Pqv, TTepl Be id (j-n\dyyya tolovtwv Orjploji' 
€afiov<; iaOiovTddv koI nrpoGTrec^vKorcDV. outo)? 
6 Mi^/OiSar?;? kirraKaiBeKa i)fjL6pa<; <p0€ip6p.€vo<i 
yxoX-t? direOave. 

XVIL AoiTTo? B' r]v rfi UapvcrdriBi, a/coTrof} 6 
rrju K€(f)aXr]p dTTorefxtov koX t7]v %et/3a rov l^vpov 
Ma(Ta^'irr)<;, ^aatXico^; €uvov)(o^. &)? ovv at'TO? 
ouBefiiav Ka6^ eavrov Xa^rjv irapeBLBov, roiovrov 

2 i7ri/3ov\T]<; rpoirov t) UapvaaTi^; cyvvedriKev. yv 
rd re dWa 6vfJi6ao<^o<; yvvrj Kal Beivrj fcv^eumv 
Bio Kal ^acTLXel irpo rov TroXe/xov iroWdKL^ avv- 
€Kv^ev€' fxerd Be rov irokepLov BiaXvOelaa 7r/?09 
avrov ovK ecpevye ra? <^iXo<^poavva^, dWa Kal 
avveTrai^e Kal rciiv ipwTLKOiv eKOLVcovei av/MTrpdr- 
Tovaa Kal irapovaa, Kal oXoj'i fiLKpojarov avrov 
rff ^rareipa fiereBiBov ')(p7]cr0at Kal avpelvav, 
fjLiaovadre fidXiara 7rdvT(ov cKeivyv Kal ybkyiGTOv 

3 avT^] ^ovXafxevr) BvvaaOaL. Xa^ovcra By irore rov 

Apro^ep^rjv dippLrjiievov dXveLV cr')(oXr)<; ovay<^ 
irpovKaXelro irepl x^Xicov BapeuKcov Kv^evaar Kal 
Kv^evovra irepielBe vLKrjcraL Kal ro '^(^pvalop dir- 
eBcoKe. irpoairoLOVfjiepr] Be dptdaOai Kal <f)iXopet- 



164 



ARTAXERXES xvi. 3-xvii. 3 

upon his face and hides it completely. And since 
inside tlie boats he does what must needs be done 
when men eat and drink, worms and maggots seethe 
up from the corruption and rottenness of the excre- 
ment, devouring his body, and eating their way into 
his vitals. For when at last the man is clearly dead 
and the upper boat has been removed, his flesh is 
seen to have been consumed away, while about his 
entrails swarms of such animals as I have mentioned 
are clinging fast and eating. In this way Mithridates 
was slowly consumed for seventeen days, and at last 
died. 

XVI I. And no'v there was one mark left for the 
vengeance of Parvsatis — the man who had cut off the 
head and right hand of Cyrus, Masabates, an eunuch 
of the king. Against this man, then, since he him- 
self gave her no chance to get at him, Parysatis 
concocted a plot of the following sort. She was in 
general an ingenious woman, and greatly addicted 
to playing at dice. For this reason she frequently 
played at dice with the king before the war, and 
after the war was over and she had been reconciled 
with him, she di-^ not try to avoid his friendly over- 
tures, but actually joined in his diversions, and took 
])art in his amours by her cooperation and presence, 
and, in a word, left very little of the king for 
Stateira's use and society. For she hated Stateira 
above all others, and wished to have the chief 
influence herself. So, one day, finding Artaxerxes 
trving to amuse himself in a vacant hour, she 
challenged him to play at dice for a thousand darics, 
allowed him to win the game, and paid the money 
down. Then, pretending to be chagrined at her loss 
and to seek revenge, she challenged the king to play 

165 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ketv eKeXevaev avdi<; e^ <^PXV^ irepi €vvov')(ov 

4 ScaKV^evaar KaKelvo^ vTTTjKOvae. TroitjadfievoL Be 
(Tvv6rjKa<; irevre fjuev eKarepov vire^eXicrOai tov<; 
TTiCTTordrov^, ifc Se tmv Xoittcov ov up 6 vlkwv 
eXrjraL, Bovvai tov rjTTcofievov, cttI tovtoi<; €kv- 
fievov. a<f>6Spa Srj yevo/jiivr] tt/^o? tm Trpdyfiari 
KoX airovBdcracra irepl rrjv iraihidvy ev Be 7r&>9 
avrfj KoX TMV Kv^cov ireaovTcoVy viKrjcraaa Xafi^d- 
v€L TOV ^laaafBdrriv ov yap rjv ev rol'i VTre^rjpr)- 

5 p,€voL(;. Koi Trplv ev viroyjrLa yeveaOai ^aauXea 
TOV 7rpdy/jLaTo<i eyx^tpLO-acra to2<; eVt tmv Tifia)- 
pca)v Trpocrera^ev eKBelpai ^(ovtu, koX to fiev aw/xa 
irXdyiov Bid Tptcov aTavpcov dvairrj^aL, to Be Beppua 
X^p"^^ BiairaTTaXevcrai. yevopLevcov Be tovtcov kol 
^acTiXew^ ;^a\G7rft)9 (f)epovTo<; koI Trapo^vvop^evov 
7rpo<; avTT]v, elpcovevopyevrj pueTa yeXcoTo^;, '* H? 
r;Su9," e<j)aa/cev, ** el fcal p,aKdpLo<;, el ^aXeTrati'et? 
Bid yepovTa irovrjpov evvov^ov, eyco Be '^iXiov<; e/c- 

6 Kv^evOelaa Bap€iKov<; (tlcotto) koX crTepyw.^ /Satri- 
Xevs p,€v ovv e<l> ol? e^rjiraTrjOi] p,eTap,e\6pLevo<^ 
ijavx^'^i^ Vy^^f V ^^ ^TdTeipa koi 7rpo<; TaXXa 
4>avepo)^ rjvavTiovTo koX tovtol^ €Bva)(^epaiv€v, &)? 
dvSpa<; evuovxov(; teal tticttov^ ^acnXel Btd Kvpov 
(i)pL(t)<; KOL irapavopLoy^ diroXXvovar]'; avT7)<;. 

XVIII. 'ETTet Be KXeapxov kol tou? dXXov<; 1020 
aTpaTTjyov^ Ttaa(f>epvr]<; e^TjirdTrjae fcat, Trap- 
earrovBrjaev opKcov yevopbevcov kol crvXXa^cov dv- 
eirepi'yjrev ev TreBai^ BeBep^evov;, BerjOrjvai <f)7)(Ttv 
avTOv TOV KXeap^ov 6 KTrjacaf; 07r&)9 KTevo^ 
euTToprjaeLe. TV-^ovTa Be kul T'qpeX-qcravTa tijv 
K€(f)aXr]v rjaOfjiai re Trj %/3€fca fcal tov BaKTvXiov 

i66 



ARTAXERXES xvii. 3-xviii. i 

a second game, with an eunuch for the stake, and 
tlie king consented. They agreed that both might 
reserve tive of their most trusty eunuchs, but that 
from the rest the loser must give whichever one the 
winner might select, and on these conditions played 
their game. Parysatis took the matter much to 
heart and was in great earnest with her playing, and 
since the dice also fell in her favour, she won the 
game, and selected Masabates ; for he was not among 
those who had been excepted. And before the king 
suspected her design, she put the eunuch in the 
hands of the executioners, who were ordered to 
Hay him alive, to set up his body slantwise on 
tliree stakes, and to nail up his skin to a fourth. 
This was done, and when the king was bitterly 
incensed at her, she said to him, with a mocking 
laugh : " What a blessed simpleton thou art, to be 
incensed on account of a wretched old eunuch, when 
I, who have diced away a thousand darics, accept my 
loss without a word." So the king, although sorry 
that he had been deceived, kept quiet in the matter, 
but Stateira openly opposed Parysatis in other things, 
and above all was angry with her because, for the 
sake of Cyrus, she was cruelly and lawlessly })utting 
to death eunuchs and others who were faithful to 
the king. 

XVI II. Now, when Clearchus and his fellow- 
generals had been completely deceived by Tissa- 
phernes.^ and, contrary to solemn oaths, had been 
seized and sent up to the king in chains, Ctesias 
tells us that he was asked by Clearchus to provide 
him with a comb. Clearchus got the comb and 
dressed his hair, and being pleased at the service 

^ Cf. Xenophon, Anab. ii. 6. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTw Sovpai av/jb/SoXov <pL\la<; tt/jo? tou9 €v 
Aa/ceSai/jLOVL crvyy€V€t<; koI olKeiov^' eivai Be 
yXvcfyrjV iv rfj acppaylBt KapvdTL8a<; 6p^ov/j,€va<i. 

2 TO, Se irep^TTOpeva (TLiia ray KXedpy^ro rov<; crvv- 
B€8efM€vov<; (TTpaTicora<; d^aipelaOai Kai fcar- 
ava\L(T/c€iv,6\iya rco K.\€dp)(^fp Bi86vTa<; utt avrayi/. 
IdaaaOat, Be koX tovto ^rjGLV 6 Kr7]aLa<;, rrXeiova 
T(p KXedpx^ ire paired 6 at Bia7rpa^dp,evo<;, IBia Be 
erepa T019 aTpandiraL^ BiBoadar kol ravra p,ev 
vTTOvpyijcraL Kal irapaayelv ')(^dpiTL fcal yvoapLrj rrjf; 

3 YlapvadTiBo<^. Trep^iropevov Be KaO^ rjp,epav tm 
K.X€dp)(^a) K(oXi)vo<i iirl rol<^ cnnoL^, Trapa/ca^elv 
auTov Kal BiBdaKeiv &)<? ^^p?) fXLKpov et? to Kpea<; 
ep,l3a\6vTa paxaipiov diroKpyy^ravia Trep^yjrai kol 
p,T] irepiiBelv ev rfj ^aatXeoy^ wp^orijri to re\o<; 
avTOu yevopevov avTo<; Be (f)o/3ovp,evo(; pLt] eOekrj- 
aac. ffaaiXea Be rfj pbev p^rjrpl Trapairovp^evrj 
prj KTelvai Tov l^Xeap')(ov opoXoyrjcrac Kai op^oarar 
ireLaOevra Be avOi^ vtto t/)? ^Tareipa^i diroKTelvai 

4 TrdifTas ttXtju ^€V(ovo<;. €K Be tovtov tijv Tiapv- 
craTiv eTTi^ovXevaaL rrj 'Erarelpa Kal avaKevd- 
aaaOai ttjv (pappaKeuav Kar auTfj<;, ovk etKora 
Xeyfov, dXXd iroXXrjV dXoyiav e)(0VTa Tr}<; aLTia<;, 
el Betvov epyov ovTcof; eBpacre koX TrapeKivBvvevcrev 
rj HapvaaTL<s Bid KXeap^ov, dveXelv ToXp^rjaaaa 
rrjv yvrjaiav ^aaiXe(t)<; yvvalKa Kal tckvcdv kolvco- 

& vov eirl ^acnXeia rpe(Popev(ov. dXXa ravra p,ev 
OVK dBrjXov ft)9 eiTiTpayfpBelTai rfi K.Xeap-)(ov 
pvf']pr). Kal yap dvatpeOevrayv (^-qal rthv arpa- 
rtjyoji' Tou? pev d\.Xov<; vtto kvvcov airapaTTeaOai 



168 



ARTAXERXES x\'iii. 1-5 

rendered, gave Ctesias his ring as a token of friend- 
ship which he might show to his kindred and friends 
in Sparta ; and the device in the seal was a group of 
dancing Caryatides. Moreover, as Ctesias says, the 
provisions sent to Clearchus were seized by the 
soldiers in captivity with him, who consumed them 
freely and gave only a small part of them to Cle- 
archus. This hardship also Ctesias says he remedied, 
by getting more provisions sent to Clearclius, and a 
separate supply given to the soldiers; and these 
services he says he rendered and performed to please 
Pary satis, and at her suggestion. He says further 
that a flitch of bacon was sent to Clearchus every 
day to supplement his rations, and that Clearchus 
earnestly advised him that he ought to bury a small 
knife in the meat and send it to him thus hidden 
away, and not allow his fate to be determined by the 
cruelty of the king ; but he was afraid, and would 
not consent to do this. The king, Ctesias says, at 
the solicitation of his mother, agreed and swore not 
to kill Clearchus ; but he was won back agrain bv 
Stateira, and put all the generals to death except 
Menon. It was because of this, Ctesias says, that 
Farysatis plotted against the life of Stateira and 
jire})ared the jioison for her. But it is an unlikely 
story, and one that gives an absurd motive for her 
course, to say that Parysatis thus risked and wrought 
a dreadful deed because of Clearchus, and dared to 
kill the king's lawful wife, who was the mother by 
him of children reared for the throne. Nay, It is 
quite evident that he adds this sensational detail out 
of regard for the memory of Clearchus. For he says 
that after the generals had been put to death, the 
rest of them were torn by dogs and birds, but that 

169 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal opvecov, rtp h€ KXedpxov V6fcpa> OueWav ave- 
fiov ^r}? 6iva ttoWjjv (pepovcrav iirf^cocrat Koi 
€7rLfcpvyjrai to ao)p.a' ^olvIkwv Be nvwv Btacnra- 
pevTcov 6\i>y(p y^povcp Oavp^aarov aXcro^ dvacpvvai 
fcal KaracTKidcraL rov tottov, o^are fcal ^aaiXel 
a<p6Spa fiera/JLcXeiv, q)<; avhpa 6€ol<^ ^i\ov 
dvTjprjKOTL TOV K.\€ap)(^ov. 

XIX. 'H 6' ovi^ Yiapvaan^, fjuiaov^; re irpo^ rrjv 
^rdreipav e^ dpxv'^ viroKeipievov koX t^riXoTViria^, 
6po)aa rr)v p,€V avrfji; hvvapiv al8ovp.evou ^aaiXewf; 
Kal Tip.ot)VTO<; ovaav, rrjv S' eKeivrj^ epcoTL /cat TTiarei 
^e^aiov Koi la')(\jpdv, eire^ovXevaev virep tmp 

2 p,€yi(TT(ov, ft)9 (p€TO, TTapa^aWop^evTj. Oepdrraivav 
et%e Tnarrjv koI Svvap^evrjv irap" avTjj p^eyiarov 
ovopa Viyiv, rjv o pev Aelvcov virovpyrjaai rfj 
(pappaKela (prjai, avyyvcovac Be piovov cLKOvcrav 6 
K,Tt](Tia^. TOV he Bovra to (pdppa/cov outo? P'€v 
ovopd^et JieXirdpav, o Be ^eivwv ^eXdvrav. €k 
Be rrj<; TrpoaOev v7Toy^ia<^ Kal Bia^opa'; dp^dixevai 
irdXiv et9 to avTo (f)OLrdp Kal avvBeiirvelv dXXi)- 
\a«9, o/xft)9 TO) BeBievat Kal (^yXdrreadai TOt? 
avTol<; (TiTiOL<? Kal o-tto twi/ avrcov e\pS}VT0. 

3 yiverai Be puKpov ev Y{epcraL<; opviOiov, c5 Treptj- 
Tco/xaTO? oiiBev earcv, dXX' bXov BidirXewv TnpeXrj^; 
rd ivT6<;' Kal vop^l^ovcrcv dvep,(p Kal Bpoaco rpcipe- 
aOai ro ^mov ovopbd^erai Be pwrdKij^;. tovto 
<f)rfaLV 6 Yi.Trjaia^ puKpa pa^aip'iBi Ke\piG pievri rep 
(papp,dK(p Kara Odrepa rrjv Ylapvaariv Btatpovcrav 
CKpd^ai Tw ereprp pbepet to (pdppuaKOV Kal to pev 
d')(^pav70v Kal KaOapov et? to GTop.a ^aXovaav 



170 



ARTAXERXES xviii. 5-xix. 3 

in the case of Clearchus^ a blast of wind carried a 
great mass of earth and heaped it in a mound which 
covered his body ; upon this some dates fell here 
and thercj and in a short time a wonderful grove of 
trees sprang up and overshadowed the place, so that 
even the king was sorely repentant, believing that in 
Clearchus he had killed a man whom the gods loved. 
XIX. Parysatis, accordingly, who from the outset 
had a lurking hatred and jealousy of Stateira, saw 
that her own influence with the king was based on 
feelings of respect and honour, while that of Stateira 
was grounded fast and strong in love and confidence ; 
she therefore plotted against her life and played for 
what she thought the highest stake. She had a 
trusted maidservant named Gigis, Avho had most 
influence with her and assisted her in preparing 
the poison, according to Deinon, although Ctesias 
says she was merely privy to the deed, and that 
against her will. The poison was actually given by 
a man named Belitaras, according to Ctesias ; Deinon 
gives his name as Melantas. After a period of dis- 
sension and suspicion, the two women ^ had begun 
again to meet and eat with one another, although 
their mutual fear and caution led tliem to partake of 
the same dishes served by the same hands. Now, 
there is a little Persian bird which has no excrement, 
but is all full of fat inside; and the creature is 
thought to live upon air and dew ; the name of it is 
"rhyntaces." It was a bird of this species, according 
to Ctesias, that Parysatis cut in two with a little 
knife smeared with poison on one side, thus wiping 
the poison off" upon one part only of the bird ; the 
undefiled and wholesome part she then put into her 

^ i.e., Parysatis and Stateira. 

171 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

auTr]V iaOUiv, hovvau he TyXrareipaTb ire^afyixay- 

4 /JL6V0V' 6 Be Aelvcov ov ttjv Yiapvaanv, aWa rov 
MeXdvrav refivovra ray fia')(a(pi(p tcl (papfiaa- 
(TOfieva T(av Kpeoiv Ttdevai Kara rrjv Xraretpav. 
airoOvrjCTKOvaa 3' ovv rj yvvrj fiera ttovcov fieyaXcov 102J 
Ka\ airapajfjicbv avrtj re crvvrjcrBdveTO rod KaKov 

KOi ^aaiXel rrapea')(ev vTroyjriav Kara rfj<; fxrjrpo'^, 

5 elBori ro Oqpioihe'^ avrrj<; Kal hvafielXiKrov. o6ev 
euOv<; iirl rrjv ^rjrrjaiv opfirjcya^; rov<; /jl€v virrjperaf; 
fcal rpaire^oKOfjiov^ t^9 fjLr)rpb<s avveXa^e Kal 
Karearpe^X^oae, rrjv Be Tljiv rj Uapvaarc^; ttoXvi^ 
^(^povov el^^ev oIkol fxeO^ avrri<; Kal ^aacXico^; 
€^ai,rovvro<i ovk eBcoKcv, dXX* vcrrepov avr^<^ 
Ber}6eiari<; 6l<; rov oIkov dcfyeOrjvaL vvxro^;, alaOo- 
pLevo<; Kal X6')(pv v(f)el<=; avvrjpTraae Kal Kareyvco 

6 Odvarov. drroOvrjaKovaL Be ol cfyapfxaKel^i ev 
Wepaai<; Kara vo/jlop ovrco^' XlOo<} earl TrXarf?, 
e'<^' ov rifv KecfyaXijv KaraOevre<; avrwv erepw XW(p 
Traiovtji Kal me^ovaiv, dy^pi ov avvOXdawai ro 
rrpoGwrrov Kal rrjv Ke^aXrjV. i) fxev ovv Tiyi<s 
olJto)? direOave, rrjv Be Ylapvcariv o Apro^ep^r]^ 
dXXo fiev ovBev ovre elrre KaKov ovre erroir^aev, 
€19 Be Ba/3vXa}va ^ovXop,evr)v e'^errep.'^ev eiTroov, 
€0)9 eKelvr) 'nnpUcmv avro'; ovk oy^eaOai \^a^v- 
X(hva. ra u.eu Kara rrjv oiKiav ovrcof; el)(^€v. 

XX. 'E7r€t Be TOL'9 Kvpfp avvaval3dvra<; "EX- 
X'i)va<s (TTTOvBdaa^ Xa/Setv 6 /SaaiXev; ovBev ^rrov 
7] Kvpov TreptyevecrOat Kal rrjv ^acnXelav Kara- 
<TX^^^ ^^'^ '^XajSev, dXXa Kvpov rov rjyepova Kal 
rov^ avrcbv (jrparr)yov^ diro^aXovref; e^ avrcjv 
fLOVovov)(^L rrx^v f^acnXeimveadiOrjaav, e^eXey^avre^ 

172 



ARTAXERXES xix. 3-xx. 1 

own mouth and ate, but gave to Stateira the poisoned 
part. Deinon, however, says it was not Parysatis, 
but Melantas who cut the bird with the knife and 
placed the flesh that was poisoned before Stateira. 
Be that as it may, the woman died, in convulsions 
and great suffering, and she comprehended the evil 
that had befallen her, and brought the king to suspect 
liis mother, whose fierce and implacable nature he 
knew. The king, therefore, at once set out upon the 
inquest, arrested the servants and table-attendants 
of his mother, and put them on the rack. Gigis, 
however, Parysatis kept for a long time at home with 
her, and would not give her up at the king's demand. 
But after a while Gigis herself begged to be dismissed 
to her own home by night. The king learned of 
this, set an ambush for her, seized her, and condemned 
her to death. Now, the legal mode of death for 
poisoners in Persia is as follows. There is a broad 
stone, and on this the head of the culprit is placed ; 
and then with another stone they smite and pound 
until they crush the face and head to pulp. It was 
in this manner, then, tliat Gigis died; but Parysatis 
was not further rebuked or harmed by Artaxerxes, 
except that he sent her off to Babylon, in accordance 
with her wish, sjying tliat as long as she lived he 
himself would not see Babylon. Such was the state 
of the king's domestic affairs. 

XX. Now, the king was no less eager to capture 
the Greeks who had come up with Cyrus than he 
had been to conquer Cyrus and preserve his throne. 
Nevertheless, he could not capture them, but though 
they had lost Cyrus their leader and their own com- 
manders, they rescued themselves from his very 
palace, as one might say, thus proving clearly to the 

173 



PLUTAHCH'S LIVES 

fcal d7ro(f))]vai'T6<; ra Uepacop /cat ^aai\6co<i rrpdy- 
fjuara y^pvcrov ovra ttoXvp koI rpvcprjv kol yu- 

2 voLKa^, ra he dWa rv(f)Ov kol aKa^ovelai^, irdaa 
fiev Tf 'KWd<; i^eOdpprjae fcal Kar€(l>p6vr)ae tC)v 
^ap^dpcDv, AaK€SaLp,ovLoi<: Be koX Beivov €<f)alv€To 
^7] vvv ye hov\eia<; i^eXeaOac tov<; ttjv 'Aalap 
KaroiKovvraf; ^' EiWrjpaf; piriBe Travaai irporrrfKaKi,' 
^o/jievov^ vtt' avTCJV. irporepov he Bid Sl/jLj3pcopof;, 
elra Bid AepKvXXiBov TroXep^ovvTC^, ovBev Be 
irpdrrovre^ d^toXoyov, ^AyrjatXdo) ra) ^aa-iXel 

3 TOP TToXep.op eTrerpeyjrap. 6 Be TTepai(odel<i pavalp 
€49 ^Aaiap evOv^ tjp epepyo<i koI Bo^up el^^ fieyd- 
\rjp Kal TL<ra(f)€pprjp irapara^d/jLepo^; ePLKTjae Koi 
Td<^ TToXei? d(j)L(TTr]. rovToop Be yepo/iipcop (rvfi- 
(f>povi]aa<; 6 ^ApTO^€p^T}<; op rpoirop avTOL<; €<ttc 
7ro\e/x7]Teop, eirepu'^e TLp,oKpdTt]p top FoBiop eh 
TTjp 'EXXdBa ')(^pv(jiop iroiXv Kop,i^opTa, BiBopat 
fcal oia<j}0€Lpeip tol"? TrXelaTOP ep Tah iroXeau 
Bvpap,epov<i KeXevaa^, koI iroXefiop EiXXrfPiKOP 

4 /CLPelp eVl Tr)p AaKeBaifiopa. tov Be TifMOKpaTov^i 
TUVTa 7rpdTT0PT0<i fcal rwi' /xeyicrTcop TroXecop 
avvLGTap^epwp kol ri}? Tle\o7rovvt'](Tov BiaTapuT- 
TOixevrj^y /jLeTeire/jLTTOPTo top ^ Ay tj a iXaop €k t^? 
*Aal,a<i ol dp")(0PTe<;. ore Br] Kal (^aaip avTOP 
dirioPTa irpo^ tol/? <^lXov<i ecTrelp cu? TpLapvpLOi<i 
T0^6Tai<i e^eXavvoLTO t^? 'Acrta? vtto ^aaiXico^i' 
TO yap TLepcriKbp p6p,ia/j,a To^oTrjp eiriarjixop 

elx^v- 

XXI. 'Efe/SaXe Be Kal t/)? ^aXarrr^? Aatce- 
Bai/jLOPLOv^ Viopcovi tS) ^AOrjvaiw /xera <Pappa- 
l3d^ov aTpaTTiyo) '>^pr)crd/iepo<;' o yap Kopcop 



174 



ARTAXERXES xx. i-xxi. i 

world that the empire of the Persians and their king 
abounded in gold and luxury and women, but in all 
else was an empty vaunt. Therefore all Greece took 
heart and despised the Barbarians, and the Lacedae- 
monians in particular thought it strange if now at 
least they could not rescue the Greeks that dwelt in 
Asia from servitude, and put a stop to their outrage- 
ous treatment at the hands of the Persians. The 
war they waged was at first conducted by Thimbron, 
and then by Dercyllidas, but since they accomplished 
nothing worthy of note, they at last put the conduct 
of the war in the hands of their king, Agesilaiis. 
He crossed over to Asia with a fleet, went to work 
at once, won great fame, defeated Tissaphernes in a 
pitched battle, and set the Greek cities in revolt. 
This being the case, Artaxerxes considered how he 
must carry on the war with Agesilaiis, and sent 
Timocreon the Rhodian into Greece with a great 
sum of money, bidding him use it for the corruption 
of the most influential men in the cities there, and 
for stirring up the Greeks to make war upon Sparta. 
Timocrates did as he was bidden, the most important 
cities conspired together against Sparta, Peloponnesus 
was in a turmoil, and the Spartan magistrates sum- 
moned Agesilaiis home from Asia. It was at this 
time, as we are told, and as he was going home, that 
Agesilaiis said to his friends; "The king has driven 
me out of Asia with thirty thousand archers " ; for 
the Persian coin has the figure of an archer stamped 
upon it,^ 

XXI. The king also expelled the Lacedaemonians 
from the sea, employing Conon the Athenian as his 
commander along with Pharnabazus. For Conon 

* Cf. the Agisilaus, xv. 6. 

>75 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hUrpi^e fiev iv K^inrpo) fiera rrjv ev Atyo? irora- 
fjLol<; vav^a^iav, ov rrjv dcr<f)dXecav dyaTTCJi', dWa 
rrjv rwv Trpay/^drcov fiera^oXrjv, tocnrep iv ire- 

2 Xdyei rpoirrjv, irepLfxevcov. 6po)v he xal tol"? 
eavrov Xoycafiov^; Suvd/jL€(o<i koi rrjv ^acriXew^ 
Bvvafiiv dvSpo<i ep.cl)popo<s Seofiivi]^, eTTcpL'^^rev Ittl- 
iTToXrjv ^acTiXel irepl (av hievoelro. koI ravrrjv 
ixeXevae rov Kopi^ovra pLdXtcrra fiev dTTohovvai 

Bid Zl]VCt)VO<i TOV K/OT^TO? T) YloXyKpiTOV TOV Mci'- 

Balov TOVTcov S^ rjv 6 p,ev Zi]P03r 6p')(rjaTr}<;, o 
Be UoXvKpcTO^ iaTp6<;' dv he ovroi p,r] irapcoai, 

3 hid K.Tr]aiov rod larpov. Xeyerat, he 6 l^rrjaia's 
rrjv eirtcrroXr]!' \aj3oov irapeyypd'^aL tol<; urro 
TOV K.6vcovo<; errearaXpevoLf; OTToyi koI KTTjalav 
diroareiXr) 7rp6<i avrov, 009 (•)cf)€XLp,ov ovra rat? 
iirl OaXdaarj irpd^eaiv. 6 he K^rrjaia^ avrov a</)* 
kavrov /SaatXea (^rjal irpoadelvai. rr]v Xeirovp- 
yiav avroi ravrqv. 

4 *AXV errel Kparrj(Ta<; rjj irepl Kvihov vavpa\ia 1022 
hid ^apva^d^ov koI Koz^oji^o? d<^eiXero rrjv Ka- 

rd OdXarrav dp')(r]v AaKehacp^oviov;, eTrearpexjre 
irdaav 6p,ov rrjv '^XXdha 7rpb<; avrov, axrre Kal 
rr)v Trepi^oTjrov elprjvrjv (Bpa^evaai rot? ' "EiXXTjat 

5 rriv eV * AvraXxihov rrpoaayopevopLevqv. 6 he 
^ AvraXKiha^ 'S.Trapridrr)^ r)v, Aeovro<; vio<i, Kal 
aiTovodaa^ ^aacXel hLeirpdParo rd^ iv Aaua 
TToXet? ' EiXXi] t i.ha<; aTrdaas Kal vrjaovf;, baat 
rrpoaKvpovaiv 'Acrta, rrapelvat, AaKehacp,ovLov<i 
avr(p KeKrfjaOai (j)6pa)V viroreXeUy elprjvr)^; yevo- 
p,evT)<; roU "EXXrjaLV, el hel rrjv rrj? 'EWa^o? 
v^pLv Kal TTpohoaiav elpr)vr)v KaXelv, ^5? 7roXep,o<i 
ovhea uKXeearepof ip'eyKe reXo<i rol<i KparrjOelcrt. 

176 



ARTAXERXES xxi. 1-5 

passed the time at Cyprus, after the sea-fight at 
Aegospotami,^ not satisfied with mere safety, but 
awaiting a reversal in the course of affairs, as he would 
a change of wind at sea. And seeing that his own 
plans needed a military force, and the king's force 
needed a sagacious leader, he wrote a letter to the 
king explaining his purposes. This letter he ordered 
the bearer, if j)ossible, to give the king by the hand 
of Zeno the Cretan or Polycritus the Mendaean 
(Zeno was a teacher of dancing, and Polycritus was 
a physician) ; but if these were not at court, by the 
hand of Ctesias the physician. And it is said that 
Ctesias, on receiving the letter, added to the sug- 
gestions which Conon made to the king a request 
to send Ctesias also to him, as likely to be of service 
in matters on the sea-coast. Ctesias, however, says 
that the king of his own accord conferred upon him 
this new duty. 

But after Artaxerxes, by the sea-fight which 
Pharnabazus and Conon won for him off Cnidus, had 
stripped the Lacedaemonians of their power on the 
sea, he brought the whole of Greece into dependence 
upon him, so that he dictated to the Greeks the 
celebrated peace called the Peace of Antalcidas.^ 
Now Antalcidas was a Spartan, son of Leon, and 
acting in the interests of the king he induced the 
Lacedaemonians to surrender to the king all the 
Greek cities of Asia, and all the islands adjacent to 
Asia, to possess them on payment of tribute ; and 
peace was thus established among the Greeks, if the 
mockery and betrayal of Greece can be called peace, 
a peace than which no war ever brought a more in- 
glorious consummation to the defeated. 

^ 405 B.C. Cf. the Alcibiadcs xxxvii. 2. 
* In 387 B.C. Cf. the Age.iilaus, xxiii. 1 S. 

177 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXII. Alb Kol rov<s aWov^ S7rapTidra<i del 
/35eXuTTO/x6^'09 ^Apro^ep^rj^, koI vo/jLU^oyv, &><? 
(fyrjai Aeivcov, dpOpcoTTcov dirdvTcov dvatSeardrov^ 
elvuL, rov AvraXKuSav vireprj'ydirrja'ev et9 Ile/jcra? 
dva^dvra. Kai irore Xa^cov €va tcov dv6tvcov 
crTe(f)dva)v kol /Sd^jra^ eh fivpov to TroXvTeXearra- 
rovy diro heiirvov eVe/x-v^e rw ^AvraXKiSa* kol 

2 irdvTe^i iOav/iaaap rrjv (f)cXo(f)po(Tvvriv. r}v Be, o)? 
60tK6v, i7r1.Tr] Be io<i ovTo<; ivTpv(j)7jOr]i/ai, xal tolov- 
Tov Xa^elv aTe^avov, €^op)(^r)ad/ii€vo<; ev Yiepaai,^; 
Tov AewviBav koI top K.aXXLKpaTlSav. 6 fiev yap 
^ AyrjaiXao'^, o)? eoLKe, 7rpo<; tov elirovTa, " ^ev 
rr}? 'EWaSo?, onou {JbrjBi^ovaiv rjpXv 01 Aa/ccoz/e?/' 
** Ov fidXXov, ^ elirev, ** ol M.rjBoc XaKwvi^ovcn ; " 
Toi) Be p^fiuTd T) KOfMyfroTrj^; ttjv tov 7rpdyfjLaT0<; 
alo"^vui]P ov/c dcf)eLXev, dXXa ttjv puev rfye/noviap 
drrajXecrav ev Aeu/crpot? dycovtcrd/jLevoL KaKa)<;, 7) 
Be Bo^a T/79 S7ra/3T77? irpoairdciXeTO tol^ ofioXo- 
yiafi ifceivai^. 

3 "A)(pi fiev ovv iirpcoTevev 7; STra/or/;, ^ivov 
eTTOLecTo Kol (piXov d)v6p,a^ev eavTOv tov ^ Apt uXkl- 
Bav' errel Be rjTTrjOrjaav ev AeufCTpoi'^, Tairetva 
irpaTTOPTe^ iBeoPTO p,ep ')(^pri[idT(DP koX top ^Ayrj- 
aiXaop et? AiyvTrrop e^e7rep'>^ap,6 Be ^ AptuXkL- 
Bw; dve^rj irpo^ top ApTO^ep^rjp irapaicaXSiv 

4 iirapKeaat. toI<; Aa/<:eBaip,opioi<;. 6 8' outo)? 6^?;- 
fxeXrjae Koi irapelBe kol drreppL-^^ep avTOP, oxTTe 
KUTU^dpTa fcal 'xXeva^opevov vno tcop e-y^Opoip, 
(po^ovpei'op Be Koi tov^ e(f)6pov<i, diroKapTepqcrat.. 

*Ap€fff) Be 7r/309 TOV ^aaiXea Kal 'Icr/xiyi^ta? 



178 



ARTAXERXES xxii. 1-4 

XXII. For this reason Artaxerxes, although he 
always held other Spartans in abomination, and con- 
sidered them, as Deinon tells us, the most shameless 
of all mankind, showed great affection for Antalcidas 
when he came up to Persia. On one occasion he 
actually took a wreath of flowers, dipped it in the 
most costly ointment, and sent it to Antalcidas after 
supper ; and all men wondered at the kindness.^ 
But Antalcidas was a fit person, as it would seem, to 
be exquisitely treated and to receive such a wreath, 
now that he had danced away among the Persians 
the fair fame of Leonidas and Callicratidas. For 
Agesilaiis, as it would appear, when someone said 
to him : ^' Alas for Greece, now that the Spartans 
are medizing," replied, ^^ Are not the Medes the 
rather spartanizing .'' " However, the wittiness of 
the speech could not remove the shame of the deed, 
and the Spartans lost their supremacy in the disastrous 
battle of Leuctra,2 though the glory of Sparta had 
been lost before that by this treaty. 

So long, then, as Sparta kept the first place in 
Greece, Artaxerxes treated Antalcidas as his guest 
and called him his friend ; but after the Spartans 
had been defeated at Leuctra, they fell so low as to 
beg for money, and sent Agesilaiis to Egypt, while 
Antalcidas went up to Artaxerxes to ask him to 
supply the wants of the Lacedaemonians. The king, 
however, so neglected and slighted and rejected him 
that, when he came back home, being railed at by 
his enemies, and being in fear of the ephors, he 
starved himself to death. 

Ismenias the Theban also, and Pelopidas, who had 



* Cf. the Pelopidas, xxx. 4. 

' In 371 B.C. Cf. the Agesilaiis, xxviii. 5. 



179 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^t]j3alo<; fcal lleXoTTi^a? r/8/7 rrjv ev AevKrpoi^i 
fj,d)(^rjv v6vi-Kr)KCO<;. aW' OUT09 fJieu ovBeu al(Tj(^pov 
iirolrja-ev ^\a fXTivia<; he TTpoa-Kvvrjcrai, KeXevofievo^; 
i^6l3aX(: TTpo avTov 'X^ap.d^e rov BafcrvXiov, elra 
Kv-^a^i aveiXero koI 7rapea')(^e ho^av rrpoaKvvovv- 

5 T09. 'lifMayopa Se rdp ^AOrjvaicp Sia J^r)\ovpt,Bo<; 
Tov ypa/jLfiareco^i elaireiiy^ravTi ypafifMarlBiov airop- 
prjTOv TjadeU fivplov^; re 8ap6iKov<; eBcoKe, /cal 
yd\aKro<s ^oeiov Beofxevw Bl daOiveiav oyBorj- 
Kovra /SoO? dfjLeXyeadat TraprjKoXovOow ere Be 
K\ivr}v Kol arpQi/jLara koI tou? arp(ovvvvTa<^ eirefi- 
-KJrev, &)? ov p^efxaOi^KOTCDV 'YjWrjvayv vTToarrpcov- 
vvvai, Kol (f)opeL(; rov<; KOfii^ovra's avrov fie^^^pc 

6 da\dcra7](; /xaXa/cco? e')(0VTa. irapovri Be Belirvop 
eirepLirero XapLTrpoTarov, oxxre koI rov dBeXcfyov 
TOV ^acn\e(D<i, ^Oardvrjv, "'11 Tifiayopa," (f^dvai, 
" fiepLvqao ravrrj'i tt}? rpa7rel^r)<;' ov yap iirX fii- 
Kpol^ ovTO) (Toi KeKoa/jLTj/iepy] TrapaKeirai.^^ tovto 
5' yv 6v6iBi.(TfjL0<i 6t9 irpoBoaiav fxdXkov rj ')(^dpiTO<: 
V7r6fivriai.<;. Tifiayopov fiev ovv Bid rrjv BcopoBo- 
Kiav AOrjvaloL Odvarov Kariyvwcrav. 

XXIII. 'O Be ^ Apro^ep^r](i ev dvrl iravrcov cjv 
eXviret tov<; " EiWrjva^; €v<^paLve, TcaacfyepvTjv rov 
e\6iaTov avTOL^ kol Bvct pbevecrrarov diroKTeiva'^. 
uTreKTeive Be ral^ BiajSoXal^ avrov t?}? Uapvad- 
riBo<; avveTTiOefievi]^. ov yap eve/ieive rfj opyy 
rrroXvv ')(povov ^aaiXev^;, dXXd BirjXXdyr) rfj 
fiTjrpi Kal fjLereTre/xyfraro, vovv fiev opcov ey^ovaav 1023 

^ Cf. the Pelopidas, xxx. 1-3. 
- Cf. tlie Pelopidas, xxx. 6 f. 
* Cf. the Agesilaus, x. 3 f. 

180 



ARTAXERXES xxii. 4-xxiii. i 

just been victorious in the battle of Leuctra, went 
up to the king.^ Pelopidas did nothing to disgrace 
himself; but Ismenias, when ordered to make the 
obeisance to the king, threw his ring down on the 
ground in front of him, and then stooped and picked 
it up, thus giving men to think that he was making 
the obeisance. \Vith Timagoras the Athenian, how- 
ever, who sent to him by his secretary, Beluris, a 
secret message in writing, the king was so pleased 
that he gave him ten thousand darics, and eighty 
milch cows to follow in his train because he was sick 
and required cow's milk ; and besides, he sent him a 
couch, with bedding for it, and servants to make the 
bed (on the ground that the Greeks had not learned 
the art of making beds), and bearers to carry him 
down to the sea-coast, enfeebled as he was. More- 
over, during his presence at court, he used to send 
him a most splendid supper, so that Ostanes, the 
brother of the king, said : " Timagoras, remember 
this table ; it is no slight return which thou must 
make for such an array." Now this was a reproach 
for liis treachery rather than a reminder of the king's 
favour. At any rate, for his venality, Timagoras was 
condemned to death by the Athenians.^ 

XXIII. But there was one thing by which 
Artaxerxes gladdened the hearts of the Greeks, in 
return for all the evils which he wrought them, and 
that was his putting Tissaphernes to death, their 
most hated and malicious enemy. ^ And he put him 
to death in consequence of accusations against him 
which were seconded by Parysatis. For the king 
did not long persist in his wrath against his mother, 
but was reconciled with her and summoned her to 
court, since he saw that she had intellect and a loftv 

10 I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal <ppov7jfia ^aaL\eia<^ a^LOV, alrla*; Be firjhe/jLLa^; 
ov(7rj<; €/jL7roBcbv ert Bi fjv vTroy^ovrai crvvovre^ 

2 aWijXoi^; Tj XvTrrjdovaiv. €k Be toutov Trdvra 
7rpo<i X^P^^ vTTOvpyovaa ^aaiXel, koX rSy 7r/909 
fjLrjBev o)v €K€lvo<; eirparre Bva KoXaiveiv exovcra 
TO BvvaaOai Trap' avTW koX rvyx^vetv airavToyv, 
jjcrOero rrj^i erepa^ tSjv Ovyaripcov, ^Aroaaiji;, 
epoi)VTo<; epcora Beivov, eTTiKpviTTOixivov Be Bl eKei- 
vr)v ovx TjfCLara koI koXol^ovto^; to irdOo^, w? 
(f)acnv evioiy Kairoi yeyevi^fxevrff; rjBr) irpos rr]v 

3 TTapOevov opi\ia<i avrqy \aOpaia<;. co? ovv uttco- 
TTTevaev rj Tlapv(7aTi<;, ttjv iralBa p,a\\ov r) irpo- 
repov tja-Trd^ero, koI TTpb<; tov ^Apro^ep^Tjv iir-^vei 
TO T€ KdWo<; avrrjf; koI to rjOo'^, co? ^aai\LK7]<; koX 
peyaXoirpeTTov^. TeKo<s ovv yrj/jLat rrjv Kopijv 
eireicre koI yvyjoriav aTroBel^ac yvi'acKa, ^at/oet^' 
edaavTa B6^a<; 'KWrjvayv Kal v6fiov<;, Uepaai^: Be 
vopov avrov vtto tov Oeov Kal BiKaLoyrrjv aiaxp^v 

4 Kal KaXcJp dir oBeBeiy pikvov . evioi p,evTOi \eyov- 
(Tiv, ct)v cVtI Kal ^HpaKXeiBr)^ 6 Ku/i-ato?, ov pi'av 
pLOvov T(ov dvyarepcov, dWa Kal Bevrepav, " Afxrj- 
(TTpiv, yrjpai TOV WpTo^ep^rjv, irepl rj<; oXlyov 
vcTTepov dirayyeXovpiev, ttjv S' "AToaaav ovtq)<; 
yjyaTrrjaev o iraTTjp avvoiKovcrav oiOTe d\(f)ov KaTa- 
veprjBevTO^ avTY]^ to acopa Bvax^pdvat pev eirl 

5 TovTfp pLTjB^ oTLOvv, eu^^o/ici/o? Be irepl avTrj^ Trj 
' Yipa TvpoaKwrjcrai pLOvrjv Oewv eKeuvrjv, Tat? X^/Ocrl 
Tr}? yrj<; dy^dpevo<;, Botpd Te Trj 0€(p ToaavTa 
Trepyjrai tov<; craTpdiraf; Kal <f)iXov<; avTOV KcXev- 
aavTO<; MCTTe Ta peTa^v tov lepov Kal Ta)v ^aai- 
Xelcov eKKaiBeKa aTuBia ^pfcroO Kal dpyvpov Kal 
7rop(pvpa<^ Kal 'irrirwv epTrXrjaOfjvai. 

182 



ARTAXERXES xxiii. 1-5 

spirit worthy of a queen^ and since there was no 
longer any ground for their suspecting and injuring 
one another if they were together. After this she 
consulted the king's pleasure in all things, and by 
approving of everything that he did, acquired 
influence with him and achieved all her ends. She 
perceived that the king was desperately in love with 
one of his two daughters, Atossa, and that, chiefly on 
his mother's account, he was trying to conceal and 
restrain his passion, although some say that he had 
already had secret intercourse with the girl. When, 
accordingly, Parysatis became suspicious of the 
matter, she showed the girl more affection than 
before, and would speak to Artaxerxes in praise of 
her beauty and her disposition, saying that she was 
truly royal and magnificent. At last, then, she per- 
suaded the king to marry the girl and proclaim her 
his lawful wife, ignoring the opinions and laws of tlie 
Greeks, and regarding himself as appointed by 
Heaven to be a law unto the Persians and an 
arbitrator of good and evil. Some, however, say, 
and among them is Heracleides of Cyme, that 
Artaxerxes married, not one of his daughters only, 
but also a second, Amestris, of whom we shall speak 
a little later.^ Atossa, however, was so beloved by 
lier father as his consort, that when her body was 
covered with leprosy he was not offended at this in 
the least, but offered prayers to Hera in her behalf, 
making his obeisance and clutching the earth before 
this goddess as he did before no other ; while his 
satraps and friends, at his command, sent the goddess 
so many gifts that the sixteen furlongs between her 
sanctuary and tlie royal palace were filled with gold 
and silver and purple and liorses. 

* Chap, xxvii. 4. 

183 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXIV. UoXe^ov Se Trpo? fiev AlyuTTTlov^; Bia 
<i?apva^d^ov kol ^l(f)LKpdrov<; e^evejKcop tzTreTi^^e, 
araaiaadvToyp eKeivcov eirl Be KaBovcrlov^ avT6<s 
icrrpdrevae rpidKovTa /ivpidai we^cop Kal pvpioL<; 
liTTrevaiv. ip^aXoDV Be ct? ')((i)pav rpa^vTtjrt 
yaXeTTrjv koX o/jllx^coBt) koX tCov ajro airopov 
KapTTOiV dyovov, aTrtot? Be koX pirjkot,<; Kal tolov- 
TOt<? dWoi<; aKpoBpvoL's rpe^ovaav dvOpdiTTOv^; 
7ro\6pifcov<; fcal OufioeiBel';, eXaOe /leydXaif; diro- 

2 pLaL<; fcal kli'Bvvol<; TrepiTreadiv. ovBev yap eBdyBi- 
pLOP r)P XapjBdpeiP ovBe e^wOev iireiadyeaOat, rd 
Be vTro^vyia pLOPOP Kare/coTrrop, coare ovov Ke(l)a- 
Xfjp yLtoXi? Bpa')(^pcop e^tjfcopra wplop elpai. to Be 
^aaiXiKOP BeiTTPOP e^e\ei^6r)' Kal tcjp Ittttcov 
oXiyoi Trepirjaap en, rovs Be aX\ov<; iaOiopre^i 
KaraprfXwKea av . 

'Epravda Tr}pL6a^o<^, dprjp iroWdKL^ p^ep ep 
TTpdiTr] Bi dpBpayaOlap rd^et, y€Pop,€PO<;, TroWaKt^ 
Be d7roppi<p€l(; Bid KOv^orrjTa Kai rore Taireiva 
irpdnwp Kal irepiopoopLepo^, kacocre ^acnXea Kal 

3 TOP cTTpaTOP. oPTcop ydp Bveiv ep TOi<^ KaBov- 
(jioi<; ^aatXecop, eKaTepov Be X^^P^^ aTpaTorre- 
BevopTO^;, ePTv^diP tm ^ApTo^ep^rj Kal (f)paaa<; 
TTcpl wp BtepoecTO irpdTTCLp, e^dBi^ep avT0<; irpo^; 
TOP €T€pop TOiP KaBovaiwp, Kal 7rpo<; top erepop 
Kpv(j>a TOP vlop eirepLTrep. e^rjirdTa Be CKdTepop 
eArarepo?, XeyoiV o)? dTepo<; eTmrpecT fieveTai 7rpo<; 
TOP ^ApTo^ep^Tjp (^iXiap pLOPO) vpdTTcop eavTw Kal 
<Tvpi,pLa)(icLV' ovKoup, el a(jO(f>popeL, xpy}vaL irpoTepop 
ePTvy^dpeip eKeiPW, avTOP he avpirpd^eip airaPTa. 

4 T0VT0L<s eireLadi^aap dpi^orepoi, Kav (pdavetp aXXrj- 

184 



ARTAXERXES xxiv. 1-4 

XXIV. In the war which Pharnabazus and 
Iphicrates conducted for hira against Egypt lie was 
unsuccessful, owing to the dissensions of these 
commanders ; against the Cadusians, therefore, he 
made an expedition in person, with three hundred 
thousand footmen and ten thousand horse. But the 
country which he penetrated was rough and hard to 
traverse, abounded in mists, and produced no grains, 
although its pears and apples and other such tree- 
fruits supported a warlike and courageous population. 
Unawares, therefore, he became involved in great 
distress and peril. For no food was to be got in the 
country or imported from outside, and they could 
only butcher their beasts of burden, so that an ass's 
head was scarcely to be bought for sixty drachmas. 
Moreover, the royal banquets were abandoned ; and 
of their horses only a few were left, the rest having 
been consumed for food. 

Here it was that Teribazus, a man wliose bravery 
often set him in a leading place, but whose levity as 
often cast him down, so that at this time he was in 
disgrace and overlooked, saved the king and his 
army. For the Cadusians had two kings, and each 
of them encamped separately. So Teribazus, after 
an interview with Artaxerxes in which he told him 
what he purposed to do, went himself to one of the 
Cadusian kings, and sent his son secretly to the 
other. Each envoy, then, deceived his man, telling 
him that the other king was sending an embassy to 
Artaxerxes to secure friendship and alliance for him- 
self alone : he should, therefore, if he were wise, 
have an interview with Artaxerxes before the other 
did, and he himself would help him all he could. 
Both kings were persuaded by this argument, and 

VOL. XI. G '^5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xof9 vofxi^ovTe'^ 6 /xev ro) Tijpc^d^cp c^t'^'e7^e/^^/^e 
7rpe(T^€t<;, 6 Se tm iraiSl rod irjpi^d^ov. Siarpi- 
/S/}? Be <y€vo/jLeP7](; inroy^riai, kol Sia^oXal Kara rov 
Trjpc^u^ov TO) ' Apro^ep^tj irpocreTmrTOV' avTo<; 
Be BvaOvfiw^ €^%^ /^<^^ {Jberevoei, Tnarevcra'^ rro 
Ttjpi^d^a), Kol Tol<; (^Oovovcnv iyfcaXecv 7rapei')(ev. 

5 eTTel Be rJKCv 6 Tr]pi^a^o^, rjKe Be koX 6 vlo<; avrov 102^ 
Tou? KaBovaiov<; ayovre'^, eyevovTO Be airovBaX 
irpoff djj,(f)OTepov<; koI elpt]V'>], [xe<ya<i cov 6 T^jpu- 
^a^o<^ '}]B>] Kol \aixTTpo<; dve^evyvve fiera rov 
^aatX&xx;, eTrtBei/cvvfievov Traaav Tr]v Beikiav kol 

TT}v fiaXaKiav ov Tpv(^rj<^ kol TroXureXeta^, axTTrep 
ol TToXkol vojxi^ovaLVt eK^ovov ovcrav, aXXa fio^drj- 
pa<} 4)vaeco^ kol dyevvov<; koI Bo^ai^i irovrfpal'^ 

6 €7rofi€vr}<:;. ovre yap ^/oucro? ovre KavBv<; ovre o 
Tco]^ fjivpicdv KOL Bi,o"^i\L(tyv raXdvTcov TrepiKeLfjuevo^ 
del Tw ^aaiXew^i crcojjLarL Koa/jLO<; eKelvov dTre/cu)- 
Xve TTOvelv koI raXaiTrcopelv, ioairep ol TU^oi^re?, 
dWd rrjv re ^aperpav ev7]fx/jLevo<; Kal Tr)V irekr^iv 
(pepcov auTo? effdBt^e irpoiTO^ 6Bov<^ opetva^ koX 
irpocravrec^, dTvoXiTrdiv rov lttttov, were TOv<i 
dXXov(i TTTepovaOai koI avve7ri/cov<pL^ea6ai tt^v 
eKelvov irpoOvfilav Kal pco/irjv 6p(ovTa<;' Kal yap 
BiaKoalcov Kal irXeLovoav araBloov Karrjvvev rj/iepa.^ 
eKdcrrq<i TTopeiav. 

XXV. 'E7r6t Be et? araOpLov Kareffrj ^aaiXiKov 
TrapaBelaov; €')(ovTa Oavp.aarov<; Kal KeKoapLrjfjie- 
pov<; Sta7rpe7ra)9 ev raj nrepi^ dBevBpq) Kal yfriX^ 
')(^copl(o,Kpvov(i 6vT0<i,€'Tr€Tp€^lre rol^ aTpaTia}rai<; eV 
rov TrapaBelcrov ^uXl^eadaL rd BevBpa Korrrovra<i, 
ii fxrjre 7reuKr}<i /xrjre Kviraplrrov (f)etBop,epov<i. ok- 

i86 



ARTAXERXES xxiv. 4-xxv. 2 

each thinking that he was anticipating tlie other, one 
sent his envoys along with Teribazus, and the other 
with the son of Teribazus. But matters were 
delayed, and suspicions and calumnies against 
Teribazus came to the ears of Artaxerxes ; he himself 
also was ill at ease, and repented him of having put 
confidence in Teribazus_, and gave occasion to his 
rivals to malign him. But at last Teribazus came, 
and his son came too, both bringing their Cadusian 
envoys, and a peace was ratified with both kings ; 
whereupon Teribazus, now a great and splendid 
personage, set out for home with the king. And 
the king now made it plain that cowardice and 
effeminacy are not always due to luxury and ex- 
travagance, as most people suppose, but to a base 
and ignoble nature under the sway of evil doctrines. 
For neither gold nor robe of state nor the twelve 
thousand talents' worth of adornment which always 
enveloped the person of the king prevented him 
from undergoing toils and hardships like an ordinary 
soldier ; nay, with his quiver girt upon him and his 
shield on his arm he marched in person at the head 
of his troops, over precipitous mountain roads, 
abandomng his horse, so that the rest of the army 
had wings given them and felt their burdens 
lightened when they saw his ardour and vigour; 
for he made daily marches of two hundred furlongs 
and more. 

XXV. At length he came down to a royal halting- 
place which had admirable parks in elaborate cultiva- 
tion, although the region round about was bare and 
treeless ; and since it was cold, he gave permission to 
his soldiers to cut the trees of the park for wood, 
sparing neither pine nor cypress. And when they 

187 



PLUTARCH'S L1VP:S 

vovvTcov he fcal (fieiBo/xevayv Cia ra KaWfj kul ra 
/jLeyiOr), Xa/3cbi/ ireXeKvv avTo^ oirep r)v fMeyiarov 
Kal fcaXkLdTov tmv (pvTcav efcoy^rep. etc he tgvtov 
^v\l^6/jL6pol Kal TToWa TTvpa TTOLovvTe^ evfxap(i)<^ 
evvKrepevaav. ov /nrjv dXka iroWov*; fcal ayaOov^i 
(iTToffaXoDV avhpa<i, 'lttttov^ Be ofjLOV re TrdvTa<i 

3 eTravrjXOe. Kal B6^a<; Kara^povelaOai Sid rrjv 
drv^^iav Kal rr)V uTTOTev^iv rrj^ arpareia'^, iv 
vTToy^iat,^ e2%6 tou? 7r/5coTOU9* Kai iroWov^ fiev 
dvijpei Bt opyrjv, irXeiova^ Be (po^ovfievo<;. rj yap 
BeiXla ^ovLKCorarov ecmv ev ral^; TvpavviaLv, 
iXeoov Be Kal irpaov Kal avviroTrrov rj OappaXeo- 
rrjf;. Blo Kal rcov Or^plcov rd driOdaevra Kal 
Bvae^rj/jLepwra ^/^©(^oSe/} Kal Bei\d, rd Be yevvala 
TTKnevovra paXXov Bed to Oappelv ov (pevyet rd^ 
(j>CXo(ppoavva<;. 

XXVI. 'O Be 'ApTO^ep^r)<; tjBjj Trpeo-jSvrepo^ oiv 
rjaOdvero tov<s l'/ou? dycjva irepi ttj^ ^acrCXeia'^ 
tv TOi? (piXoa Kal Toh BvvaroU €')(^ovTa<^. ol puev 
ydp evyv(i)/jLov€<; rj^lovv, co? eXa/Sev avro^, ovtoo^ 
dTToXiirelv irpea^ela AapeL(p rrjv dpyjjV. 6 Be 
vea)TaTO<i ^D,xo'i of u? ci)v Kal ^iaio^ el^e fxev Kal 
rcju irepl to /SaaiXeiov ovk 6\Lyov<i airovBaardf;, 
ijXin^e Be /jbaXiara KarepydaecrOai top Trarepa 

2 Bid tt}? ^Aroaarjf;. eKeivqv ydp edepdirevev cD<i 
yap,r)aop.€V7]v Kal avp,^aaiXevaovaav avray p^era 
rifv rod irarpos reXeuTijv. rjv Be Xoyo<; on Kal 
t^oyvro^ iXdvOavev avrfj TrXtjaid^cop. dXXa tovto 
i88 



ARTAXERXES xxv. 2-xxvi. 2 

hesitated and were inclined to spare tiie trees on 
account of their great size and beauty, he took an 
axe himself and cut down the lar<j:est and most 
beautiful tree. After this the men provided them- 
selves with wood, and making many tires, passed the 
night in comfort. Nevertheless, he lost many and 
brave men, and almost all his horses before he 
reached home. And now, thinking that his subjects 
despised him because of the disastrous failure of his 
expedition, he was suspicious of his chief men ; many 
of these he put to death in anger, and more out of 
fear. For it is cowardly fear in a tyrant that leads to 
most bloodshed ; but bold confidence makes him 
gracious and mild and unsus})icious. So also among 
wild beasts, those that are refractory and hardest to 
tame are timorous and fearful, whereas the nobler 
sorts are led by their courage to put more confidence 
in men, and do not reject friendly advances. 

XXVI. But Artaxerxes, being now advanced in 
years, perceived that his sons were forming rival 
parties among his friends and chief men with 
reference to the royal succession. For the con- 
servatives thought it right that, as he himself had 
received the royal power by virtue of seniority, in 
like manner he should leave it to Dareius. But his 
youngest son, Ochus, who was of an impetuous and 
violent disposition, not only had many adherents 
among the courtiers, but hoped for most success in 
winning over his father through the aid of Atossa. 
For he sought to gain Atossa's favour by promising 
that she should be his wife and share the throne with 
him after the death of his father. And there was a 
report that even while his father was alive Ochus 
had secret relations with Atossa. But Artaxerxes 

|8y 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fiev r)yv6r]o-€V 6 Wpro^ep^tji^' Ta^y^v ^6 fiov\6/x€vo^ 
ifCKpuvcrat t/]? eX-TrtSo? rov ^fl^ov, 6iT0d<; firj ra 
avra K.vpw To\/jiT]aavTO<; avrov iroXefjiOi koI 
dycovef; avOi^ KaraXd^wao rrjv /SaaiXelav, ave- 
ScL^e TOP Aapelov /3acn\€a Trevr^jKoarov eVo? 
yeyovora, Koi ttjv KaXov ixevrfv fcirapLv opOrjv 

3 (pipeiv eScoKe. vo/jlov Be oVro? iv Uepaac^ Bcopeav 
aWelv Tov avaBeix^^vra koi BiBovai tov avaBei- 
^avra irav to alrijOev, avTvep rj Bwarov, yrrjcrev 
' Xairaaiav 6 Aap€LO<^ rrjv fidXicTTa cnrovhaadel- 
crav VTTO Ku/}Of, t6t€ Be tm ^acriXei naWaKev- 
op.evr}v. rjv Be ^WKai<^ to <yevo^ air 'Ia)wa9, 

4 eXevdepcor yovecoi' fcal Ted pafifjuevrj /cocr/jbla)<;, eirel 
Be Kvpov Bei7rvovvTo<^ eldriyOT) fxeO^ eTepcov yvvai- 
K.o)Vy al fiev dWai irapaKaOei^ofxevai irpodirai- 

i^OVTO^ aUTOV KOi dTTTOfieVOV /Cal aK(ii1TT0VT0<s OVK 

drjBo3<; eveBe)(0VT0 Ta<; (})L\o(ppo(rvvas, eKeivif Be 
Tvapa TYjV kXlvtjv elcTTij/cet crKOTrfj koI K.vpov 
KoXovvTos ou)(^ V7r7]K0V€' ^ov\op.€P(t)v Be jrpocr- 
dyeiv t6)V KaTevvaaTcbv, " OtyLcco^erat fievTOi tov- 
Twv,'^ elirev, *' o? av i/jLol Trpoaaydyr] Td<; ^j^et/^a?." 
eBo^ev ovv d')(apL^ toI<; Trapouaiv elvat Koi dypoi- 

5 «:o9. o Be K{)/309 riddel's eyekaae, /cal elire tt^o? 
TOV dyayovTa Ta<^ yvvaXKa^t^ *^^ Apa r]Bri avvopd<; 
on fjLOi /.lOPTjv TavTTjv eXevOepav Koi aBidcpdopov 
i")K€C<; f{OfiL^(ov ; " etc Be tovtov 7rpo(Te2')(ev dp^d- 
fjievo^ avTTJ, Kol /judXcaTa iraacov eaTep^e Kal 
(TO(f)r)v 77 poarjy 6 pev a ep. kdXw Be Y^vpov Trea-oino^ 
ev Tjj fxd')(r) Kal BLapira^ofievov tov aTpaTOTTcBou. 

XXVIL TavTT]v 6 Aapeio<; alTr]aa<; i]via(7e tov 



* Cf. Xeiiopbon, Anab. i. 10. 2; Plutarcli, Pericles, xxiv. 7. 
190 



ARTAXERXES xxvi. 2-xxvii. i 

was ignorant of this ; and wishing to shatter at once 
the hopes of Ochus, that he might not venture upon 
the same course as Cyrus and so involve the kingdom 
anew in wars and contests, he proclaimed Dareius, 
then fifty years of age, his successor to the throne, and 
gave him permission to wear the upright '^ kitanis," as 
the tiara was called. Now, there was a custom among 
the Persians that the one appointed to the royal 
succession should ask a boon, and that the one who 
appointed him should give whatever was asked, if it 
was within his power. Accordingly, Dareius asked 
for Aspasia, who had been the special favourite of 
Cyrus, and was then a concubine of the king. She 
was a native of Phocaea, in Ionia, born of free 
parents, and fittingly educated. Once when Cyrus 
was at supper she was led in to him along with other 
women. The rest of the women took the seats given 
them, and when Cyrus proceeded to sport and dally 
and jest with them, showed no displeasure at his 
friendly advances. But Aspasia stood by her couch 
in silence, and would not obey when Cyrus called 
her ; and when his chamberlains would have led her 
to him, she said : '^ \'erily, Avhosoever lays his hands 
upon me shall rue the day." The guests therefore 
thought her a graceless and rude creature. But 
Cyrus was delighted, and laughed, and said to the 
man who had brought the women : " Dost thou not 
see at once that this is the only free and unperverted 
woman thou hast brought me ? " From this time on 
he was devoted to her, and loved her above all 
women, and called her The Wise. She was taken 
prisoner when Cyrus fell in the battle at Cunaxa and 
his camp was plundered.^ 

XX\TI. This was the woman for whom Dareius 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irarepa' Sva^rjXa ykp to, ^apffapiKo, h€tv(o<; irepl 
TO cLKoXaarov, ware fit) fiovov rov irpoaeXOovTa 
tcaX Oiyovra 7raWaKrj<; ^aaiXecof;, aWa koI tov 
iv TTopeia irpoe^eXdovra kuI hie^eXdaavra Ta<i 
dfid^a<; icf) at? KOfii^ovrai, Oavdrw KoXd^eaOai, 

2 KaiTOi TYjv fiev ^Arocraav elxev epcort iroLrjo-dpevof; 
yuraiKa irapa rov vofiov, k^rjKovra he Kai rpia- 
Koaiai iraperpecbovro KdXket hia^epovaai iraX- 
XaKiSe's. ov /jirjv dXXa Kai alrijOelf; eK€ivr)v 
iXevOepav e^-qaev elvai koX Xafx^dvav ifceXevae 
/BovXofievTjv, aKOvcrav he firj ^id^eaOai. fiera- 
'jT€fM(\)dei(Tr)(; he tt)? ^AaTracria^; Kai irap' iXirtha^ 
TOV ^acnXe(o<; eXofievrj<; tov ^apelov, ehcoKe fiev 
vtt" dvdXKrjf; tov yofiov, hov<; he oXijov vcTTepov 

3 d(f)eiX€T0. ttj^ yap Wpre/itSo? rr}? ev ^KK0aTd- 
voL^y ^v KvaiTLv KaXovcnVy lepeiav dvehec^ev 
avTfju, OTTO)? dypTj hidyr) tov eTTiXoiiTov ^lov, 
olopevo^ ov ')(aXe'TTrjVy dX\d koI /leTpiav tlvci Kai 
TTaihia /lefity/jiivTjv TavTrjv Xi^yfreadaL hi,K7]v -irapd 
TOV Traiho^;. 6 h' rjveyKev ov p^eTpio)^, elr' epcoTi 
Trj<; 'AcTTracrta? irepiiraOr)^ yeyovdi'^, elVe v/SpiaOai 
Kai K€')(XevdaOaL vo/j,i^o)V vtto tov TraTpo'^. 

4 KlaOofievo^ 8' avTov ovt(i)<; e^ovTa 'Y7)pi(Sa^o<i 
€Ti /xdXXov i^eTpdyyvev, ev toI<; eKeivov avvLhoov 
TO, Ka9^ avTov. rjv he TOiavTa. irXeiovccv ovaoiv 
^aaiXel Ovyarepcdv co/iMoXoyrjae ^apia^d^ro fiev 
Wrrdpav hujaeiv yvvatKa, 'Vohoyovvtjv he OpovTij, 
19? 



ARTAXERXES xxvn. 1-4 

asked, and he gave offence therein to his father ; for 
the Barbarian folk are terribly jealous in all that 
pertains to the pleasures of love, so that it is death 
for a man, not only to come uj) and touch one of the 
royal concubines, but even in journeying to go along 
past the ^vaggons on which they are conveyed. And 
yet there was Atossa, whom the king passionately 
loved and had made his wife contrary to the law, and 
he kept three hundred and sixty concubines also, 
who were of surpassing beauty. However, since he 
had been asked for Aspasia, he said that she was 
a free woman, and bade his son take her if she was 
willing, but not to constrain her against her wishes. 
So Aspasia was summoned, and contrary to the hopes 
of the king, chose Dareius. And the king gave her 
to Dareius under constraint of the custom that 
prevailed, but a little while after he had given her, 
he took her away again. That is, he appointed her 
a priestess of the Artemis of Ecbatana, who bears the 
name of Anaitis, in order that she might remain 
chaste for the rest of her life, thinking that in this 
way he would inflict a punishment upon his son 
which was not grievous, but actually quite within 
bounds and tinctured with pleasantry. The resent- 
ment of Dareius, however, knew no bounds, either 
because he was deeply stirred by his passion for 
Aspasia, or because he thought that he had been 
insulted and mocked by his father. 

And now Teribazus, who became aware of the 
prince's feelings, sought to embitter him still more, 
finding in his grievance a counterpart of his own, 
which was as follows. The king had several 
daughters, and promised to give Apama in marriage 
to Pharnabazus. Rhodogune to Orontes, and Amestris 

'93 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T7]pi^d^(p Be "A/jLTjarpLv. Kal rot? /xev a\XoL<; 
e^cDKe, Trjpl^a^ov Be e-\lrevcraro yr]/j,a<; avr6<; tt)v 
*'A/jL7j(jrpiv, avT €Keivri<^ Be rro Tr/pi^d^o) rrjv 

5 vecordrrjv ^'Aroaaav eveyvrjaev. eVel Be fcal rav- 
Tr]v epaaOeh eyqfiev, &)? etprjraL, Travrdiraa-i 
BvafJL€V(f)<; 7rpo9 avrov o ^rjpi^a^o^ ea-y^ev, ouBe 
aWo)9 (TTdcn/jLO<; ojv to r]0o<;, aXX* dva)p.a\o<; Kal 
wapdcfiopof;. Bib Kal vvv jiev euTj/juepayv o/xoia 
Tol<; TTyocoTOt?, VVV Be irpoaKpovcov Kal UKOpaKL^O- 
lievo<s ovBefxiav €(f)epev eya/xeXw? fiera^oXiji', dWd 
Kal Ttficofievo'^ r)V e7ra')(6rj<; viro ')(avv6TqT0<s, Kal 
TO KoXovofievov 01) Tairetvov ovBe rjav^atov, dWa 
Tpa^v Kal ayepw)(pv eiye. 

XX VIIL 110/? ovv €7tI TTvp eyepeTO tw veavi(JK<p 
TTpoaKeifjLevo'i 6 Ti]pl^a^o<; del Kal \eycov co? ovBev 
ovivrjcriv rj KiTapi^ ecrTcoaa irepl ttj Ke<^a\f} tou? 
v(i> avTMV fir) ^7]TovvTa<; opOovaOat tol<; nrpdy- 
fiaaL, KaKelvov d^eXTcpa (ppovetv, el, tov fxev 
dBe\(f)oij Bid Trj(; yvvaiK(iivirtBo<^ evBvofievov tol(; 
wpdy^aai, tov Be irdTpo^; ovT(d<; e/xTrXrjKTOv rjOo^ 
Kal d^ejSaiov e^ovTO^, oteTai ^e^aiov avTM ttjv 

2 BiaBo^7]v V7rdp')(eiv. 6 yap 'EtWijviKov X^P^^ 
yvvaiov tov d'^evaTov ev Yiepaai^i '^evaafjievo^ 
vofiov ov Bt] ttov itl(Tt6<; icTTi Td<^ irepl tCov fieyl- 
aT(ov 6/jio\oyLa<{ efnreBcoaeLV. ov TavTo B elvai 

to pLT] TV^^lv "n^W KUKeiVCp TO (TT€p€aOai tt)? 

^aai\eia<\' ^Clxov fxev yap ovBeva K(o\v(jeiv 
IBiooTrjv ^lovv jjLaKapio)^, eaeivra B dTroBeBeiy/xevfo 
fiaaiXel fSacriXeveiv dvdyKrjv r) fxrjBe ^vjv eh'ai. 



1 Chap, xxiii. 2ff. ^ cf. chap. xxvi. 2. 

194 



^ 



ARTAXERXES xxvii. 4-xxviii. 2 

to Teribazus. He kept his promise to the other two, 
but broke his word to Teribazus and married Amestris 
himself, betrothing in her stead to Teribazus his 
youngest daughter, Atossa. But soon he fell 
enamoured of Atossa also and married her, as lias 
been said,^ and then Teribazus became a downright 
foe to him. Teribazus was at no time of a stable 
disposition, but uneven and precipitate. And so, 
when he would be at one time in highest favour, 
and at another would find himself in disgrace and 
spurned aside, he could not bear either change of 
fortune with equanimity, but if he was held in 
lumoiir his vanity made him offensive, and when he 
fell from favour he was not humble or quiet, but 
harsh and ferocious. 

XX\TI1. Accordingly, it was adding fire to fire 
when Teribazus attached himself to the young prince 
and was forever telling him that the tiara standing 
upright on the head ^ was of no use to those who did 
not seek by their own efforts to stand upright in 
affairs of state, and that he was very foolish if, when 
his brother was insinuating himself into affairs of state 
by way of the harem, and his father was of a nature 
so fickle and insecure, he could suppose that the 
succession to the throne was securely his. Surelv he 
whom regard for a Greek courtesan had led to violate 
the inviolable custom of the Persians, could not be 
trusted to abide by his agreements in the most 
important matters. Moreover, he said it was not the 
same thing for Ochus not to get the kingdom and 
for Dareius to be deprived of it ; for no one would 
hinder Ochus from living hap])ily in private station, 
but Dareius had been declared king, and must needs 
be king or not live at all. 

195 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 KaOoXov fiev ovv 'iam';, ro ^ocpo/cXecov, 

Tax^la 7r€i6a) twv /ca/ccov ohoLiropel' 

Xeia yap ti<; rj iropeia /cat Kardvryi^i eirl to ^ov\6' 
fxevov. ^ovXovrai Se ol TrXelaroi ra <^avKa hi 
aTreipiav tmv koXcov koI ayvoiav ov /JLr]p aWa 102( 
TO fiey€0o<; ro t?}<? apxv^ kcl^' "^o irpof; rbv ^O^oi/ 
Tov AapcLOv 8eo9 viroOeaiv T(p TijpijSd^a) Trap- 
€6%€* Kvirpoyeveia 3' ov ird^irav dvairio^i, rj 
Trj<; ^ A(T7racyia<; dcpaLpeai^. 

XXIX. ^E7reB(0K6v ovv eavrov Ta> Trjpi/Sdtfp' 
Kal TToWcov r)hri avvLaTapievwv, evvov)(0<; iSTJXayae 
TO) BcLdiXel TTjv i7ril3ovXr]v fcal rbv rpoirov, elSax; 
cLKpL^co^ on vvKTO^ iyvcoKacTiv iv rtp 6aXd/jL<p 
/caraKei/jLevov dvaipelv avrov iireicreXOovTe^. aKov- 
aavTL he rw WpTo^ep^rj /cat to irapthelv Kivhwov 
ttjXlkovtov, dfieXijcravTa tt;? 8ial3oXTJ<;, Beivbv 
iSoKei, Kal to TriaTevcrat /jLr}8eib<; iXiy-^ov yevo- 

2 fxevov heivoTepov. ouro)? ovv eiroLer tov /lev 
evvov')(ov iKeiroL<; i/ceXevcre irapelvat Kal irap- 
aKoXovOelv, avTb<; he tov OaXd/jLOV rbv oiriadev 
T/}? KXiV7]<; Toly^ov iKKoyp-a^ Ka\ Ovpd)(Ta<; KaT- 
€KdXvyp-€v avXaia ra? 6vpa^. tVo-Tacr?;? he ttj^ 
o)pa^ Kal 4)pdaavT0<; tov evvovypv tov Kaipov, 
i-nl T7]<; KX[vr)<; virepeive Kal ovk e^aveaTrj irpo- 
Tepov Tj Tcov en avTov €p)(o/jievct)v to. irpoacoTra 

3 KaTihalv Kal yvcopcaac cra^oj? cKaaTov. co^ he 
elhev €(T7rao-fjievov<; tcl eyx^i^p^'hia Kal irpoacpepo- 
p,evGV<i, Taxp TTjv avXaiav viroXaffajv ai^e;^a>/o/;a-€i/ 

^ Fiom an unknown play, Nauck, Tray. Grace, Frag.-^ 
{). 315. 

IC)6 



ARTAXERXES \xviii. 3-xxix. 3 

Now^ perhaps it is generally true, as Sophocles 
says,^ that — 

"Swiftly doth persuasion unto evil conduct make 
its way " ; 

for smooth and downward sloping is the passage to 
what a man desires, and most men desire the bad 
through inexperience and ignorance of the good. 
However, it was the greatness of the empire and 
the fear which Dareius felt towards Ochus that 
paved the wav for Teribazus although, since Aspasia 
had been taken away, the Cyprus-born goddess 
of love was not altog^ether without influence in the 
case. 

XXIX. Accordingly, Dareius put himself in the 
hands of Teribazus ; and presently, wiien many were 
in the conspiracy, an eunuch made known to the 
king tlie plot and the manner of it, having accurate 
knowledge that the conspirators had resolved to 
enter the king's chamber by night and kill him in 
his bed. When Artaxerxes heard the eunuch's 
story, he thought it a grave matter to neglect the 
information and ignore so great a peril, and a graver 
still to believe it without any proof. He there- 
fore acted on this wise. He charged the eunuch 
to attend closely upon the conspirators ; meanwhile 
lie himself cut away the wall of his chamber behind 
the bed, put a doorway there, and covered the door 
with a hanging. Then, when the appointed hour 
was at hand and the eunuch told him the exact time, 
he kept his bed and did not rise from it until he saw 
the faces of his assailants and recognised each man 
clearly. But when he saw them advancing upon him 
with drawn swords, he quickly drew aside the 

197 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

et? TO eVro? oi/crjfia koI to,? 6vpa<; iTr/jppa^e 
Kpd^cov. 6<^6evre<^ ovv ol (T(f)ay€i<; utt' avrov, 
TTpd^avTe^ he firjdev, d7r€')((i)povv <j)vy7j Bia dvpayv, 
Kol T01/9 irepl rov Ttjpl^a^ov etcekevov d'rro')(a)peLV 

4 C09 (fyavepoij^ 'yeyovora'^. ol fxev ovv aWoL SiaXv- 
Oevre^ €(j)vyov' 6 Se Tr)pL^a^o<; (7vXXafi^av6/xevo<i 
7roWov<i (i7r€KT€ive rwv ^acnX€co<i 8opv(f>6p(ov koI 
fioyi'; dK0VTi(p irXriyei'; Troppwdev eireae. tw 5e 
Aapeio) fiera roiv reKVcov dva'^Oevri Kadl(Ta<: tou? 
fiaaCXeiov^i BiKaard^;, ov Traponv avrof;, dXX* 
erepoov /carr/yoprjaavrcov, eKeXevaev vTrrjpera^i rrfv 
e/cdarov ypa^afi€vov<; dirotpaaiif o)? avrov irrave- 

5 veyKelv. d7ro<prjva/jLevo)V Se Trdvrcov 6/iOi(o<i kol 
Karayvovrcov rov Aapeiov Odvarov, ol fiev virr^pe- 
rat (TvXXaffovre^ avrov €t? OLKrj/jLa TrXrjaiOv drv- 
i^yayoVi 6 he hrjfXL0<i KXrjdeh rjfce fxev ^vpov ex^^^* 
c5 ra<; /c€<j)aXd(; aTrorepivovaL rcov fcoXa^opLevcov, 
lB(i)v Se rov Aapecov e^errXdyj] xal dvex^^^p^^ 7rpo<i 
Ta9 Ovpa^ dTTO^XeiTcov, O)^ ov Svvr}a6pi€vo<i ovBe 

6 roXp,7]acov avro^^ip yeveaOai ^acnXew^i. e^codev 
Be rcov Btfcaarcov direiXovvroiv fcal Bia/ceXevo/jLevcov 
dvaar pey^a<^ Ka\ rfj erepa %et/)i Bpa^dp.evo<; r?}? 
KopLTjfi avrov Kal Karayaycov drrere/jie ro) ^vpa> 
rov rpd^^Xov. 

"^VLOL Be (f)aaL rrjv /cpicriv yeveaOai l3acnXeco<i 
avrov Trapovro^, rov Be Aapelov, co? KareXap- 
^dvero rolt; eXeyxoi<;, eVt ar6p.a rrecrovra Beladat 

7 Kal iKereveiv rov Be vir opyrjf; dvaardvra Kal 
(jiraadpievov rov aKivaKrjv rvirreiv eco? direKreipev 
198 



ARTAXERXES xxix. 3-7 

hanging, retired into the inner chamber, closed the 
door with a shim, and raised a cry. The murderers 
accordingly, having been seen by the king, and 
having accomplished nothing, fled back through the 
door by which they had come, and told Teribazus 
and his friends to be off since their plot was known. 
The rest, then, were dispersed and fled ; but Teri- 
bazus slew many of the king's guards as they sought 
to arrest him, and at last was smitten by a spear at 
long range, and fell. Dareius, together with his 
children, was brought to the king, who consigned 
him to the roval judges for trial. The king was not 
present in person at the trial, but others brought in 
the indictment. However, the king ordered clerks 
to take down in writing the opinion of each judge 
and bring them all to him. All the judges were of 
one opinion and condemned Dareius to death, where- 
upon the servants of the king seized him and led him 
away into a chamber near by, whither the executioner 
was summoned. The executioner came, with a sharp 
knife in his hand, wherewith the heads of condemned 
persons are cut off; but when he saw Dareius, he 
was confounded, and retired towards the door witli 
averted gaze, declaring that he could not and would 
not take the life of a kin or. But since the iudaes 
outside the door plied him with threats and com- 
mands, he turned back, and with one hand clutching 
Dareius by the hair, dragged him to the ground, and 
cut off his head with the knife. 

Some say, however, that the trial was held in the 
j)resence of the king, and that Dareius, when he was 
overwhelmed by the proofs, fell upon his face and 
begged and sued for mercy ; but Artaxerxes rose up 
in anger, drew his scimitar, and smote him till he 

199 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

etra el<; rrjv avXrjv irpoeXOovra rov 'llXioi^ irpocr- 
Kvvrjaai xal eLTrelv' ** EvcfipaLveaOe ainovTe^;, o) 
Uepcrai, kol Xeyere roL<; dX\oc<i on Tol<i aOeafxa 
Koi irapdvofxa SiavotjOeiaiv 6 /jLi<ya<; 'flpofid^r]<; 
Bifcrjv eiTLTeOeLKevr 

XXX. 'H puev ovv iirL/SouXT] roiovrov ecry^e 
T6\o?. 6 Se *n;)^09 tjSt] pLev tjv rat? eXiriai Xap- 
Trpo? vTrb Trj<; ^Aroaarj^; enacpo/jLevof;, en Se €(f)0' 
^elro TMv pLevyvrjcriwv rov vTroXonrov^ ApidaTrrjVf 
Tcop Be voOcov ^AoadfMTjv. o pev yap Apida7rrj<; 
ov Sia TO irpea^vrepo^ elvai rov Tl)(ov, 7Tpao<i 
Se Kal dirXov^ koI (jyiXdvOpwiros, r/^iovro /Saai- 
Xeveiv VTTO rcov Tlepawv 6 Be ^ Apadpurj^ koi vovv 
e)(6tv iBo/cet Kal pdXtara tS> nrarpl 7rpo(T(j)LX7]<^ 

2 wp ovK iXdvOave top ^n^op. €7rt/3ov\6V(op ovp- 
dju(}>OT€poif; Kal BoX€po<i cop opou Kal (popiKO^ 
i^PV^CLTo rfj fiep oofioTrjn r^? (f)vcr€(i)<; irpo^ top 
*Apadp,7)p, TTj Be KaKovp'yLa Kal BeLPOTt^TL Trpo<^ 
TOP ^ApidaTTTjp. viri'TTepi'^e yap 7rpo9 avTOP ev- 
pov)(^ov<; Kal (f)LXov<; ^aaCXeo}^ d7retXd<i Tipa<; del 
Kal \0701;? (po^epov<i d7rayyeXXopTa<;, &)? tov 
Trarpof; eyvcDKOTO^ drroKTiPPveLP avTOP &)/xw9 nal 

3 €(f)v^pLa'To><i. ol Be TavTa KaO rjp^epap €K(f>ep€ii> 
BoKOVPT€<; ct)9 diTopprfTa, Kal ra p,ep fieXXeip, tcl 

Be oaop oviTw Trpdaaeip ^aaiXea XeyovTe^, ovtco^ 1027 
€^€7rXT]^ap TOP dpOpcoTTOP Kal ToaavTrfp eveSaXop 
TTToiap avTw Kal Tapa')(^rjp Kal Bvaduplap 6t9 tou9 
Xoyi(rpLov<;, cocrre <f)dpp,aKOP aKevdaaPTa tcop dapa- 

4 (TLpiwp Kal TTLOPTa TOV ^Tjp diTaXXayrjpaL. tivOo- 
pepo<; Be 6 /3acrLX€v<; top Tponop t^9 T€X6L'Tr}9, 
eKelpop p.ep direKXavcre, t)]p B aiTuap viroirrTevep. 
eXiy')(et,p Be Kal ^rjTeip e^ahuvaTOip Bid yr]pa<; €Tt 
200 



ARTAXERXES xxix. 7-xxx. 4 

had killed him ; then, going lorth into court, he 
made obeisance to the sun and said : '' Depart in joy 
and peace, ye Persians, and sav to all whom ye meet 
that those who contrived impious and unlawful 
things have been punished by great Oromasdes." 

XXX. Such, then, was the end of the conspiracy. 
And now Ochus was sanguine in the hopes with 
which Atossa inspired him, but he was still afraid of 
Ariaspes, the only legitimate son of the king remain- 
ing, and also of Arsames among the illegitimate sons. 
For Ariaspes, not because he was older than Ochus, 
but because he was mild and straigiitforward and 
humane, was deemed by the Persians worthy to be 
their king ; Arsames, however, was thought to have 
wisdom, and the fact that he was especially dear to 
his father was not unknown to Ochus. Accordingly, 
he plotted against the lives of both, and being at 
once wily and bloody-minded, he brought the cruelty 
of his nature into play against Arsames, but his 
villainy and craft ajjainst Ariaspes. For he secretly 
sent to Ariaspes eunuchs and friends of the king, 
who constantly brought him word of sundry threaten- 
ing and terrifying utterances im})lying that his father 
had determined to put him to a cruel and shameful 
death. Since they pretended that these daily re- 
ports of theirs were secrets of state, and declared, 
now that the king was delaying in the matter, and 
now that he v.a?. on the point of acting, they so 
terrified the prince, and filled his mind Avith so great 
trepidation, confusion, and despair, that he drank a 
deadly poison which he had prepared, and thus rid 
himself of life. When the king was informed of the 
manner of his death, he bewailed his son. He also 
suspected what had caused his death, but being 

201 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/j^dWov r)a7rd^€To top ^Apad/iJ]v, /cat Si]\o<> rjv 
fidXiara iriareviov ifceivq) /cal 7rappr)(Tia^6/j,evo(;. 
66ev ol irepl tov ^n-yov ov/c dve^dXovro ttjv 
irpa^iv, dW' ^ ApTrdrrjv vlov TrjptjSd^ov irapa- 
aKevdaavre^ direKTeivav hi eKeivov rbv avOpcoirov. 
5 Tjv fxev ovv inl /Sott/)? pLiKpa<; 6 ^Apro^€p^r}<; Sta ro 
yrjpa'^ ijSr) Tore* 7rpoaire(j6vTO<; he avTcp rod irept 
TOV ^ Kpadjjiriv irdOov^ ovhe oXiyov dvrea-^^^eu, a\X* 
evdv<; VTTO Xvirr^t; koI hvaOvpLia^ aTTecr^earOrj, 
^i,d)(ra<; fiev evevrjKOVTa /cal reacrapa err}, fiaai- 
X€vaa<; Be hvo kol e^jjKovra, S6^a<i he 7rpao<; elvai 
Koi (fiiXvTryJKoo^i ou^ rjKLara hid rov vlov ^Vt-^ov 

ODfXOTTjTl KOi /XtaKpOVLO, TTdPTW^ V7rep^aX6/jL6V0P. 



202 



ARTAXERXES xxx. 4-5 

unable by reason of his age to search out and 
convict tlie guilty one, he was still more well- 
affectioned towards Arsames, and clearly made him 
his chief support and confidant. Wherefore Ochus 
would not postpone his design_, but set Arpates, a 
son of Teribazus, to the task and by his hand slew 
the prince. Now Artaxerxes, by reason of his age, 
was already hovering between life and death ; and 
when the sad fate of Arsames came to his ears, he 
could not hold out even a little while, but straight- 
way expired of grief and despair. He had lived 
ninety-four years, and had been king sixty-two, and 
iiad the reputation of being gentle and fond of his 
subjects; though this was chiefly due to his son 
Ochus, who surpassed all men in cruelty and blood- 
guiltiness. 



ao3 



GALEA 



TAABAS 

T. 'O fiev ^ A6r}valo<^ ^lipcKpcirrj^; rov fii(T0o(j)6- 1053 
pov Jj^lov crrpaTtcoT7}v Kal (jaXoTrXovrov elvai Kal 
(^iXrjhovov, oirod^ ral<i €7n6v/jiLai<i ')(ppri'yiav iTTi^rj- 
TOiv dycovL^rjTaL 7rapa,So\(OT€poVy ol Se TrXelaroi., 
KaOdirep ippMfievov acofia, to arparKoriKov d^iou- 
GLV IBla /jLijSeTTore ')(poi)fjL€vov op/jufj avyKLvelaOai 

2 tt; toO arparrj-yov. Sio Kal HaOXov AljjLiKiov 
Xeyovai ttjv iv Ma^reSoi/ta Svvafiiv irapaXa^ovra 
XaXid<; Kal TrepLepyia^, olov SiaarpaTrjyovaav, 
avdirXecov, irapeyyvrjo-ai Tr)v xelpa iroLelv eroi- 
/ir}v Kal TTjv fxd^aLpav o^eiav eKaarov, avrw Se 

3 rcov dXXcov ixeXrjaetv. o he YiXdrosv ovhev epyov 
opcov ap')(pvTO<; dyaOov Kal arpariiyov crTpaTtd<^ 
/X7] (T(D^povoi)ari<i p/qhe ofJiOTTadov(Tr]<s, dXXd rrjv 
•7T€i,6ap')(^iKr]V dperrjv o[xoiw<; rfj j^acnXiKr) ro/iL^rov 
(f)va€co<; yevvaia^; Kal Tpo(f)T]<; (fxXocrocfyov SelaOat, 
fidXiara tm Trpafp Kal (^iXavOpoyTTW to 0vfjLO€iS€<s 
Kal hpa(7T7)piov efJifieXoi's dvaK€pavvv/j,evrj<i , dXXa 
re irdOr) iroXXd Kal rd 'Pco/zatot? av/iTrecrovTa 
fieTa TrjV ISepcovo^; TcXevTfjv e%ei fiapTvpia Kal 
TrapaheiyixaTa tov /jbrjSev elvai (f)o^€pu>Tepov dirav- 



^ With Plutarch's Galha may be compared Suetonius, 
Galba; Dion Cassius, Ixiv. 1-9; Tacitus, Hist. i. 1-45. 



2o6 



GALEA 1 

I. Iphicrates the Athenian used to tliink tliat the 
mercenary soldier might well be fond of wealth and 
fond of pleasure, in order that his quest for the 
means to gratify his desires might lead him to fight 
with greater recklessness ; but most people think that 
a body of soldiers, just like a natural body in full 
vigour, ought to have no initiative of its own, but 
should follow that of its commander. Wherefore 
Paulus Aemilius, as we are told, finding that the army 
which he had taken over in Macedonia was infected 
with loquacity and meddlesomeness, as though they 
were all generals, gave out word that each man 
was to have his hand ready and his sword sharp, 
but that he himself would look out for the rest.^ 
Moreover, Plato ^ sees that a good commander or 
general can do nothing unless his army is amenable 
and loyal ; and he thinks that the quality of 
obedience, like the quality characteristic of a king, 
requires a noble nature and a philosophic training, 
which, above all things, blends harmoniously the 
qualities of gentleness and humanity v, it h those of 
high courage and aggressiveness. Many dire events, 
and particularly those which befell the Romans after 
the death of Nero, bear witness to this, and show 
plainly that an empire has nothing more fearful to 

2 See the Aemilius, xiii. 4. 
' Cf. e. g. nqniblic 376 C. 

207 



PLUTARCH S LIVES 

BevToif; y^pwiievrf^ Koi aXo70t<? opfial<i ev rjye/jLOVLa 

4 (JTpaT wTiKr,^ Svvd/ii€(i)<;. ^^]/j.doy]<; fi'^v yap 
We^dvhpov reXevTrjcravro^ ecKa^e Trjv Ma^e- 
hovwv crrpariav €icTeTV(^\oofxevrp rrp K.vKXoyiri, 
TToWa^ KLvovfievriv opojv Kivi']a€i<; drdKrov<; koi 
7rapacl)6pov<;' rrjv Be 'FM/jLatcou rjye/ioviav Ofioia 
Tot's \eyofievoi<; V train koI<; TrdOecn Kal Kiinjfiacrt 
KureXd/jiBaver, ^t? ttoWcl SiaaTrcofievrjv dfxa teal 
iroWay^oOev av6c^ iavrfj av/jLTriTrrova-av, ov^ 
ovTO)^ i'lro <^L\ap')(ia<; rcov dvayopevofJievwv avro- 
Kparoi cov, co? (^tXoTrXouTta? Kal dKo\acria<^ rov 
crrpaTKOTiKOv Sl dWijXcov wairep >;Xoi/9 rov^ 

5 rjy€jx6va<i iKKpovovTO<^, KalroL Atovv<Tio<; ^epaiov 
ap^avra SerraXayv SeKa fxr]va<;, elra eu^u? dv- 
aipeOivra, rov rpayiKov dveKdXei rvpavvoVy iiTi' 
aKcoTTToyu TO Ttt^o? T?}? fieT a ^ oXrj<^ . 77 Be. to)V 
Kai<7dp(t)v earta, to TiaXdriop, iv iXdacrovi XP^' 
v(p T€<7aapa<; avroKpdropa^ uTreBe^aro, rov /nev 
elaayovTcov aarirep Bid a/c7]V7j<;, rov 8' e^ayorrwv. 
aXX' Tjv ye irapafivOia rol^ KaKCx)^ Trday^ovai fx'a 
JO fxT) BetiOijvai BLKr]<; erepa^ iirl rov<^ alriov^;, dXX! 
opav avTov's v<p^ eavrSyv <^ov6vopievov<^, Trpcorov Be 
Kal BiKaiorara Trdvrcov rov BeXedcravra Kal Bi- 
Bd^avra roaovrov eXTri^eiv eVl fiera^oXfj K.aLaa- 
po9 oaov avTO<; t'Trecr^eTO, KoXXiarov epyov Bia- 
^aXcov Tft) fiia6a), rrfv diro ^epwvo^ dirocTTacriav 
irpoBooiav yevofievijv. 

IL KvfjL<j)ih('<; ydo '^a^ivo<i_wv €7Tap-)(^o<;, axyrrep 
e'lprjrat, /lerd TiyeXXiiov tT/? auXf]<^, eVel rd 
Ne/96oi^09 aTreyvcoaTO TravrdTraac Kal 3?}Xo9 r/v 



^ An allusion to the provoib f^Ay d iiKos iKKpovfrai^ 
208 



GALEA I, 3-11. I 

show than a military force eiven over to untrained 
and unreasoninfj impulses. Demades, indeed, after 
Alexander had died, likened the Macedonian armv 

^ ml 

to the blinded Cyclops, observing the many random 
and di;;orderlv movements that it made; but the 
Roman Empire was a prey to convulsions and dis- 
asters like those caused by the Titans of mythology, 
being torn into many fragments, and again in many 
places collapsing upon itself, not so much through 
the ambition of those who were proclaimed emperors, 
as through the greed and licence of the soldiery, 
which drove out one commander with another as nail 
drives out nail.^ And yet the Pheraean ^ who ruled 
Thessaly for ten months and was then promptly killed, 
was called the tragedy-tyrant by Dionysiiis, with 
scornful reference to the quickness of the change. 
But the house of the Caesars, the Palatium, in a 
shorter time than this received four emperors, the 
soldiery ushering one in and another out, as in play. 
But tlie suffering people had one consolation at least in 
the fact that they needed no other ])unishraent of the 
authors of their sufferings, but saw them slain by one 
another's hands, and first and most righteously of all, 
the man who ensnared the soldiery and taught them 
to expect from the de})Osition of a Caesar all the good 
things which he promised them, thus defiling a most 
noble deed by the pay he offered for it, and turning 
the revolt from Nero into treachery. 

II. It was Nymphidius Sabinus, prefect of the court 
guard along with I'igellinus, as 1 have already stated,^ 
who, when Nero's case was altogether desperate, and 

* Alexander, tyraut of Pheiae. See the Felopidas, xxiv.- 

X x X V . 
" PiobaUly in the lost Life 0/ Nero. 

209 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

airohpacrofievo^; eh Atyvirrov, eiretcre ro (TTpanw- 
riKoVy ft)? fJLrjKeTi irapovro'^, aXX! 7)8rj Trecpevyoro^, 

2 auTOfcpdropa VaX^av avayopevaaty KaX Scopeav 
v'7Tea')(€T0 Kar dvSpa roh avXiKoh koi crrparr)- 
yiKoh IT poaayopevofjuevoi^ Bpa')(/JLa<; €7rTaKicr)(^L\La<; 
7r€vraKoaLa<;, to2^ Be iKTo<i arparevopevoif; irevTrj- 
fcovra Kal StaKocrLa<; iirl '^cXtais, oaov dfijj^avov 
r)v avvayayelv p,T) irXeiova fjivpiaKL^^ kukcl irapa- 

3 (T')(^6vra7rdaLvdv0pct)7roi<: MvNepwv irapiax^. rod- 1054 
TO yap €vOv<} fjL€v diroyXeae ISipcova, fxer oXiyov he 
Td\/3av' Tov p,ev yap co? XTj^jrofxevoi 7rpoJ]Kavro, 

Tov Se p,r) \afjLl3dvovT€<; direKTeivav. elra tov 
rocrovTOV Bcoaovra ^rjTovvTC'; ecpOrjaav iv rah 
airoaraaecTi Kal TrpoBoaiaL<; dva\a)(7avr€<s avrov^ 
rj rv)(pvTe'^ wv i^Xmcrav. rd fiev ovv /caO^ eKacTTa 
roiv yevofxevoav dirayyehXeiv dfcpt/3ct)<; rrj<i irpay- 
partKrjf; laropla'i earlvy oaa he d^ia \6yov roh 
T(hv "Kaiddpcdv €pyoi<; Kal irdOeai avfiireirrcdKeVi 
ovSe i/jbol irpoajjKet ivapeXOelv. 

IIL TdXfSa^ XouXttlkio'; ore fiev lSL(orr]<; ttXou- 
aL(£>Tdro<; dirdyrcov eh rov Kaccrdpcov rraptjXOev 
oIkou, opLoXoyelrar [leya he €)((ov evyeveia<; a^ico- 
fia TOV %epovtcov oIkov, avro<; i(f)p6veL /neL^ov eirl 
rfj KarXou avyyeveia, irpwrevaavro'^ dvhpo^ 
dperfi Kal ho^rj tcov KaO^ kavrov, el Kal ro hvi>a- 
2 adai fidXXov eKoov eT€poL<; TraprJKev. r)v he ri Kal 
Ac^ia rf) KaLaapo<i yvvaLKi Kara yevo<^ Trpoatj- 
K03V o TdX/3a<i, Kal hta rovro \i^ia<^ Tvapaayov- 



^ Plutarch uses the Greek word drachma for the corre- 
sponding Itonian denarius, a silver coin about equivalent to 

2IX> 



GALBA II, i-iii. 2 

it was clear that he was going to run away to Egypt, 
persuaded the soldiery, as though Nero were no 
longer there but had already fled, to proclaim Galba 
emperor, and })romised as largess seventy-five hundred 
drachmas apiece for the court, or praetorian, guards, 
as they were called, and twelve hundred and fifty 
drachmas ^ for those in service outside of Rome, a 
sum which it was impossible to raise without in- 
flicting ten thousand times more evils upon the 
world than those inflicted by Nero. This promise 
was at once the death of Nero, and soon afterwards 
of Galba : the one the soldiers abandoned to his fate 
in order to get their reward, the other they killed 
because they did not get it. Then, in trying to find 
someone who would give them as high a price, they 
destroyed themselves in a succession of revolts and 
treacheries before their expectations were satisfied. 
Now, the accurate and circumstantial narration of 
these events belongs to formal history ; but it is my 
duty also not to omit such incidents as are worthy 
of mention in the deeds and fates of the Caesars. :.■ 
III. That Sulpicius Galba was the richest private 
person who ever came to the imperial throne, is 
generally admitted; moreover, his connection with 
the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige, 
although he prided himself more on his relationship 
to Catulus, who was the foremost man in his time in 
virtue and reputation, even if he gladly left to others 
the exercise of greater power. Galba was also some- 
how related to Livia, the wife of Augustus Caesar, 
and therefore, at the instance of Livia, he was made 

the franc. But a Roman writer would reckon by sestertii, 
the sestertius being worth about a quarter of the denarius. 

2X1 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(777? UTraro? etc YidXariov TrpofjXOe. Xiyerai Be 
KoX cTTparevf^aTO^ ev Vepfxavia fca\(o<; ap^ai fcal 
\i^vr}<; avOv7raTo<; y€v6^€Vo<; avv 6\iyoL<; iiratve- 
dr]vai. ■ TO Be evKo\ov avrov t>)<s Bi,airr)<; /cat (f)€t- 
BcoXov ev Ba7rdvai<; kol airepirrov alriav ecr^ev 
avTOKpdropo^; yevo/jbevov p.iKpo\oyia<;, rjv ecoXov 
TLva Bo^av evTa^ia^ €<pep6 fcal aco(f)poavv7]<;. \ 
3 eireficpOr) Be vtto Ne^owi^o? ^\prjpia<; ap)(^a)v, ovtto) 
BeBtBay/iivov (^o^elaOai rov^ ev d^icofiaai, fieyd- 
\of9^ t6)v ttoXltcov. eKeivco Be koX ^vcrei Bokovv- 
ri 7rpda> yeyovevai Trpoaerldei TridTLv evka^eia<^ 
TO yrjpa^. 

IV. 'EttcI ^ Be, rfav aXiTTjpicov eimpoircav wfio)<; 
Koi ciypiw^ ra? €7rapx^cL<; eKeiv(p Bia^opovvrctiv, 
aWo fiev elx^v ovBev por]6elv, avrCo Be rw (pavepo^ 
elvat awaXycbv kol crvvaBLKOVfi€vo<i dfio}<^ ye tto)? 
dvairvoi]v riva koi Trapa/jLvOlav Tot<; /caraBiKa^o- 
/jLevoi<s KoX 7ro)\ov/xevoL<; irapeaye' Kal TroiTj/adrMv 
eh ^epcova yivofjuevcov koX TroWaxov irepKpepofie- 
vcov fcal aBo/iev(OV, ov/c eKooXvev ovBe avvTjyavdfcrei 

T0t9 eTTLTpOTTOi^' 6^* ol? ^Tt floXkOV rjyairdTO VTTO 

2 rcjvdvdpcoTTCov. kol yap rjv rjBr) avvr]Orj<i,eTo<; oyBoov 
CKelvo Tr}v dp)(^r]v e^ft)!^ tV c5 lovvio<; OvlvBl^ eirave- 
arr) Nepcovi, VdXaria^ mv (7rpaT7}y6<;. Xeyerai 
fiev ovv Kal irpo tt}? €/jb(f>avov<:; aTToardaedx; ypdfx- 
/lara tt/oo? avrov d(f)t/ceaOat irapd jov OvivBifco<;, 
ot? fiTjre Triareuaai /i7]Te firjvvcrai, fcac Karenrelv, 

^ ficyaXovs Coraes and Bekker have ixtydXois, after Reiske, 
* ivfl Sint." corrects to inu {there). 

21 2 



GALBA III. 2-iv. 2 

consul ^ by the emperor. We are told also that he 
commanded an army in Germany with distinction, 
and that when he was pro-consul of Africa,^ he won 
such praise as few have done. But his simple and 
contented way of living, the sparing hand with 
which he dealt out money, always avoiding excess, 
were counted unto him, when he became emperor, 
as parsimony, so that the reputation which he bore 
for moderation and self-restraint was an insipid 
sort of thing. By Nero he was sent out as governor 
of Sj)aiii,^ before Nero had yet learned to be afraid 
of citizens who were held in high esteem. Galba, 
however, was thought to be of a gentle nature, 
and hi5; great age gave an added confidence that he 
would always act with caution. 

IV. But when, as the nefarious agents of Nero 
savagely and cruelly harried the provinces, Galba 
could help the people in no other way than by 
making it plain tliat he shared in their distress and 
sense of wrong, this somehow brought relief and 
comfort to those who were being condemned in 
court and sold into slavery. And when verses were 
made about Nero, and men circulated and sang them 
freely, he did not put a stop to it nor share in the 
displeasure of Nero's agents ; wherefore he was still 
more beloved by the inhabitants. For he was by 
this time well known to them, since it was in the 
eighth year of his governorship that Junius Vindex, 
a general in Gaul, revolted against Nero. It is said, 
indeed, that even before the open rebellion Galba 
received letters from Vindex, and that he neither 
put any trust in them nor gave accusing information 

* In 33 A.D. " In 4o a.d. ' In 61 a.d. 

213 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

0)9 erepoL rwi^ rjye/jLOViKOJV i7riaTo\a<! avTOi<; 
ypac^eiaa^ €7T6/Jiylrav 7r/3o? ^epcova koI hie<^6eipav 
ocTOv iiT avroc<; rrjv Trpu^LV, ^9 varepov fxera- 
cr^o^'Te9 Q)/xo\6yr}(rav avrcov ovBep rjrrov rj €K€l- 

3 vov irpohorai yeyovevai. liX)C iireihrj Xafiirpuy^ 
Tov TToXe/jiov iK(f)r]va^ 6 OvlvBl^ eypayjre tm Vak^a 
TcapaKokoyv avaSe^aaOai ttjv 7]yefjL0Viav fcal 
'Trapa(j')(elv eavrov la')(upw arofxart ^tjtovvtl ks- 
(pdXrjv, Tat9 TaXariaci Se/ca fivpLaha^; dvSpa)v 
6)TTXia jxevcdv i')(pvcraL^ aXXa^ re 7rX€iova<i oTrXlaai 
Bvi^a/jLevaL<;,7rpov6r]Ke ffovXr)v toi<; (j>lXoi(i. mv ol fiev 
rj^Lovv TrepLfiivecv KapaSoKOvura rlva klptjctiv r) 

4 'Pdi/jLT) KoX (popav e^€L irpo^ tov vecorepiafMOP' TtT09 
Se OvivLO^ 6 TOV aTpaT7)yiKov TayfiaTO^; 7)ye/jLQ)p 
avTol<; ^ eLTrev "'11 TdX^a, Tiva Tpoirov ^ov- 
XeveaOe ; to yap ^r)T€tv ^ipcovi el iricrTol fxevov- 
/j,€v, ovfc ^Br) fiepouTCOv iaTiv, 0)9 ovv V7rdp')(pvT0^ 
e')(6pov Nepcovof; ov Bt] TrpoeTeov ttjv tov OvlvSi- 
KO^ (fyiXlav, rj Kal /caTrjyopr)Teov €v6v<s avTOV Koi 
TToXe/jLrjTeov, otl ae ^ovXcTat 'Poy/jLaiovfi 6')(eiv 
upxovra iMoXXov rj Nepcova Tvpavvov.^ 

V. 'Eac tovtov TrpoypdfjLjubaTt, fjuev iBrjXwaev 
YdX^a<i rjixepav ev y Ta9 fcaTO, fiepof; iXevdepco- 1055 
o"€t9 dirohctiaei T0t9 Seofievoif;, XaXia Be /cat ^^//i'/ 
TrpoeK-neaovaa 7rXP]0o<; dvd pa)7i'(ov 7]6poia€ irpo- 
Ovfjbwv eirl TOV vecoTepiap^ov. ovk €(f>0}] yovv 
(f)avepb'i iirl tov ^^/jluto'^ yevop.€vo<i, Kai 7ravT€<i 
2 avTov 6p,0(f)cov(i)'^ avToxpdTopa Trpoaelirov, 6 Be 
TavT'Tjv /JL6P €vOv<i OV TTpoaeBe^aTO ttjv irpoa- 
rjyoptav, KaTr)yopr)aa<^ Be tov NepwvQfi, kul TOiV 
dvyprjfjLevcov dvBpcov vtt^ avTov tol'9 iTrK^aveaTd- 

* avTo7s suggested by Sint.* for the avrds of the MSS. 
214 



GALBA IV. 2-v. 2 

about them, although other provincial governors sent 
to Nero the letters written to them, and thus did 
all they could to ruin the enterprise of Vindex ; and 
yet they afterwards took part in it, and thus confessed 
that they had been false to themselves no less than 
to Vindex. But after Vindex had openly declared 
war, he wrote to Galba inviting him to assume the 
imperial power, and thus to serve what was a vigorous 
body in need of a head, meaning the Gallic provinces, 
which already had a hundred thousand men under 
arms, and could arm other thousands besides. Then 
Galba took counsel with his friends. Some of these 
thought it best for him to wait and see what move- 
ment Rome would set on foot in response to the ^ 
revolution ; but Titus Vinius, the captain of the ^ 
praetorian guard, said to them : " O Galba, what 
counsels are these .'^ For to ask whether we shall . 
remain faithful to Nero means that we are already ^ 
unfaithful. Assuming, then, that Nero is an enemy, 
we surely must not reject the friendship of Vindex ; 
or else we must at once denounce him and make 
war upon him because he wishes the Romans to 
have thee as their ruler rather than Nero as their 
tyrant " 

V. After this, Galba issued an edict appointing a 
day on which he would grant individual manu- 
missions to all who desired them, and gossip and 
rumour flying all abroad brought together a multi- 
tude of men who were eager for the revolution. 
At any rate, no sooner was Galba seen upon the 
tribunal than all with one voice hailed him as 
emperor. However, he did not at once accept this 
af)pellation, but after denouncing Nero, and bewailing 
the most illustrious of the men who had been put to 

215 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOv<; 6\o4>vpd/j.€vo<;, oofioXoyiiaev enrLhoicreLv rfj 
TrarplSc ttjv eavrov irpovoiav, ovre Kalaap ovr 
avTO/cparcop, aTpaTr}y6<; Be avyfc\i]Tov fcal hrjfxov 
VcD/jiaLcov 6vofxa^6/jL6PO<;. 

3 "OtL S' 6pOa}<i 6 OvLvBl^ KOi X€X,OyL(Tfl€VCi)<; 

t^€fca\6iTo TOP VdXj^av eirl tyjv rjyepioviav, eTn- 
aTooaaro fidprvpL tw Nepo)Vi. TTpoairoLOvpevo^ 
yap €Keivov /caracfipopeLV kol irap^ ovSev rjyelcrOai 
TO, rakarcJov, dfia tw irvOeaOai ra irepl TdX^av 
(6TV)(e he \€\ovfjL€vo<; kol dpiaroyv) dverpeyjre ttjv 

4 rpdire^av. ov /iir]v dWa crvy/cXijTOV '\ln](f)Laa/jL€vrj<; 
TToXefiLov Tou TdX/3av avro^ re Tral^eiv Kal 6pa- 
GVvecrOai 7rp6<; tou? (piXovf; ^ovX6/j>evo<;, ov (f)av- 
Xrjv €<f>7} irpopprfaLV efxireTTTWicevai, Xoyia/JLOV Beo- 
fxev(p ')(^pr]p.dT(ov avrw' Kal ra fxev VaXaTioVi brav 
vTro^eipioL yevayvrai, Xa^vpaywyrjaecrOat, rj Se 
VdXjSa irdpecrriv ovcrta 'X^priadau Kal ircoXetp ySrj 

e TToXe/jLiOv 7re<f)7jv6ro(;. ovro^ re Stj ra Va^/Sa m- 
irpdaKeLV eKeXeve, Kal TdX^a^ aKOvcra^i, ocra Ne- 
pcDPO<s rjv ev ^l^rjpla Krjpvmov euptaKc rroXXov^; 
nrpoQvjJLorepov^ a}V7)rd<;. 

VL WcpiarafJLevcov Be iroXXcop rov Nepoyvo^; Kal 
TTdvrcov eTTiecKox; rw VdXffa TTpoarLdefievwv, fiovo^ 
KXcoSto? MdKpo^ev Ai^VT) Kal OvepyivLO^'VoixjiO^ 
ev VaXarla rov Vep/JLavtKov arparevfiaro^i 7)yov- 
^€i'o? avrol Ka6^ eavrov^ eirparrov, ov rr)p avrrjv 

2 n'lpeaLV e^ovre^;. dXX^ 6 fxev KXcoSio^;, ev dpirayal's 
IT pay p.dr wv yeyovoi'^ Kal (f)OVOL<; dvBpcop Bt. wfjiorrjra 
Kal irXeope^lap, BrjXof; rjp ep rep fjbrjre Karex^iP 
fiy'jre d(j)tepac rrjP dp-)(r]P BvvaaOaL irepL^epofJLepo'^, 
OvepyLPio<; Be rayfidrwp iTrcararcop Bvparcordrcjv 
TToXXaKif; avrop dpayopevoprcop avroKpdropa Kal 

3l6 



GALEA V. 2-vi. 2 

death by him, promised to devote his best poM'ers to 
the service of his country, taking as his title, not 
Caesar, nor Emperor, but General of the Roman 
Senate and People. 

Now, that Vindex acted wisely and well in calling 
upon Galba to be emperor, was convincingly proved 
by Nero. For though he pretended to despise 
Vindex and to regard matters in Gaul as of no 
moment, as soon as he learned what Galba had done 
— Nero had just taken his bath and was at breakfast 
— he overturned his table. However, after the Senate 
had voted Galba an enemy, Nero, with a desire to jest 
and put on a bold countenance with his friends, 
said that an excellent idea had occurred to him in 
his need of money : the property of the Gauls would 
not fall to him as spoil of war until after they should 
be subdued ; but Galba's estate was ready to be used 
and sold at once, now that Galba had been declared 
a public enemy. So he ordered the property of 
Galba to be sold, and Galba, when he heard of it, 
put up at public sale all that Nero owned in Spain, 
and found many readier buyers. 

VI. Many were now falling away from Nero, and 
almost all of them attached themselves to Galba ; 
only Clodius Macer in Africa, and Verginius Rufus in 
Gaul (where he commanded the German forces), 
acted on their own account, though each took a 
different course. Clodius, whose cruelty and greed 
had led him into robberies and murders, was clearly 
in a strait where he could neither retain nor give up 
his command ; while Verginius, who commanded the 
strongest legions and was often saluted by them as 
emperor and strongly urged to take the title, declared 

\o\,. XI jl 217 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Pia^ojJievwv ovt€ avro^ e<^r) XTJyjreaOai rrjv rjye/io- 
viav ovT€ dWcp irepio'^eaOaL Siho^evrjv, ov av firj -t) 

3 (TV'yK\7]T0<; eXrjTai. ravra rov TdX^av ov fier- 
piw^ iOopv^et TO Trpcorov tVet ^e ra OvepycvLov 
Kol OvivBtKO^; aTparevjuara rpoirov riva /Sla rovs 
rjye/jLOva^, ooo-irep r)vi,6^ov<; /cparrjaai 'X^aXivoov /jL7) 
SvvrjOevra^;, eh pbd')(r}v i^eveyKovra /jLeydXrjv crvv- 
eppa^av, koX Oviv8iK0<; eavrov dvekovro^ eVt 
Bt,a/JLvpioi<; TaXaTMV ireaovcn, Bi^XOe X6yo<i co? 
^ovXo/iivcov irdvTwv iirl vIkt) Tocravrr] rov Ovep- 
yiviov dvaSe^aaOac rijv r^yepboviav rj rrdXiv 

4 fX6Ta/3aXovLLevcov 7r/)o? Neyocoi^a, Tore Sr] iravrd- 
iraai 7r€pi(f)o^o<; yev6pevo<^ o TdX^a^ eypayjre too 
Ovepyivifp, irapaKaXcov Koivowpayelv kol Sia- 
(f)vXdaa6LV dfia rrjv rjyep^ovLav Koi T7}v iXevOepiav 
'Pa)/iiaLOL<;' av6i<i Be perd rcov (piXcov eh KXovvLav, 
^l/SrjpLKTjv iToXiVy dva^(op'^aa<i ev tw /jLeraroelv 
Trepl Twv yeyovoTcov koI TToOelv rrjv avvijOr) teal 
(juvTpocpov dirpaypLoavv-qv fidXXov rj TrpdrTeiv tl 
Tcov dvayKaiwv Bterpt^ev. 

VIL *Hi/ Be 6epo<; rjBrj, kuI Ppa')(y irpo BelXrj^; yKev 
diro 'Foop,rj<s "lAreXo? dvrjp direXevOepo^ ejBBop.alo<^. 
iTv66pevo<; Be tov VdX^av dvairaveaOai kuO 
eavTov ejSdBt^e avvT6vco<; iirl to Bco/jbdriov avrou, 
Kal 131(1 ro3v OaXaprjTToXwv dvoL^a^ Ka\ TrapeXOwv 
2 dirrjyyeiXev on koi ^(ovto<; en tov Nepwi/O?, ovk 
6Vto9 Be cf)avepov, to crrpdrev/jLa Trpcbrov, etra o 
Bf}po<; Kal rj avyKXr]TO<; avroKpdropa tov VaX/Sav 
dvayopevcreiev, oXiyov Be vaTepov dirayyeXOeii] 
redvrjKOi^ €Kecvo(;' ov p,7}v auTo<? ye inaTevaa^ 
€(f)rj TOt? dirayyeXXovaiv, dXXa eireXOwv tm 
veKpfp Kal Keipbevov Oeaadpevo^;, ovt(o<; e^eXOeTv. 

2l8 



GALEA VI. 2-vii. 2 

that he would neither assume the imperial power 
himself, nor allow it to be given to anyone else whom 
the senate did not elect. These things greatly dis- 
turbed Galba at first ; but presently the armies of 
Verginius and Vindex in a manner forced their 
leaders,, like charioteers who had lost control of the 
reins^ into the crash of a great battle, and Vindex, 
after the loss of twenty thousand Gauls, died by his 
own hand, and a report was current that all the 
soldiers desired Verginius, in view of the great 
victory he had won, to assume the imperial power, 
or they would go back again to Nero. Then indeed 
Galba was all alarm, and Avrote to Verginius inviting 
him to join in efforts for the preservation alike of 
the empire and the freedom of the Romans. But 
after this he retired with his friends to Clunia, a city 
in Spain, and spent his time in repenting of what he 
had done and in longing for his habitual and wonted 
freedom from care, rather than in taking any of the 
steps now made necessary. 

VI [. It was now summer,^ and shortly before sun- 
set there came from Rome a freedman named Icelus, 
who had made the journey in seven days. Having 
learned that Galba was reposing by himself, he went 
in hot haste to his chamber, opened the door in spite 
of the chamberlains, entered, and announced that 
while Nero was still alive, but in hiding, that the army 
first, and then the senate and people, had proclaimed 
Galba emperor, and that a little while afterwards it 
was reported that Nero was dead; Icelus himself, 
however, as he said, had not believed the report, but 
had gone and seen the dead body where it lay, and 
then had set out on his journey. This announcement 

» Of 68 A.D. 

219 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 ravra airayyeWo/jieva \a/jL7rpov rjpe rov TaX/SaVf 
Kol avveBpa/jLC ttXtjOo^ avhpoiv eirX Ovpa<; eKjedap- 1056 
prjKoTcov utt' avTOv ^e^aiw<;. Kairoi to rd')(p<; 
r)v aincFTOV. aWa koX hvcriv r}fi€pai<; vcrrepov^ 
vivio<; ItTO?'^ UTTO (TTparoTreoov /leu erepcov 
a<^L/C€TO ra So^avra rfj crv<yic\r)T(p KaO eKaarov 
aTTayyeWoyv. ovro^ fxev ovv et? rd^iv evrifiov 
TT porjyOr)' rw 5' direXevOepw BaKTv\LOV<; re 
^jOfo-oO? ehcoKe koI ^lapKiavo^ 6 "Ik€Xo<; );S?; 
fca\ovp,€vo<; eZ^e t7]v Trpcorrjv iv toI<; direXevde pot's 

VIII. 'Ei^ he 'Faofirj Nuyu^i'Sfo? %afiivo<;, ovk 
Tjpefia Kol Kara piKpov, dXkd avWrj^h-qv Ofiov, 
iravra irpdy/iaTa (pipcov irepirjveyKev eh eavrov, 
ci)9 TdXfSav fjL6v ovra Trpec^vrriv Koi /jLo\i<; et<? 
'P(t)p,rjv i^apKeaovra (popdBrjv fCOfiiaOrjvai hid 
yi]pa<;' rjv yap ircov rpiMV kol k^hopirjKovra' ra 
he avTodi aTparevpiaTay kol irdXai 7rpo<; avrov 
evvoo)^ e^^ovra koI vvv evo<; e^tjpTjjp.eva fiovov, hia 
TO Trj<; h(oped<; /MeyeOo<; evepyeTrjv ifcelvov i^yelaOait 

2 VdXftav he ')(p€a)(f)etX€Trjv. evOv<^ ovv TiyeXXiVM 
fjL€v T(p avvdp')(0VTL irpoaeTa^ev airoOeaOat to 
^i(f>o<;, v7roho-)(a<i he 'Troioup,evo<i ehenrvi^e tov<; 
viraTiKOv^ KoX tov<; rjyepiOVLKOV'^y €ti to TaX^a 
irpoaTiOel^; ovojia toI^ KXijaecnv, ev t€ tm (TTpaTO- 
irehw TToXXoix; irapeaKevaae Xeyeiv &>? irep^iTTeov 
eVrl Trpo? VdX^av aiTOV/xevov^ eTrap^ov elcael 
Nvpcj^Lhiov dvev (Tvi'dp-)(^ovTO^. 

3 '^A he 77 (TvyKXr^To^ eh Tiprjv eirpaTTCv avTOV 

^ va-Tfpou s\ipplied by Coraes, after Amyot. 
230 



GALEA VII. 2-viii. 3 

highly elated Galba, and there came running to his 
door a multitude of men who had gained complete 
confidence as the result of Icelus' report. And yet 
the messenger's speed was incredible. But two days 
afterwards Titus Vinius with others came from the 
camp and reported in detail the decrees of the senate. 
ViniuSj accordingly, was advanced to a position of 
honour, and as for the freedman, he was allowed to 
wear the gold ring, received the name of Marcianus 
instead of Icelus, and had the chief influence among 
the freedmen. 

VIII. But at Rome Nymphidius Sabinus was 
forcing the entire control of affairs into his own 
hands, not slowly and little by little, but all at once. 
He thought that Galba was an old man and would 
hardly have the strength to be carried to Rome on a 
litter, by reason of his age, for he was in his seventy- 
third year ; moreover, he knew that the soldiery in 
the city had long been well disposed towards him 
and were now devoted to him alone, regarding him 
as their benefactor because of the large gifts which 
he promised, but Galba as their debtor. Straight- 
way, therefore, he ordered his colleague Tigellinus 
to lay down his sword, gave receptions at which he 
banqueted men who had been consuls or in high 
command (although he still affixed the name of 
Galba to his invitations), and instigated many of the 
soldiers to declare that a deputation ought to be sent 
to Galba demanding that Nymphidius be made pre- 
fect for life without a colleague. 

Moreover, the senate did much to enhance his 

' Tiros after this name the words noWa rwv, deleted by 
Coraes and Bekker, are retained by Sint.* with indication 
of a lacuna (iroWck . . . ruy), 

221 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Koi hvvafJLLV, avaKokovaa evepyerrjv /cat avvrpe- 
^ovaa Kad' rj/jiepav iirl Ovpa<; koi iravro^; e^dp-)(^eLV 
S6fy/jLaT0<; a^tovaa Kal jSefiaiovv, en Trepairepco 
ToKp/Tj^ avTjyev avrov, coare 6\i<yov ')(^povov tol<; 
OepairevovcfL pii povov €7rl(^6ovov, aWa Kal (^o^e- 

4 pov elvai. TOiV 8' VTrdroov olK€Ta<; or^pocriovf; 
TT po'xeipicrap.evwv ra Soyp^ara Kopiit,ovTa^ rco avro- 
KpdropL, KOI rd KoKovpeva SLTrXcopara crearjpa- 
apeva Bovrcov, a yvcopi^ovr€<; ol Kara ttoXlv 
dp-^ovre^ ev ral^ tmv 6)(7]p,dTcov dp,oi^ac<; i'Trcra- 
')(i)VOvai> ra? 7rpo7rop,7rd<; twi/ ypap,paTrj(f)6pa}p, ov 
perplcof; rjyavdKrrjaev on p,i] nrap avrov Kal 
acfipaylSa Kal aTpand)Ta<; Xa/Soi^re? dveirepylrav, 
dWd Xeyerai kol /SovXevaaaOat irepl twv vTrdrcov, 
elra rrjv opyrjv diroXoyrjaapevoi'^ koI herjOelcnv 

5 dvrJK6. Tw Be Brjpw ')^apt^6p,evo<; ovk eKcoXve rov 
irapairiTTTOVTa rcov Nepcovo<; diroTvpiravil^eLV. 
"^irlKXav pev ovv rov povopd')(ov dvSpid(TL Nepcoi^o? 
eXKopevoi^ vTro/SaXovre^; iv dyopd SiecfiOeipap, 
^Attoviov Be nva rcop KarrjyopiKcov dvarpiy^avre^; 
dpd^a<i \tdo(f)6pov(; eTrijyayov, dX\ov<i Be BieaTra- 
aav rrdXXoix;, evLov<^ pr^Bev dBiKOVvra^, coare Kal 
^lavpLKOV, dvBpa roi)v dpiarwv Kal ovra Kal Bo- 
Kovvra, 7r/0O9 tjjp crvyKXrjrov elireZv on (^o^elrai 
pt) Ta^u ^epcdva ^yTrjacoaip. 

IX. Ovrco Be Trpoadycov 6 Nvp(f)LBto^ iyyvrepw 
Ttti? eXTTLaLV OVK e<^evye Vatov Katcrapo? fto? 
Xeyeadai rov puerd Ti^epiov dp^avTO<i. eyvd)Kei 
yap 6 Tdio^i, co? eoiKe, rrjv refcovcrav avrov ere 

^ Caligula. 
221 



GALBA VIII. 3-1X. I 

Iionour and power, giving him the title of benefactor, 
assembling daily at his door, and allowing him the 
privilege of initiating and confirming all their 
decrees. This raised him to a still higher pitch 
of boldness^ so that within a short time those who 
l^aid court to him were filled, not only with jealousy, 
but also with fear. When the consuls provided 
public servants to carry the decrees of the senate to 
the emperor, and gave to these the diplomas, as they 
were called, sealed with their oflficial seal (in order 
that the magistrates of the various cities, recognising 
this, might expedite the supply of fresh vehicles for 
the journey of the couriers), he was vexed beyond all 
bounds because the decrees had not been sent under 
his seal and in charge of his soldiers, nay, it is said 
that he actually thought of proceeding against the 
consuls, but put away his wrath when they excused 
themselves and begged for forgiveness. Again, in 
his desire to gratify the people, he would not 
prevent them from beating to death any follower of 
Nero who fell into their hands. Accordingly, they 
cast Spiculus the gladiator under statues of Nero 
that were being dragged about in the forum, and 
killed him ; Aponius, one of Nero's informers, they 
threw to the ground and dragged waggons laden 
with stone over him ; and many others, some of 
whom had done no wrong, they tore in pieces, so 
that Mauricus, who was justly deemed one of the 
best men in Rome, told the senate that he was afraid 
they would soon be searching for a Nero. 

IX. Thus coming in his hopes nearer and nearer to 
his goal, Nymphidius was not averse to having it said 
that he was the son of the Caius Caesar^ who succeeded 
Tiberius. For Caius, as it would appear, while still 

223 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fieipoLKiov odv ovK asLhrj rrjv o'^lv ovaav, ck 8' 
cLKecTT pia<i iTn/jLLo-dtov KaXXt(TTft>, K.aLa-apo^ air- 

2 eXevOepo), fyeyevrjp^evr^v. aXX' tjv rj tt/qo? Td'iov 
evrev^Cs avrf]';, co? eoiKe, vecoripa rrj<; ^vfKpiSiov 
yeveaeco^;, aWiav he ea')(ev €K Mapriavov rod p,o- 
vopid')(pv ye<yovevai, rr)? ^vfK^Lhia^; epa(j6eLar}<i 
Bid 86^av avTOv, koI fjboWov iBoKCC KaO^ ofiOLorrjra 

3 rr)? tSea? eKeivw Trpoarjfcecv. dX}C ofMoXoycov y€ 
Nv/jLcf)t,8ia<; elvai firfTpo^ epyov fiev avrov fiovov 
TTjv ^epwvo'^ iiTOLeljo KardXvaiv, aO\a Be avrrj^ 
ov vo/XL^cop iKavd /capTrovaOac Td<i TLfid'^ fcal rd 
'X^pijfjLUTa KOI TO ^TTopo) Tov Ne/3ft)i/o9 (TvyKadevBcLv, 
ov €vOv<; aTTO t^? TTvpdf; en Kaiop^evov tov veKpov 
fjL€Ta7r€fjL'\jrd/Ji€P0<; iiceLvo<i ev ya/ier/}? elxe Ta^eu koX 1057 
TioTTiraiav Trpoarjyopevev, eirl ttjv BluBoxv^ irap- 

4 aBveTO Tr}<; r)ye/JL0VLa<;. kol ra pev avTo<; ev P(t)p,rj 
Bid Taw (jylXcov vireipyd^eTO, fcal yvvaiKCdv tivcov 
avTcp Kol (Tvy/cXrjTiKCJv dvBpcjv Kpv^a avWap^^a- 
vop^evcov, eva Be tmv <j)i\ayv, VeWiavov, 66? ^l/Srjpiav 
eirep^yfrev KaTaaKe^^opevov, 

X. To) Be Vd\0a psTa ti)v ^epcdvos TeXevrijv 
e%wy9et wdvTa. Ov6pyivio<i Be 'Fovcpo^i dp^ifio\o<i 
Mv €TL (ppovTiBa Trapel')(e, p>r} tw Bvvdp,eci)<i ttoW-^? 
Kttl pLaxt'P(*)TdT7]<:; dpX'^i'V 7rpoa€i\7](f)co(; to veviKrjKe- 
vai OvLvBiKa fcal Ke')(6ipM<T6ai pieya p,epo(; ttj^ 
'Pa)p,aLa)V y)yep,ovLa<i, iv adXw yevop.evr)v diroGTa- 
TiKco TaXaTiav diraorav, viraKovaai TOi<i irapa- 
2 KaXov(Jiv axjTOV eVi Tr)v dp')(^)]v. ovB€vo<; yap rjv 
ovopa p^el^ov, ovBe el%6 Bo^av ovBeU ocr'qv o Oiep- 
224 



3 



GALEA IX. i-x. 2 

a young man, had been intimate with the mother of 
Nymphidius, a woman of comely appearance and a 
daughter of Callistus, Caesar's freedman, by a hired 
sempstress. But this intimacy, as it would seem, 
was later than the birth of Nymphidius, and it was 
believed that he was a son of Martianus, the gladiator 
(with whom Nymphidia fell in love on account of his 
fame), and his resemblance to Martianus was thought 
to favour this connection. But although he certainly 
admitted that Nymphidia was his mother, he took to 
himself sole credit for the overthrow of Nero, and 
thinking himself insufficiently rewarded for this by 
the honours and wealth which he enjoyed, and by 
the company of Sporus, Nero's favourite (whom he 
had sent for at once, while Nero's body was yet 
burning on its pyre, and treated as his consort, and 
addressed by the name of Poppaea), he aspired to 
the succession in the empire. Some secret steps to 
this end he himself took at Rome through the agency 
of his IViends, and certain women and men of sena- 
torial rank secretly assisted him, and one of his 
friends, Gellianus, he sent to Spain to keep an eye 
upon matters there. 

X. But everything went well with Galba after the 
death of Nero. Verginius Rufus, it is true, who was 
still hesitating, gave him anxiety. For besides com- 
manding a large and most efficient army, Verginius 
had the added prestige of his victory over Vindex 
and his subjugation of all Gaul, which was a large 
part of the Roman Empire and had been in the 
throes of revolt. Galba therefore feared that Ver- 
ginius miijht listen to those who invited him to take 
the supreme power. For no man's name was greater 
than that of Verginius, and no man had a reputation 

225 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

yiviot;, CO? /uLeyiCTTTj poirrj rot? VwfxaKav irpwyfjiacrt 
Tvpavviho<^ Ofiov ^^aXeTrr}? Aral FaXarcKCov TroXe- 
ficov airaXXa'yfi yevo/ievo^. aSJC eKelvo^ Tore Tot9 
6^ cip')(rj<i ififievcov \oyi(T/LLol<; i(pv\arT6 rrj crvy- 
kX^to) ttjv aipeaiv tov avTOKpdTopo<i. KaiTOi <f)a- 
v€pd<; ye tt]^; Nepcovo^ reXeuTrj? y6vofi€vr]<; to re 
7r\i]6o<; ipifceiTO tw Ouepyivlw irakiv, teal tcov 
'y^iXidp^cov Ti9 Twz^ iv rrj aKrjvr] (jTraadixevo^ to 
^L(f)o<; iKeXeve tov Ovepyunov he)(ea6aL tijv ijye/ao- 

3 viav rj tov aihripov. irreX he ^d^LO<^ QvdXr)<^ 
dp)(^cov €vb<; Tdy/iaTO<; cjpKcocre TT/awTO? eh TdX^ar, 
Kol ypdfijuara r/fcev diro Vci) firm's irepl a)v rj avy- 
KXt]To<; eylrrjcpLaaTo, ^aXfTrw? /xev kol fjioXL<;, eiretcre 
3' ovv TOL'9 (TTpaTicoTa<; avToKpdTopa tov VdX^av 
dveLTrelv koI TrefxylravTO^i avTov huiho-^ov ^XdKKov 
'OpBecoviov eSe^aro. kol 7rapaSov<^ eKeivw ttjv 
hvvafJLLV auTO? dirrjVTi^ae tm VdX^a irpocrw %&)- 
povvTL, Kol crvvav€(TTpe(f)ev, ovTe 6pyrj<; ovTe TL/birj^i 

4 eTriSi'jXov Tvy-)(^dv(ov. ultlo^ Se toO fiev avT0<^ 6 
VdX/3a<; alhovfievo^ tov dvhpa, tov he ol (f)iXoi /cat 
jjidXiaTa Ovivio^ Tito?, vtto (f)96vov tov Ovepyi- 
viov ol6p,evo<i fiev /coXoveiv, i^yvoec he dpa to) 
OvepyivLov ')(pf}aTcp haijjLovi avvepyMv, r/Sr; tov 
civhpa TToXe/jLcov /cat /ca/ca)v, ocra tov<; dXXov<; t)ye- 
\xova^ KaTko")(ev, Iicto^ e/v ^lov dicvpova teal 
yrjpa^i elpi^vrj'i koI 7)avx^a<; peaTov vireKTiOep^evoj. 

XL VdXpav he irepl Ndp^wva, iroXiv TaXaTi- 
KTjv, ol rrapd ttj^ avyKXrjTOv Trpea^eL<^ evTV')(^ovTe<i 
rjcnrd^ovTo, Koi irapeKdXovv eTrtcpavrjvat, tw hijpo) 
TToOovvTi Ta')(eo)<^. he Ta? Te dXXa<; irapelx^^' 
evT6v^ci<; Kal avvovaia^; avTol^ (pt-XavO pioirov^ Kai 

226 



GALEA X. 2-xi. I 

equal to his, since he had exercised the greatest in- 
Huence in ridding the Roman state alike of a grievous 
tyrant and of Gallic wars. But in the present crisis 
he was true to his original resolves and maintained 
the senate's right to choose the emperor. And yet 
when Nero's death was known for certain, the mass 
of his soldiery were insistent again with Verginius, 
and one of the military tribunes in his tent drew his 
sword and ordered Verginius to choose between 
imperial power and the steel. But after Fabius 
ValenSj commander of a legion, had led off in taking 
the oatii of allegiance to Galba, and letters had come 
from Rome telling of the senate's decrees, he suc- 
ceeded at last, though with the greatest difficulty, 
in persuading his soldiers to declare Galba emperor ; 
and when Galba sent Flaccus Hordeonius to succeed 
him, Verginius received that officer, handed over his 
army to him, and went himself to meet Galba as he 
advanced, and turned back in his company without re- 
ceiving any clear mark either of his anger or esteem. 
This was due, in the one case, to Galba himself, who 
had a wholesome respect for Verginius, and in the 
other to Galba's friends, especially Titus Vinius. 
V^inius was jealous of Verginius, and thought to block 
his career ; but without knowing it he was aiding the 
man's good genius, which was now removing him 
from all the wars and miseries which encompassed 
the other leaders, and bringing him into a calm 
haven of life, and an old age full of peace and quiet. 
XI. At Narbo, a city of Gaul, Galba was met by 
the deputies from the senate, who greeted him and 
begged him to gratify speedily the eager desire of 
the people to see him. In his general interviews 
and meetings with them he was kind and unassuming, 

227 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8r)/jLoriKd<;, tt/oo? re tcl'^ kaTidaei^ TroWrj^ kutu- 
aKevTj^ KOI depaireia^ ^aaC\iKrj<; irapovarj^t r)v €k 
T03V li^epcovo^ Nv/jL<PlSlo<^ avTw irpoaeTTefx^ev, 
ovSevl y^poDfievo^ efceivwv, aWa rot? eavjov Trdcnv, 
€vSokl/jL€L, fi6ya\6(f>pQ)v dvrjp kol fcpeuTToyv direi,- 
2 poKaXia^; (^aiv6iJi€vo<^. Ta-)(p fievTOL rd yevvaia 
ravra kol drvcpa fcal irdXiTCKa STj/jLayoyyiav Ovlvio<^ 
diro^aivdiv kol KO/.L-ylrorrjTa fieydXcov dira^iovaav 
avTTjV, eireLae ')(^pr]p,aai re xpri^dai, toU Nepwi^o? 
Kal irepl rd<; viroSoxd^ fxr] ^elheaOaL rv}? ^aaCki- 
Krj<^ TToXfreXeia?. koI o\co<; aLcrOrjaiv aurov Kara 
/jLiKpov VTTO TO) OvLviw yevqaofjiivov 7rap€L^€v 6 
irpecr^vrri^. 

XIL ^Yiv he OviVLO^ dpyvpiov fiev ea'^drcof; koX 
Trap' ovTLVovv ')]ttcov, ei^o^o? Se Kal rol<s irepl 
yvvaLKa<; d/j,apT/]fiaaiv. ere yap cjv reo? Kal 
aTpaT€v6^evo<; viro }La\^Lai(p ^a^ivw TrjV Trpcorrjv 
arpareiav aKoXaGTOv ovaav tvjv yvvalKa rov 
r)y6/x6vo<i irapeLarjyaye vvKTcop eZ? to arpaTOTreoov 
iv eaOrJTi arparLcoriKfj Kal htec^OeLpev Iv roi? 

2 dpxeioi^i, a TTptyKiTna KaXovac ^Vcufialoi, eVt 
TOVT(p he Vdio<^ K^alaap ehrjaev avrov eKcivov he 
diToOavovTO^ evTV')(La ')(^pr]ad/jL6P0<; direXvOrj. hec- 
TTVMV he irapd KXavhi(p KalaapL iroTrjpLov dpyvpovv 
v(f)€LX€TO' irvdofievo^i he 6 K.at<7ap ry varepala 
TToXiv avTOv eirl helirvov eKdXeaev, ekOovn he 
eKekevcrev eKeivfo /jbtjhev dpyvpovv, dXXa Kepdp,ea 
iravra 7rpoa(J3ep€iv Kal TrapariOevac tov<; VTrrjperaf;. 

3 Tovro /JL€V ovv hid ttjv KatVapo? pLerpcon^Ta kco/ii- 
Kcorepav yevofievqv ye\coTO<;, ovk 6pyrj<^ d^iov eho- 
^ev d he top TdXfiav e^cov v(f> avrw, Kal hvvdfievo^i 

228 



GALBA XI. i-xii. 3 

and when he entertained them, though there was an 
abundance of royal furniture and service at his com- 
mand, wliich Nymphidius had sent him from Nero's 
palace, he used none of it, but only what was his 
own, thus, winning a good repute, and showing him- 
self a man of large mind who was superior to 
vulgarity. Vinius, however, by declaring to him 
that this dignified, simple, and unassuming course 
was merely a flattery of the people and a refinement 
of delicacy which thought itself unworthy of great 
things, soon persuaded him to make use of Nero's 
riches, and in his receptions not to shrink from a 
regal wealth of outlay. And in general the aged 
man let it be seen little by little that he was going 
to be under the direction of Vinius. 

XII. Now Vinius was to the last degree and 
beyond all compare a slave of money, and was also 
addicted to loose conduct with women. For when 
he was still a young man and was serving his first 
campaign, under Calvisius Sabinus, he brought his 
commander's wife, an unchaste woman, by night 
into the camp in the garb of a soldier, and had 
commerce with her in the general's quarters (the 
Romans call them " principia "). For this offence 
Caius Caesar put him in prison ; but on the death of 
the emperor he had the good fortune to be released. 
While he was at su])per with Claudius Caesar, he 
purloined a silver drinking-cup, and Caesar, learning fl 

of it, invited him to supper again the next day, and '^^^ 
when he came, ordered the attendants to set before j. 
him no silver plate at all, but only earthenware. This 
misdeed, it is true, owing to the comic turn which 
Caesar's moderation took, was thought worthy of 
laughter, not of anger ; but what he did when he had 

229 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fie^iarov iTTl')(^pr]fxa(Tiv,eiTpaTTe, rpayiKcov iraOcov 
Kai crvfKpopcov fieydXcov tol^ fiev aiTiav, toI<; he 
wpocpaatv Trapea^ev. 

XI I L O yap i^v/j.(pLBio<; €vOv<; €7rav6\06vTO<i 
Tov TeWi-avov 7Tpo<; avrov, ov eVeyLt-v/re rov Vak^a 
rpoTTOv TLva KaraaKOTTOv, aKov(Ta<^ r/}? fxev avXrj<^ 
KaX rwv hopv<j>6pwv eirapy^ov d7ro8eS€t)(^0ai Ko/3- 
V7]Xiov Aafccova, to 8e avfjurav elvai tov OvlvLov 
KpciTOf;, avTM Be fjLrjBeTTOTe tov VaX^a aTrjvai 
TrXrjaiov iyyeyovevai firjhe evTV^^^etv IBLay irdvTwv 
avTOv {/(popcofievcov koX Bta(f)vXaTT6vT0)v, iOo- 

2 pv/3)j07]' Kol crvvayaycov tov<s r)y€/jL6va<i tov aTpa- 
Tev/jLaTO<; ecprj VdX^av filv avTOv eivai Trpea^uTrjv 
i7Ti€LK7] Kai fjL6Tpt,ov, iXd)(^iaTa Be toc<; avTov 
Xpoi>fi€vov Xoyio-/jioc<; vtto Ovlvlov kol AdKwvo^: 
ovK €v BioiKelaOai. irpiv ovv Xadelv avTov's rjv 
€(T')(e TiyeXXlvo^i la-y^vv ev tol^ Trpdy/naa-t, KTr]cra- 
/jLevov<i, Tre/nTTTeov elvai 7rpo<; tov r)yefi6va TTyoecr/Set? 
drro dTpaToireBov tol'? BiBd^ovTa^ otl tcov (J)lX(ov 
Bvo fjLovovs TOVTOV^i diToaKeva(jd[ievo<^ rjBtwv irape- 

3 GTai iraai Kai irodeivoTepo^. iirel Be TavTa Xeycov 
OVK eTreideVy dXX cltottov eBoKCi Kai oXXokotov 
yyefiova TrpeaffvTyv, coairep dpTC yevofievov e^ov- 
crta? /jbGLpaKLOV, 0I9 ')(^pr)aeTaL <f)i,Xoi<i r) /xtj, pvOpi- 
^eiv, eTepav oBov Tpairofievof; eypacpe to) VdX^a 
BedtTT6/jLevo<;, vvv fiev o)? virovXa Kai fiCTewpa 
TToXXa T/}9 TToA-eo)? e^oucrr;?, vvv Be KXcoBtov 
^loKpov ev Al/3v7j to, aiTrjyd KaTe^etv, avOa Be 
irapaKivelv Ta VepfiavLKa TdyfiaTa, Kai irepl tcov 
ev Xvpla Kai 'iovBaia Bvvd/Meov ojxota irvvddveaOai. 



230 



GALEA MI. 3-X111. 3 

Galba under his control and was most influentiaT with 
him in financial matters, was j^artly a cause and partly 
a pretext for tragic events and great calamities. 

XIII. For Nyni})hidius. as soon as Gellianus had 
come back to him, whom he had sent to be a sort of 
spy upon Galba^ heard that Cornelius Laco had been 
appointed prefect of the praetorian guard, and that 
\ inius was all powerful with Galba, while Gellianus 
had never stood near him or seen him in private, but 
liad been looked upon with suspicion and distrust by 
everyone. Xymphidius was therefore much disturbed, 
and calling together the oliicers of the army, told 
them that Galba himself was a well-meaning and 
moderate old man, but did not follow his own 
counsels in the least, and was badly directed by 
Vinius and Laco. Therefore, before these men had 
succeeded in secretly acquiring the power which 
Tigellinus had held, a deputation should be sent to 
the emperor from the camp, to inform him that if 
he would put away from his company of friends 
only these two men, he would be more acceptable 
and welcome to all on his arrival. But this speech 
of Nymphidius did not convince his hearers ; nay^ 
they thought it a strange and unnatural thing to 
dictate to an aged emperor, as if he had been a 
youth just tasting power, what friends he was to 
ii'ive or not to have. Nymphidius therefore took 
another course, and wrote to Galba messages in- 
tended, to alarm him — now, that there was much 
hidden distemper and unrest in the city, now, that 
Clodius Macerwas holding back the grain supplies in 
Africa ; again, that the legions in Germany were 
mutinous, and that like news came concerning the 
forces in Syria and Judaea. But since Galba gave 

231 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 Tov Sc VdXjSa /jLt] Trdvu rov vovv 7rpoa6XOVTO<; 
avTM fii-jSe TTLarevovTOf; eyvco 7rpoe7n')(^eLpelv' KairoL 
K.XooSlo<^ KeX-TO? ^AvTCoy^ev's, dvrjp e/icppcov, evvov<; 
he eKeivco koX iTLar6<;, dinjyopeve, \ey(ov ovk av 
oXeaOai p,iav iv 'Fayfiy avvoiKiav Kaiaapa irpoa- 
eLirelv Nv/jLcf)iSiov. dWa ttoWoI KaTeyeXcov, fcal 
M.c0pL8dT7j<; 6 TlovTiKO^; iina/ccoTrTcov rrjv (paXa- 
KpoTTjra A-at pvaaoTrjTa tov FdX^a vvv e<^ri rtvd 
hoKelv elvai *PG)/j.aLoi<;, ocpOei^ra Be (^aveladaL tmv 
rjfiepcov rovTwv a? KaXelrac K^alaap, ovglBo^;. 

XIV. "RBo^ev ovv irepl fieaa^; i/u/cra? eh rrjv 
7rap€/jb/3oXr]v irapayayovra^ dvaheiKvvav avro- 

. Kpdropa rov NvfjL(f>lBtov. tt^owto? Be tmv %tXt- 
dp^oyv ^AvTcovLO^ 'Ova)pdTO<; eairepaf; yevofjuevrj^ 
Tou? v(f>' eavTO) arpaTi(OTa<; avrayaycbv eKUKL^e 
fiev avTov, eKUKite Be €K€lvov<; ev oXiyw ')(^p6v(p 
TpoTTCL^ ToaavTa<; rp€TTO[jievov<; Kar ovBeva Xoyv- 
(Tfiov ovBe alpecriv d/JLeivovcov, dXXa Bat/jLOVo<; Tt,vo<; 
avTov^ €K nTpoBo(Tia<; eh irpohoaiav eXavL>ovTO<;. 

2 Kol rd jxev TTpcbra TTpo(f)d(7eL<; e)(eLV rd Ne/jwi^o? 
eyKXruxara' vvv Be VdX^av irpoBiBovai, nva <f>ovov 
fxrjTpQf; eyfcaXovvra'; rj (Tcf)ay)]v yvvaLK0<;, rj iroiav 
alBov ixevov<; OvfieXrjv rj rpaywBiav tov avTOKpdTO- 
po^; **^AXX^ ovBe eKelvov eVl rovroif; VTrepLetva/iiev 
iyKaTaXiTretv, dXXd NvpL(f)iBL^ TreKrOevre^ oti 
7rpot)ro<; r)/id<; eyKareXiTTe /cal Tre^evyev et? 

3 AiyvTTTOV. TTOTcpov OVV ^epcovi TaX/Sav eiri- 
dvaco/xeOa, koI tov €K ^v/ji(f}LBi.'a<; eXofievoL Kat- 
aapa tov e/c Af/Qta? dveXaypuev, o)? tov ef ^Aypiir- 
232 



GALEA XIII. 4-XIV. 3 

no heed to him whatever and put no confidence 
in his reports, he determined not to wait before 
making his attemj)t. And yet Clodius Celsus of 
Antiocb, a man of good sense, who was well-dis- 
posed and faithful to him, tried to dissuade him, 
saying that in his opinion not a single precinct in 
Rome would give Nymphidius the title of Caesar. 
But many ridiculed Galba, and especially Mithridates 
of Pontus, who scoffed about his bald head and 
wrinkled face, and said that now the Romans 
thought him a great personage, but when they saw 
him they would regard all the days in which he had 
borae the title of Caesar as a disgrace to them. 

XIV. It was decided, therefore, to bring Nym- 
phidius into the camp about midnight and proclaim 
him emperor. But when it was evening, the lead- 
ing military tribune, Antonius Honoratus, calling 
together the soldiers under his command, reviled 
himself, and reviled them for changing about so 
often in so short a time, not according to any plan 
or choice of better things, but because some evil 
spirit drove them from one treachery to another. 
In the first instance, he said, they had an excuse in 
the crimes of Nero ; but now, if they were to betray 
Galba, what charge of murdering his mother or 
slaying his Avife could they bring against him, or 
what feelings of shame that their emperor should 
appear in public as musician or tragic actor .'' *' Nay, 
not even with these provocations would we consent 
to abandon a Nero, but we had to be persuaded by 
Nymphidius that Nero had first abandoned us and 
fled to Egypt. Shall we, then, sacrifice Galba after 
Nero, and choosing the son of Nymphidia as our 
Caesar, shall we slay the scion of the house of Livia, 

233 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'rTivr}<; aveiXofxev; ?) tovto) BtKrjv eTTiOevje^; o)v 1059 
hehpaKe, Ti/jLoopol jiev N€p(ovo<;, VaX^a he <^v\aKe^ 
ayaOol /cal Tnarol cpavco/jiev;^' 

Tavra XiyovTL tm ')(^i,\uipx(p irpoffeOevTo iravre'; 
ol aTpaTLCjrat, koI tou? aXkov<; 7rpoai6vT€<; e/jL/Me- 
V61V irapeKoXovv rfj irpo^ rov avro/cpaTopa Triaret,' 

4 KOL Tov<; irKeiou^ /M6T€(Trr}(rav. apdelcnrj'^ Se ^or](;, 
€LT€ TTeiadei^i 6 ^vfi(f)iSio<;, co? cpacnv eviOL, fcdXelv 
avTOV rjhrj tou<; crTpaTt(OTa<;, elVe irpciXa^elv airev- 
ho:)V ro OopvjSovv ere koI Scard^ov, vtto (j)(i)Tt 
ttoWm TTporjei, \6yov riva ko/ull^cov iv ^t^Xio) 
yeypafM/jiivov viro K-iyyayvlov Bdppa)PO<;, bv ck/jlc- 

5 fxeXeriJKei tt/jo? tou? crTpaTiot}Ta<; elireiv. IScov Be 
K€K\ei(T (leva's rod crTparoTreSov ra^ TrfXa? kul 
irepl ra relxv ttoWov^ ooirXia pievov^ eheuae' Kai 
Trpoaioov rjpcora tl ^ovXovrai, Kai tlvo<; KeXev- 
cravTo<; ev ottXol^ yeyovaaiv. diravToa^n)^ S* avrw 
irapa ttuvtcov fjLid<; <f>(ovi]<;, VdX^av avro/cparopa 
ytvccKT/ceLV, KaKelvo^; opioae ')(odpo)v €7r€V(f)j]p^ei nai 

6 Tou<i eTTOfievovf; eKeXeve. tmv Be irapa raf; 7rvXa<; 
TTapevTcov avTov elaeXOelv fier oXiycov avro^ 
dKovTi^erai XoyXD' '^"^ ravrriv p.ev eStfaro irpo 
avTOv Ovpew SeTrrt/tio?, aXXwv he yv/xvol^s ^tcpeaiv 
eTTL^epopbevcov <^vya>v /cal Sicox^el^ ev OLKyjp^ari 
aTpaTiooTOV (T(pdTTeTat, koI rov veKpov eh p.ecrov 
eXfcvaavref; Kal irepi^aXovTe^ KiyKXlha deapa toZ? 
j3ovXop,evoL<; p,e6^ t)p,epav irapea^ov. 

XV. Oi/Tft) he Tov NvpLcpthlov Karaarpe^avTOfi 
6 rdX^a^ rrv66p.evo^, Kal tmv avvco/jLorojv aurov 

234 



GALEA XIV. 3-xv. I 

as we have slain the son of Agrippina ? Or, shall 
we inflict punishment on Nymphidius for his evil 
deeds, and thereby show ourselves avengers of Nero, 
but true and faithful guardians of Galba ? " 

So spoke the tribune, and all his soldiers took his 
side, and visiting their fellow-soldiers, exhorted them 
to maintain their fidelity to the emperor ; and they 
brought over the greater part of them. But now 
loud shouts arose, and Nymphidius, either because 
he was convinced, as some say, that the soldiers 
were already calling him, or because he was anxious 
to win over betimes the element that was still 
unruly and mutinous, came up in a glare of lights, 
carrying in his hand a speech written out for him by 
Cingonius Varro ; this he had got by heart to deliver 
to the soldiers. But when he saw the gate of the 
camp closed and a great number of men under arms 
along the walls, he was struck with fear ; and drawing 
near, he asked what they meant, and by whose 
conimand they were under arms. One cry came to 
him iVom the lips of all, and this was that they 
acknowledged Galba as emperor, whereupon he also, 
as he joined them, shouted in approval, and bade his 
followers do the same. But after the soldiers at the 
gate had permitted him to enter with a few followers, 
a lance was hurled at him. This weapon was 
received in the shield which Septimius interposed, 
but others assailed him, with drawn swords, where- 
upon he fled, was pursued, and was cut down in a 
soldier's hut. His dead body was dragged forth, 
surrounded with a paling, and exposed to j)ubhc 
view all day. 

XV\ Such was the violent end of Nymphidius, and 
when Galba learned of it, he ordered such of his 

235 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iceXevaa^ airoSavelv oaot /jlt) Si avTMv ev6v<; 
aTTeOavov, ev ol<s rjv Kal K.iyyoi)Vio<; 6 rbv \6yov 
ypd\fra<; Kal Mt^pfSar?;? o TLoptik6<;, eSo^e fit] 
vo/jLL/JLQ)<;, el Kal St,Kauo<;,fjLr]8e Sr]/jLOTt.Ka)<; dvrjprjKevac 
irpo KpLcr€a)<i dvSpa^; ovk d(Trj/jLov<;. erepov yap 
r}y€/bLOVia<; a')(r}p.a •TTpocrehe')(ovTO 7rdvT€<:, e^airaro}- 

2 p,€V0L crvvrjd(o<^ viro rcov ev dp')(^rj Xeyofievcov. en 
he pidWov Tjviaaev avTOv<; dvrjp v7rariK0<; Kal 
l^epayvL Triarb^ diToOavelv KeXevaOei^, YlerpoovLO^ 
Tovp7rt.\tav6<;. ^loKpov^ yap ev Ai^vrj Slo, Tpe- 
^covLov^ Kal <t>ovTr]lov ev Yeppavia hia OvdXevTO<; 
dveXcov 7Tp6cf)acriv el'xev ev 6Tr\oi<; Kal arparoTre- 
8oi<; 6vTa<; (f)o^i]Ofjvai. TovpiriXiavov Be, yepovra 
yvpvov Kal dvoirXov, Xoyov peraXa/Selv ovBev 
cKOiXvev, €L Tf9 fjv eirayyeXXeTat p^erpcorr^Ta rot? 
Trpdyp.aaLV ^ epycp (f)vXd^ei,v ep^eXXe. 

3 Taura p.ev ovv roiavTa<; e-)(€i, piepL'^ei^. eirel Be 
irpodicov direl^e Tfj<; TroXew? ire pi irevre Kal elKoai 
araSiovf;, eveTvy')(^avev dKoa-pbia Kal Oopv^cp rcov 
eperoiv rrjv oSov TrpoKaTexovrwv Kal TrepiKe')(yp,e- 

' vcov Travray^oOev. ovroi Se rjaav ov<; eh ev rdypa 

4 o Nepcov avXXox^o-a<; dnecprjve arpaTi(t)Ta<;' Kal 
Tore 7rap6vTe<i eK^e^aicoaaaOav rrjv arpareiav 
OUT 6(j)6rjvai rol<i diravToyaiv our dKovaOrjvai 
TTapieaav rbv avroKpdropa, aXV e0opv/3ovv ^ofj 
arjpela rw rdypan Kal ')(o)pav alrovvTe<;. eKeivov 
he virepTiOepievov Kal ttoXiv elirelv ^ KeXevaavro'ii 

^ MaKpov (as in xiii, 3), Tpe^x^viov, suggested by Sint.' for 
Mdnp-jDva and Tpf$wviavov of tlie MSS. 

* TTpaynaaiv fSint.^ has ypi/xfiaaiu {in Ms Ictf.crs), after 
Emporius. 

' TToAif flirt^v Bckker has irapfiK^iv {yield), after Coraes. 

236 



GALEA XV. 1-4 

fellow-conspirators as had not at once taken their 
own lives to be put to death. Among these was 
Cingonius, who wrote the speech for Nymphidius, 
and Mithridates of Pontus. But it was held to be 
illegal and despotic, even though just, to put to 
death without a trial men who were not without 
distinction. For everyone expected a different mode 
of government, being thoroughly deceived, as is ijus 
usual, by assurances made in the beginning. And 
people took it still more amiss when Petronius 
Turpilianus, a man of consular dignity who was 
faithful to Nero, was ordered to take his own life. 
For in having Macer taken off in Africa at the hands 
of Trebouius, and Fonteius in Germany at the hands 
of Valens, Galba could excuse himself with the fear 
they inspired as commanders of armed forces. But 
there was no reason why Turpilianus, a helpless old 
man and unarmed, should not have a chance to defend 
himself, if the emperor was really going to observe 
that moderation in his dealings which he promised. 

Such, then, was the censure to which these acts 
exposed Galba. Moreover, when, in his approach to 
the city, he was distant from it about five-and- 
twenty furlongs, he fell in with a disorderly and 
tumultuous crowd of seamen, who beset his way and 
encompassed him on all sides. These were men 
whom Nero had formed into a legion and given the 
title of soldiers. And now they were there to 
enforce their just rights as soldiers, and would not 
suffer the emperor to be seen or heard by those who 
came to meet him, but with tumultuous shouts 
demanded standards for their legion and regular 
quarters. When Galba put off their demand and 
told them to renew it at another time, they declared 

237 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dpvijaeo)^ (Tx^/j,a rrjv avaffoXrjv elvat (j)daK0VT€<i 
yyavd/CTOvv /cat Trapeinovro /jirj (jjeiBo/jievoL jSorj^. 
ivLcov 8e Kol Ta<; fia')(^aipa<; aTraaa/jLevoyv, i/ciXevae 
TOv<; /TTTre?? i/a/SaXeiv dvTol^ 6 Td\^a<;. VTriarr] 
Be ovBel^ ifceivcoVj dXX' ol jxev evOij^ dvarpairevTe^;, 
OL Be (f)6vyovT€<; Biec^Odpriaav, ov 'X^pyarop ovBk 
aXatov 7roiovvT€<; rco TaXjSa tov olcovov elcnovn 
Bta TToWov (povov KOL vefcpojv Toaovrcdv el^ ttjv 
TToXtv. aW €i Kai r^? avrov Karecppovec irpore- 
pov aaOevov's Kal yepopTO<; opoifxevov. Tore irdai 
(f)pLfccoB7}(; Kal <po^€po<; iyevero. 

XVL l^ovXo/ievof; Be t»}9 Trepl ra? Bcopea<; djue- 
Tpia<; Kal TroXvreXelaf; rod Nepcoi^o? diroBeiKPvvat 
fieydXrjv fjbera^oXrjV, dcrro^^etp eBoKei rov irpe- 
7rovTO<;. JLdvov yap avXijaavTO<; avrw irapd 
Belirvov {aKpoafxa Be rjv 6 Kai^o? €vBokl/j.ov/jl€vov) 
eiruLveaa^ Kal diroBe^dfjievo'^ eKeXevaev avrw 
KO/jLLaOr/vai, to yXo) a cr 6 KOfiov Kal Xa^aop ')(^pvaov<i 
Tiva^ e^rredoiKe tw K.dv(p, (f>7](Ta^ eK tcov IBlwv, ovk 

2 €K Tciiv BTjfioaicov ')^api^e(TOac. Td<; Be Bayped'; a? 
Nepfov eBcoKe Totf; Trepl aKr^vrjv Kal TraXaiaTpav, 
diraLTelddai gvvtovco'^ KeXevaa^ irXrjv tov BeKdrov 
jj,6pov<;, elra p^iKpa Kal yXta^pa KopLii^ofievo^ 
{dvrjXcoKeaav yap ol irXelaToi, tmv Xa/36vTQ)v, 
€(f)i]/uLepoc Kal (jaTvpiKol rot? /3toi? dvOpooTTOi) 
TOV<i Tvpiapevov^ 'rrap* a,vTO)v rj 'Ka^ovra^ otiovv 

3 dve^i^TeL Kal Trap eKeivcdP i^eTrparTe. tov Be 
Trpdyp^aTO^ 6 pov ovk e')(^ovTO(;, dXXd TToppw 
vepiopevov Kal Trpolovio^ eirl TroXXov<i, avTO<^ [xev 
238 



GALBA XV. 4-XVI. 3 

that the postponement was merely a way of refusing 
their demands, and were incensed, and followed 
along with unremitted shouts. Some actually 
drew their swords, and then Galba ordered his 
horsemen to charge upon them. Not a man of 
them stood his ground, but some were done to 
death at once in the rout, and others as they fled, 
nor was it a hap])y and auspicious omen that Galba 
should enter the city through so much slaughter and 
so many dead bodies. But whereas many had 
before this despised him and looked upon him as a 
weak old man, now all regarded him with shudder- 
ing fear. 

XV^I. And now, in his desire to display a great 
change from Nero's immoderate and extravagant 
manner of giving, he was thought to fall short of 
what was fitting. For example, after Canus had 
played on the flute for him at a banquet (now Canus 
was a performer of high repute), he Avas loud in his 
praises and ordered his purse to be brought to him ; 
and taking from it a few gold pieces, he gave them 
to Canus, with the remark tliat the gift was made 
from his own, and not from the public moneys. 
Again, he ordered that the gifts which Nero had 
made to people of the theatre and palaestra should 
be demanded back again with strictness, all but the 
tenth part ; and then, when he got only slight 
and grudging returns (for most of the recipients had 
squandered their largess, being men of a loose and 
improvident way of living), he had a search made for 
such as had bought or received anything whatsoever 
from them, and tried to exact it from these. The 
business had no limits, but was far extended and 
affected many ; it gave the emperor himself a bad 

239 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

i^B6^€i, 4>^6vov ^6 Koi /j,iao<; elyev OvivLo<;, 0)9 
Tot? fxev aWoi<; airaaiv ave\,ev6epov Trapi^cov 
rov rj'yeiJiova koX jMLKpokoyov, avTo<; Se ^pco/xei^o? 
acrcoTO)? Kal \a/ii^dvcov iravra xal TnTrpdaKcov. 
4 o fiev yap 'H.(tlo8o<; 

dp)^ofi€vov re irlOov Kal \7]yovTO<; KopiaaaOai 

<f>r]al Selv, Be Ovlvio<^ opcov dcrdevrj Kal yepovra 
TOP VaX^av iveTTifMirXaro t?}? tv)(7)<;, w? a//-<x /xev 
dpxo/jL6vr]<;, djia Be (^divovarj^. 

XVIL O Be 7rpe(j^vT7]<i r)BiKelTO ra jxev 
TT/owra Tov Ovlvlov KaKco^ Biolkovvto<;, a Be avro's 
6p6o}<i irporjpelTO BiapdWovTO<; r) Ka)\vovro<;' 
olov r}v TO irepl Ta<i KoXdaei^ rSiv Nepcoviavcjv. 

2 direKTeLve yap tou? tt ovrjpov^, ev ol<; rjv 6 ''HX^oc 
Kal UoXvKXecTo^; Kal Uerlvo'^ Kal Tlarpo^Lo^. 
o Be Br]fio<i eKporei, Kal Be dyopd'^ avrayv dyo- 
fieveov e^oa KaXrjv fiev elvat Kal deocptXfj tto/jlttiJv, 
diraLTelv Be Kal Oeov^i Kal dv9 pd)irov<^ tov BiBdaKa- 
\ov Kal iraiBaycoybv t?}9 TvpavviBo<; TiyeWlvov. 
€(f)OdKei Be 6 yevvalo^ TrpoetXrjcpcof! dppa/Baxri, 

3 (leydXoL^ tov Ovlvlov. eiTa Tovp7ri\tavo<i p,ev, 
OTL fjLTj TrpoeBiBov /jL7]Be e/jbiaec tov '^yefiova 
TOtovTOv ovTa pLLaovfievo^, dXko Be firjBe ev fieya 
avvaBiKrjcra'i, diredavev o Be Kal irotrjcya'^ d^iov 
OavdTov Nepcova Kal yevojxevov tolovtov eyKa- 
TaXiTTODv Kal 7rpoBov<; Trepiijv, fieya BlBayixa 

* Works and DaySy 366. 
240 



GALBA XVI. 3-XVII. 3 

name, and brought envy and hatred upon Vinius 
as having made the emperor ungenerous and sordid 
with everybody else, while he himself used money 
lavishly, taking everything that was offered and 
selling freely. For Hesiod ^ bids men to 

'^ Drink without stint at the beginning and end of 

the cask," 

and so Vinius^ seeing that Galba was old and feeble, 
sated himself with the good fortune which he 
thought was just beginning and at the same time 
was soon to end. 

XVII. But the aged emperor suffered injustice not 
only when Vinius, as at first, administered affairs 
badly, but also when he brought into odium or pre- 
vented wise measures set on foot by Galba him- 
self ; as, for instance, in the matter of punishing the 
adherents of Nero. For Galba set out to kill the bad 
ones, among whom were Helius and Polycleitus and 
Petinus and Patrobius. And the people applauded 
the act, and shouted, as the culprits were dragged 
through the forum to their doom, that it was a 
goodly procession indeed, and acceptable to the gods, 
but that gods and men alike demanded justice on 
the tutor and teacher of the tyrant, namely, Tigel- 
linus. That worthy minister, however, had won the 
protection of Vinius betimes, by means of large 
advances. Again, Turpilianus, who was hated merely 
because he would not betray nor show hatred to 
Xero in s])ite of all that emperor's crimes, but apart 
from this had participated in no one serious offence, 
was put to death ; whereas the man who had made 
Nero worthy of de.ith, and betrayed and forsook him 
when he had come to that pass, was left alive - a great 

241 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov /jLt]S6v dirpafCTOv elvai Trapa OvlvLco fjurjSe 

4 aviXTTiarov TOi? StSovcrtv. ou8€VO<; jap ovt(o 
6edp,aT0<; epa(T96i<s o 'Vco/bLaicov Br}p,o<; q)<; tov 
TiyeWlvov IBecv airayofjievovy ovSe iravadfjievo^ 
iv Trdcn 6edTpoi<; koI a'TahioL<; alrov/jLevo^; iKelvov, 
e7re7r\rj')(6ri SLaypdfjLjbLari rov avroKpdropo^; Ti- 
yeWlvov jxev ov irokvv en ^LcoaeaOai (f)daKov- 
TP9 'x^povov VTTO <^divdho<; v6(Tov Sairavoopevov, 
eKelvov^; Se TrapaiTOVfxevov /jlt] Biayptabpeiv 

5 /jLTjSe TvpavviKrjv iToielv rrjp rjyefioviav. dydo- 
fievov Be TOV Btj/jLov KaTayeXcovTC'i 6 [lev TtyeX- 
\lvo<i eOvae acoT'^pia koI irapeaicevaae Xajiirpav 
ecTTiacnv, 6 Be Ovivlo<; dvaaTa^ Trapa tov avTO- 
KpdTopo<; /xera BecTTPOv €Kci)/j,aaev &)9 ixeivov, 
aycov Tf]v OvyaTepa ')(7]pav ovaav. kuI TrpouTriev 
o TiyeWlvo'!; avTrj TrevTe Kal ec/coai ixvpidBa^s 
dpyvpiov, Kal tcov TraWaKiBcov TTfV dyeXap- 
y^ovcrav eicekevcre tov TrepiBepaiov Koafiov dcpeXo- 
jjifvrjv €K6Lvrj Trepid'^aiy TrevTeicaiBeKa fjLvpidBwv 
elvai Xeyofievov. 

XVIII. 'E/t Be TovTov Kal to, fjLeTpL(o<i irpaT- 
To/ieva Bia/SoXyv elxev, (i? ra 7rpb<i roi)? Ta\dTa<^ 
OutvBiKi avvapaixevov^. eBoKOVv yap ov (f>CKav- 
OpcoTTia TOV avTOKpaTopo<;, dWa a}vov/j,epoi irapa 
OucvLOV Tvy)(^dveiv dveaed)^ re BacriiCyv Kal 
2 TToXiTc/a?. 01 fiev ovv iroWol Bia TavTa 7r/3o? 
Tr)v rjyefioviav diTri')(PdvovTO, tov<; Be (TTpaTicoTafi 
Ti]v Bcopedv fir) KOfii^Ofievou<; ev dp^fj fiev eXirU 
TTapfjyev ft)?, el Kal fir) toctovtov, dXV oaov 
242 



GALEA XVII. 3-XV111. 2 

object-lesson to show that Vinius could do anything 
and fulfil any expectation for those who gave him 
enough. For there was no spectacle on which the 
Roman people had so set their hearts as that of 
Tigellinus dragged away to punishment, and in all 
the theatres and circuses thev would not cease 
demanding him, until they were quelled by an edict 
of the emperor in which he declared that Tigellinus 
was wasting away with consumption and had not 
much longer to live, and advised them not to 
exasperate the government or force it to be tyrannical. 
Then, in mockery of the dissatisfied people, Tigel- 
linus offered sacrifices for his preservation and 
prepared a s})lendid feast ; and Vinius, rising from 
beside the emperor, afterwards went to a drinking- 
bout in Tigellinus' house, leading his daughter, who 
was a widow. Tigellinus pledged her health with 
a gift of twenty-five myriads of money, ^ and ordered \ 
the governess of his concubines to take the necklace 
from her own neck and put it about hers. The 
necklace was said to be worth fifteen myriads. 

XVIII. After this, even the reasonable measures 
of the emperor fell under censure, as, for instance, 
his treatment of the Gauls who had conspired with 
V^index. For they were thought to have obtained their 
remission of tribute and their civil rights, not through 
the kindness of the emperor, but by purchase from 
V'^inius. Such were the reasons, then, why most of 
the people hated the government ; but the soldiers, 
though they had not received their promised largess, 
were led on at first by the ho{)e that Galba would 
give them, if not the whole of it, at least as much as 

* See the note on Chap, ii, 2. 

243 



M 



v 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^epcop eScoKev, airohwcrovro'^. irrel he fxeiK^ofievov^ 
aKOvaa<^ d(f>rJK€ (fxovrjv rjyefiovi /J.€yd\(p irpe- 
TTOvaav, eliroiv elwOevau KardXeyeiv arparicoTaf;, 
ovK dyopd^eiv, 7rvdo/jLevoL<; rovro Beivov elarjXde 1061 
/jLLao^i Kol aypiov 7rpo<; avrov. iBofcei yap ov/c 
avTo^ diToaTepelv /jl6vc<;, dWa vop^oOerelv kov 
hihaaKELV Tou? fJieO avrov avTO/cpdropa^f. 

3 'AWa TO p,€V ^ iv ^IPcofirj TVcjiKov yp en KLVTjfia, 
Kai Tt9 alhoo<; dfia 7rp6<; irapoma rov VdX^av 
d/x^XvTTjra Kal /leWijaiv eveiroieL rS vecorepiafio), 
Kal TO fjLTjSefilav dp'X^rjv efKpavyj /jLeTa0oXrj<; opd- 
aOai avveareWe Kal (JvveKpvmev d/uLco^; ye ttoj? 
Tr]v cva/iieveiav avrojv. ol he irporepov viro 
Ovepyiviw yevofJievoL, rore S' oVre? viro ^XdxKO) 
TTepl Vepfiaviav, fieydXcov /nev d^iovvT€<; avTou<; 
Bid Tr)v iid^r}v tjv efJLa')(eaavTo tt/jo? OvtvhiKa, 
/jLTjSepof; Be rvy^dvovre^iy dTraprjyoprjToi, rol^ 

4 dpy^ovaiv rjaav. avrov Be rov ^Xd/cKov viro 
avvruvov 7roBdypa<i dBvvarov ovra ru) aco/jLari, 
Kal rrpayfxdrwv direLpov iv ovBevl \6y(p ro 
irapdTrav eiroLovvro. Kal irore 6ea^ oucrrj^;, Kal 
rojv ')(^iXidp)(^cov Kal \o')(^ayo)v ro 'Pco/jLaLoi<; crvv7]0€<i 
evrv^iav i7rev)(^0fievQ)v rw avroKpdropc VdX^a, 
BieOopvfirjcrav ol ttoWoI to rrpayrov, elra Tat? 
ev^al<; emixevovrayv CKelvcov dvre<pa)vovv "Et 
a^to<^. 

AiA, Lotavra oe erepa Kat r(ov viro \ Lye\Xiv(p 
Tayfxdrcov v^pitovTfov 7roX\aKL<;, eTrefiTrero ypd/uu- 
fjLara rw VdX^a rrapd rcov eTrirpoTTcov o Be 
<f)o^r]66l<; &)9 /jLy fiovov Bid ro yr)pa<;, dXXd Kal 

* rh jxtv Coraes and Bekker have twv fihv, the correction of 
Reiske. 

244 



GALBA xviii. 2-xix. i 

Nero had given. When, however, Galba heard that 
they were complaining, he spoke out as became a 
great emperor, and declared that it was his custom \J 
to enroll soldiers, not to buy them ; whereupon they 
began to cherish a dire and savage hatred towards 
him. For they thought that he was not only 
defrauding them himself, but laying down the law 
and giving instructions for succeeding emperors. 

But the agitation at Rome was still smouldering, 
and at the same time a certain respect for Galba's 
})resence blunted and delayed the spirit of revolu- 
tion, and the absence of any manifest occasion for a 
change repressed and kept under cover, somehow or 
other, the resentment of the soldiers. But the 
army which had fonnerly served under Verginius, 
and was now serving under Flaccus in Germany, 
thinking themselves deserving of great rewards on 
account of the battle they had fought against 
Vindex, and getting nothing, could not be appeased 
by their officers. Of Flaccus himself, who was 
|)hysically incapacitated by an acute gout, and in- 
experienced in the conduct of affairs, they made no 
account Mhatever. And once at a spectacle, when 
the military tribunes and centurions, after the Roman 
custom, invoked health and happijiess upon the 
emperor Galba, the mass of the soldiery raised a 
storm of dissent at first, and then, when the officers 
persisted in their invocation, cried out in response, 
" If he deserves it,'' 

XIX. The legions also that were under the 
command of Tigellinus frequently behaved with 
similar insolence, and letters on the subject were 
sent to Galba by his agents. So the emjieror, fear- 
ing that it was not only his old age but also his 

245 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Sia Trjv airaihiav Kara(f)povovfjL€vo<;, ej3ov\evero 
nralha OeaOai rojv e7rL(f)av(t)P riva veavicTKOV koI 

"OdcDv, dvrjp yevec fiev ovk dxpav^^, Tpv<f)fj 8e koX 
(f)LXr]Sov Lai's €v6v<; Ik iraihodv iv oXlyoif; 'Pcofiaicov 
8ie(f)dapfievo<;. 009 Se rov ^AXe^avSpov "O^r]po<i 
" EX€vr)<; irocriv rjvKOfJLOiOy^ fxrj^ev e')(pvTa irpo'^ 
ho^av dWo ae/JLVvvcov dnro r/}? yvvaLKO^, opofid^et 
TToWdtCL^y ovTco<; yeyova}<; Trepi/Sm^ro? iv '^cofxy 
Sea Tov IIoTrTrata? yd/iov, '^9 "t'jpa fiev 6 Ne/jwi' 
K ptaTTLVfp auvovarjf;, en 3' alSov/Jbevo^ rrjv iavrov 
yvual/ca Kal rrjv firjTepa ^o^ovfJLevo'i Ix^rjKe rov 

3 "OOcova ireipcovra rrjv YloTriraiav. (i>i\(p Be tm 
'OOcdVL /cal (TV/ii^L(0T7J Std Ti}v daoJTLav €^p?}to, 

Kal aKOdTTTOpieVO^ VTT aVTOV TToWdKL^ €69 fXLKpO- 

Xoyiav Kal dveXevdepiav €)(aip€, Xeyerai he 

7TGT6 IXVp(p TMV TTOXvreXwV ')(^piaafJi€VQV TOV 

Kepo)vo<^ Kal TOV "OOcova KaTa0p€^avTo<;, €K€h>o<; 
irdXiv rfj vaTepaia S6%o/xez/09 avrov cifia TroXXa- 
^(odev dpyvpov^i Kal 'X^pvaov^ irpolBaXelv d^vo) 
afoXvjva^, coairep vScop to fivpov €K'^60VTa<i Kai 

4 KaraKXy^ovTa^i . dXXa ttjv ye TioTnraiav TrpojJiOL- 
'X^avcra^ Tft5 ISlepcovt, Kal Sia<pd6tpa^ Tat9 et9 
€K€Lvov iXTTLcriv, €7reicr€v diroaTTjvaL tov dvhpo^. 
eXOovar}'^ he Trap* avTov 0)9 yafieTi)^ ovk r^ydira 
fxere'x^cDVy dXX^ r/cr^aXXe ixerahidov^i, ovhe avT7]<; 
d'\^Oo/jL€vrj<;, W9 <f>aai, tij ^rfKoTvnia t^9 Ilo7r7rata9. 

6 Kal yap diroKXelaai tov l^epcova Xeyerai fiy 
TTapovro^ tov 'O^ojvo^, eire rr)^ i)hovrj<^ d<paipovaa 
TO TrXrja/xiov, etVe, W9 (f)acnv evLoi, ^apvvofievrj 



346 



GALEA XIX. 1-5 

childlessness that brought him into contempt, 
j)lanned to adopt some young man of illustrious 
family and appoint him his successor. Marcus Otho, 
now, was a man of good lineage, but from his very 
childhood corrupted by luxury and the pursuit of 
pleasure as few Romans were. And as Homer often 
calls Paris "the husband of fair-haired Helen," 
giving him a dignity borrowed from his wife, since 
he had no other title to fame, so Otho was celebrated 
at Rome for his marriage with Poppaea. With 
Poppaea Nero was enamoured while she was the 
wife of Crispinus, but since he respected his own 
wife still and feared his mother, he put Otho up 
to soliciting her lavours for him. For because of 
Otho's lavish prodigality Nero made an intimate 
friend of him, and was well pleased to be rallied by 
him often for parsimony and meanness. Thus, we 
are told that Nero once anointed himself with a 
costly ointment and sprinkled a little of it upon 
Otho ; whereupon Otho, entertaining the emperor 
in his turn on the following day, suddenly brought 
into play gold and silver pipes on all sides of the 
room, out of which the ointment gushed freely, like 
so much water. But as for Poppaea, Otlio corrupted 
her with hopes of Nero's favour and seduced her 
first himself, and persuaded her to leave her husband. 
However, after she had come to live with him as his 
wife, he was not content to have only a share in her 
favours, and was loth to give Nero a share, while 
Poppaea herself, as we are told, was not displeased 
at the rivalry between them. For it is said that she 
would shut out Nero although Otho was not at 
home ; whether it was that she sought to keep his 
pleasure in her from cloying, or whether, as some 

247 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov J^aiaapo^ jdfiov, epacrrfi he /lij (pevyovcra 
'y^prjaOoi hia to cf>iXafc6Xacrrov. eKivhvvevcrev 
ovv 6 "OOcov aTToOavelv Koi irapdXoyov rjv on 
TYjV yvvaiKa koX dSe\<f>r}v diroKTeiva'i 8ta tov 
noTTTrata? yd/JLOV e^etcraro tov 'OOcovof;. 

XX. %€veKav he ely^ev evvovv KCLKeivov tov 
^epcova Tretcrai/TO? Kal TrapaiveaavTO^; i^eTre/icpOr) 
AvGiTavwv (7TpaTr)y6<; iirl tov ^^liceavov. Kal 
'Trapea')(ev eavTov ov/c a')(apLv ovhe eira^^dri tol<; 
VTrrjKooi^, et'Sft)? (fivyrj^ vTroKopiafxa Kal irapaKa- 

2 Xvfifia TTjv dp')(r)v avTW Seho/ji€L>rjv. aTroaTdvTO^ 
he rdX/Sa Trpcoro? avTO) ^ 7rpo(Te\ct)pi~i(je tow 
rjyefiovayVi Kal (pepcov oaov el'y^ev ev eKTrcofiaai, Kal 
Tpa7re^ai<; dpyvpov Kal ')(^pva6v ehcoKC KaTaKoyp-at 
TTOLOvfievw vo/jLiafia, Kal TOiv olK€T(bv ihcopijaaTO 1062 
Tou? el6Lafxevov<^ irepl hlaiTav rjyefiovi e/jLfieXoj^ 
VTTOvpyelv. Kai to, dWa iriaTO'^ rjv avTcp, Kal 
hihov^i Trelcav ovheiw^; tjttov ehoKei TTpay/idTcov 
efx7reLpo<i elvar Kal ^aht^ovTi ttjv ohov diraaav 
€<p^ r)/j,epa<; 7roXA,a? (Tvvo'y^ovfi€vo<; hiCTeXeaev. 

3 €v he Tjj avvohia Kal ttj crvvrjOela tov Ovlvlov 
e^eOepdirevaev o/hlXki Kal hd)poi<;, fidXiaTa he 
TO)v TrpwTeiwv u^te/Aei^o? avTw to ye fiCT eKelvov 
hvvaaOai hi eKeliov eZ^e /Se/Saiw?. to3 he dv- 
€7rL(f)66vM TrepiTJv, irpoiKa avfiirpdrTwv irdvTa toI^ 
heofievoi<;, koi 7rapex,(ov eavTov evTrpoa-^yopov Kal 
<f>iXdvOp(07rov dwacn. TrXelcrTa he TOt? aTpaTUo- 
TiKot<; avveXdfi^ave Kal irpor^ye iroXXov<; e^' 

' avT^i Coraes and Bekker, after Du Soul : outJj. 

* Cf. Tacitus, Annals, xiii. 45 f. 
348 



GALEA XIX. 5-xx. 3 

say, she recoiled from a marriage with the emperor, 
but was not averse to having him as a lover^ out of 
mere wantonness. Otho_, accordingly, came into 
peril of his life ; and it was strange that although 
his own wife and sister were put to death by Nero 
on account of his marriage with Poppaea, Otho 
himself was spared.^ 

XX. But Otho had the good will of Seneca, by 
whose advice and persuasion Nero sent him out as 
governor of Lusitania to the shores of the western 
ocean. Here he made himself acceptable and 
pleasing to his subjects, although he knew that his 
office had been given him to disguise and mitigate 
his banishment. When Galba revolted, Otho was 
the first of the provincial governors to go over to 
him, and bringing all the gold and silver that he had 
in the shape of drinking-cups and tables, he gave it 
to him for conversion into coin, presenting him also 
with those of his servants who were qualified to give 
suitable service for the table of an emperor. In 
other ways he was trusted by Galba, and when put to 
the test was thought to be inferior to none as a 
man of affairs ; and during the entire journey of the 
emperor he would travel in the same carriage with 
him for many days together. Moreover, amid the 
intimacies of tlie common journey he paid court to 
Vinius, both in person and by means of gifts, and, 
above all else, by yielding to him the first place, he 
got his aid in holding securely the place of influence 
next to him. But in avoiding envy he was superior 
to Vinius, for he gave his petitioners every aid with- 
out any reward, and showed himself easy of access 
and kindly to all men. But it was the soldiers whom 
he was most ready to help, and he advanced many of 

vol.. XI. I ^^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rjyefxovLa'i, ra fiev alrovfievo^ airo rov avroKpd- 
4 Topo<s, ra Be tov OuIvlov kcu tou? aireXev 6 6pov<i 
TrapafcaXcov "Ik€\oi> koI ^AcnariKov ovroi 'yap 
rfaav iv Bvpd/iec /xd\t<rTa tcop irepi Trjv avXrjv. 
oaaKCf; Be rov TdXjSav elaTia, rrjv TTapacjyvXdr- 
Tovaav del airelpav eBeKa^e ')(^pvaovv eKdcrra) 
Biape/jLcov, ot? rifxav avrov eBoKeu KaraTroXirevo- 
fjLevo<; KoX Brj/jLaycoycop to arparccoTLKOv. 

XXL 'AW' ovv jSovXevofievov ye tov TdXjSa 
irepl BiaBo'x^ov tov "OOcova Trapeiariyev 6 Oumo?, 
ovBe TOVTO 7rpoL/ca Trpdaacov, dXX' eirl ydficp tT/? 
dvyaTp6<;, 6p,oXoyia<; yeuofievrjt; yapuelv avTrjv tov 
"06o)va irdloa tov VdX^a koX BidBo)(^ov diroBeL- 
ydevTa Tr)<^ riyepiovia'^. 6 Be TdX^w; del fxev rjv 

Bi}Xo^ TTpO tov IBLoV TO KOLVOV Tl,6epieV0<; KoX ^IJTMP 

ov)^ avTW OeadaL tov i'jBia-TOv, dXXa Pco/iatoi? 
2 TOP d)(f)eXi,/jLd)TaTov. BoKel Be /jltjB^ dp cttl toI<; 
IBloi^i )(pr]/jLao-c /jLOPop eXeaOat top "OOcova KXrjpo- 
pofjLOP, aKoXacTTOp €t3a)9 koX TroXvTeXrj kul irevTa- 
kio'X'-Xlwv fivptdBcov o^XrjiJLacn ^e^aTTTLcr jxevov. 
66ev uKovaa^ tov OvlvLov aLcorrrfj kuI TT/oaw? 
virepeOeTO Tr)v BidOeaiv. diroBei^a'; 8' avTOv 
vwuTOP KCLi avvdp)(^ovTa TOV OvLviov e7TlBo^o<; rjv 
erou? ^PXV '^^^ BidBo^ov dvayopevaeip' kol to 
(TTpaTiwTLKov 7]BecL><; el^e tov "O0(opa irap' optlpovp 
dXXop dpayopeuOrjpai. 

XXII. YLaraXajJi^dpet 8' avTOP eVt fieXXoPTa 

^ See the note on Chap. ii. 2. 
250 



GALBA XX. 3-xxn. i 

them to places of command, sometimes asking the 
appointment from the emperor, and sometimes 
getting tlie support of Vinius, and of the freedmen 
Icelus and Asiaticus ; for these were the most 
influential men at court. And as often as he 
entertained Galba, he would compliment the cohort 
on duty for the day by gi\ ing each man a gold piece, 
thus shovving honour to the emperor, as it was 
thought, while really scheming for the support and 
favour of the soldiery. 

XXI. So, then, while Galba was deliberating upon 
a successor, Vinius suggested Otho. And yet not 
even this was done for nothing, but as a return for 
the marriage of his daughter. For it had been 
agreed that Otho should marry her when he had 
been adopted by Galba and declared his successor. 
But. Galba always sliawed clearly that he placed -44t€ 
public good Ijefore his private interests, and in the 
present case that he aimed to adopt, not the man 
who was most agreeable to himself, but the one who 
would be most serviceable to the Romans. And it 
does not seem that he would have chosen Otho 
merely as the heir of his own private fortune, since 
he knew that he was unrestrained and extravagant 
and immersed in debts amounting to five millions.^ 
Wherefore, after listening to Vinius calmly and 
without a word, he postponed his decision. But he 
appointed himself and Vinius consuls for the follow- 
ing year, and it was expected that on their accession 
to office he would declare his successor. And the 
soldiery would have been glad that Otho, rather 
than anyone else, should be so declared. 

XXII. But while the emperor was hesitating 
and deliberating, he was overtaken by the dis- 

251 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Koi ^ovXevofievov iicpayevra to, Vep^avLicd. koivtj 
yap airavTe^ ol crTparevofievoi rov VaX^av i/iiaovp 
ovK aTTohihovra rrjv Bcopedv, iBla<; Be iKelvoi irpo- 
<^d(Tei<; inoiovvTO Ovepyiviov re'Vovc^ov direppipL- 
jxevov art/xft)? koX TaXarcov rov<; TroXe/jL^aavra^i 

2 av7o2<; Scopecoi' rvyy^dvovTa^, ocroi Be fit) irpoa- 
edevTO OvivSi/ci, KoXa^o/j,evov<;, w p.ov(p rov VdX^av 
X^P^^ ^iBevai Kol TL/Jidv reOvrjKora fcal yepaipeiv 
B7]fioaLOL<; euayicTfiol';, o)? l'tt' eKeivov 'VwjjLaioiv 

3 diroBeBeiyfJLevov avro/cpdropa. tolovtcov dvacpap- 
Bop rjBrj Xoycop ep t&) arpajoTreBcp irepi^epo [lepcop 
eirrfkOep 7) povp,7]pia rov irpcoTov fxr]p6<i, rfp Ka- 
XdpBa<i ^Japovapia<i KaXovai' rou Be ^XdxKov 
(TVPayay6pT0<; avrovf eTrl top opKOP op edo^ earlp 
ofipveip virep rov avro/cpdropofi, ra? /xep elxopa^ 
rov TdX^a 7rpoaeX06pTe<i dperpe'^ap xal fcar- 
eairaaap, avTol Be 6fi6craPTe<; inrep avyKXrjrov kol 

4 Brjfxov ^Vwixaicop BieXvOrjcrap. elra T0t9 rjyefioPL- 
Kol<s TrapicrraTO BeBoiKepai rr]P dpap^^ap co? 
aTToaraaiP. Xeyei Be ri? ep avroW ** Tt irdaxo- 
fiep, 0} avcTTparicoTai, fiijr ciXXop rjyejLLOPa ttolov- 
fiepoL p^rjre top pvp opra (pvXdTTOPTe*;, (oa-nep ov 
TdX^ap, dXX 6X(i)<i apxoPTa /cal to dp^eaOai 

5 (f)evyoPTe^ ; ^XdKKOP fiep ovp 'OpBecopiop ovBep 
dXXo r/ (Tfcidp opra VdXj3a kol elBwXop euTeop, 
r}/j,€pa(; Be /iid<i oBop dcf)eaTr]fC€P rjfiojp OvireXXtOfi, 
6 T/)? €T€pa<; Tepfiapla's rjyovfiepof;, Trax/oo? t€ 
Tt./jL7)T0v fcal T/Dt9 VTrdrov yepo/j^pov koi KXavBlo) 1063 
Kalaapi rpoirop ripa avpap^apra, avTo<; re ttjp 

1 See Chap. iv. 3. 
252 



GALEA XXII. 1-5 

orders which broke out among the troops in 
Germany. For the soldiers in all parts of the 
empire had a common hatred of Galba because 
he had not given them their usual largess, but 
those in Germany made special excuses for them- 
selves out of the fact that Verginius Rufus had been 
cast off in dishonour; that the Gauls who had fought 
against them were getting rewards, while all those 
who had not joined V^index were being punished ; 
and that to Vindex alone Galba showed gratitude 
by honouring him when he was dead and giving him 
the distinction of public obsequies, on the ground that 
\ index had proclaimed him emperor of the Romans.^ 
Such arguments as these were already circulating 
openly in the camp, when the first day of the first 
month came, which the Romans call the Calends of 
January. On this day Flaccus assembled the soldiers 
that they might take the customary oath of allegiance 
to the emperor ; but they overturned and pulled 
down all the statues of Galba which thev could find, 
and after swearing allegiance to the senate and 
people of Rome, went to their quarters. Then their 
officers began to fear that their lawless spirit might 
issue in revolt, and one of them made this speech : 
'^ What is wrong with us, my fellow soldiers ? We 
are neither supporting the present emperor nor 
setting up another. It is as though we were 
averse, not to Galba, but to all rule and obedience. 
Flaccus Hordeonius, indeed, who is nothing but a 
shadow and image of Galba, we must ignore, but 
there is Vitellius, who is only a day's march distant 
from us, and commands the forces in the other 
Germany. His father was censor, thrice consul, and 
in a manner the colleague of Claudius Caesar, and 

253 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\oihopov jJLevrjv vii evi(ov ireviav Sely/ia Xa/juirpov 
€')((ov ')(^p')](TT6rriT0<; Kal /ji€'ya\o(f)poavvr]<;. (f>€p€, 
TovTOV eXoiievoc Seu^co/nev av6po)iTOL<; iracTLv w? 
^Y^-qpcdv Kal Avatravcov a/ji€Luov<; eafiev avro- 
Kpdropa aipetaOai'^ 

6 Tavra rwv /aev rjSrj Trpoate/Jievcov, tmv 5' ov 
7rpocri6/jL€V(i)i', eh vTre^eXOcov cr7]fjLaio^6po<^ aTrrjy- 
y€iX€ Tw OvireXXlcp vvkto<;, iarLco/xevcov ttoWcov 
Trap' avT(p. rov he Xoyov hiaireaovTO'^ et? Ta 
arparevfiara 7rpcoTO<; ^dfiio^ Ovd\r)<;, '^ye/xoDv 
€vb<i TdyfiaTo<;, rfj vaTepaia /juera iTTirewv crvyycav 
€\daa<; avro/cpdropa rov OviriWcov TTpocrelTrev. 

7 p Se Ta? /J-€V efJUTrpoaOev rj/jbepa^; eSoKei SLCoOelaOat 
kal dvahveadaiy to /jbiyeOo^i tt)? dpXH'^ (^ojBov- 
IMevo<s, Tore he ^aaiv olpov hidirXecov Kal Tpo(j)f]<; 
ovra /jLe(Tr]/ji^piv7](; irpoeXdelv Ka\ viraKovaat 
TepfiaviKov ovofxa Oe/ievcov avrSt, to he YLaicrapof; 

8 ov Trpoa-he^dfievov. evOv^ he Kal to /leTa ^XdKKOV 
(TTpaTevixaTOV^ Ka\ov<; eKeivov^ Kalhrj/xoKpaTiKov^; 
eh (TvyfcXriTOV 6pKov<; d(^evTe<; cojioaav OviTeXXiw 
Tft) avTOKpdTopi TTOLrjaeiv to TrpoaTaacro/jLevov. 

XXITL Oi/Tft) /lev dvTjyopeuOr) OmTeXXiO<; 
avTOKpdrayp ev Vepixavia. irvOo/aevof; he tov eKel 
vewTepia/iov 6 TdX/Sa^; ovkctl Tr]v eicyiTOLr^cnv 
dve^dXXeTO. yivcoaKcov oe tcov (piXcov eviov^ fjuev 
virep AoXo^eXXa, TOV<i he irXeiarovfi virep "Odcovo<; 
dp)(aipeaid^ovTa^i wv ovheTepov ehoKi/iatev avT6<i, 
a(f)V(D fiTjhev TrpoeiTTCov /uL.eTe7re/jbyjraT0 JJeio-cova, 
K^pdaraov Kal ^KpL^wvia^ eKyovov, ou? ^epwv 
2 dvrjp/^Ket, veai'iav ev ttj irpo^ iraaav dpeTrjv 
€u<pvLa TO KoapLLov Kal avaTTjpov €pi(f)ave(JTaTa 

254 



GALEA XXII. 5-XXI11. 2 

Vitellius himself, in the poverty with Avhich some 
reproach him, affords a splendid proof of probity and 
magnanimity. Come, let us choose him, and so show 
the world that we know how to select an emperor 
better than Iberians and Lusitanians." 

While some of the soldiers were already for adopt- 
ing this proposal and others for rejecting it, one 
standard-bearer stole away and brought tidings of 
the matter by night to Vitellius, as he was entertain- 
ing many guests. The news spread swiftly to the 
troops, and first Fabius Valens, commander of a 
legion, rode up next day with a large body of horse- 
men and saluted Vitellius as emperor. Hitherto 
Vitellius had seemed to decline and avoid the 
office, fearing the magnitude of it ; but on this day, 
as they say, being fortified with wine and a midday 
meal, he came out to the soldiers and accepted the 
title of Germanicus which they conferred upon him, 
though he rejected that of Caesar. And straightway 
the army with Flaccus also, casting aside those fine 
and democratic oaths of theirs to support the senate, 
took oath that they would obey the orders of 
Vitellius the emperor. 

XXIII. Thus was Vitellius proclaimed emperor in 
Germany ; and when Galba learned of the revolution 
there he no longer deferred his act of adoption. 
Knowing that some of his friends favoured the selec- 
tion of Dolabella, and most of them that of Otho, 
neither of whom was approved by himself, he 
suddenly, and without any previous notice of his 
intention, sent for Piso (whose parents, Crassus and 
Scribonia, had been put to death by Nero), a young 
man in whose predisposition to every virtue the traits 
of gravity and decorum were most conspicuous ; then 

255 



PLUTARCErS LIVES 

exovra' koX Kareffaivev eh to arpaTOirehov ifcet- 
vov airohei^wv J^aicrapa koX hidho')(pv. Kairoi 
/jLeydXai /jl€V evOv'; i^iovTo Sioarjfiiac iraprjicoXou- 
Oovv, dp^afievov he ra fiev \eyeiv ev rw arparo- 
TreBw, ra Be dvayivcoaKetv, ToaavTaKi^i e^pourrjae 
/cat fcaT7]aTpayjr€, koX ToaovTo<i 6fjL^po<; Kal ^ocpO'? 
i^€-)(^vOr} eh TO (TTpaTOTreSov koX ttjv ttoXiv, 0)9 
KaTCbhrfkov elvai firj irpocnefievov /jbrjSe eiraLVOvv to 
haifioviov yivofjievrjv ov/c eii dyada> Trfv elcnroiT]- 

3 aiv. rjv Be Kal to, tS)v aTpaTicoTcov virovka koI 
(TKvOpcoTra fjLTjhe totc Scoped^; avToh SoOelarjf;. 

Tov Be Tl€ia-(ovo(; at irapovTe^; eOavixacrav Ty 
T€ (f>ci)vfj TeKfiaLpofievoi koI to) irpoacoTrq) to ttjXl- 
fcavTTjv X^P''^ dvefiTrXrjKT (£><;, ov fxrjv dvaiaOr]Tco<; 
Be^ofievov, w(nrep av tov "06(ovo^ eTrecpaiueTO 
TToWa arjp,€ia ttj fiopcfirj 7nfcp(o<; Kal avv opyfj 
T>}9 iX7riBo<; ttjv dwoTev^iv <f>6povTO<;, ^9 irpSiTO^; 
d^iwOeh Kal TOV Tv^elv eyyvTcuroi) yevofievo'^ to 
fit) Tv^elv €7roi€LTO (TTjfietov e)(6ov<^ dfia Kal KaKo- 

4 voia<\ TOV TdX/Sa 7rpo9 avTov. odev ovBe d(f)o^o<s 
Tjv irepl TOV fieWovTOf;, dWa Kal top Yieiawva 
BeBico'^ Kal TOV Td\/3av irpo^aWoiievo^ kcli tCo 
Ovivio) ^aXcTratz/o)!' dirrjeL ttoWcov iraOodv rrX^jp^j^i. 
ovBe yap to eXiril^ov eKXiirelv ovBe drrayopevcrai 
iravTdiTaaLV ellcov ol irepl avTov 6vt€<; del fMdvTec; 
Kal X.aXBatoi, eh to, fidXiaTa Be YlToXefialo^; 
l(TXvpi^6/jLevo<; tm TrpoeLTrecv iroXXaKif; 009 ovk 
diroKTevel ^epcov avTov, dXXd TeOvtj^eTai 7rpoT€/509, 
avTo<; Be irepUdTaiKal ap^€i,*P(o/j,aia)p (eKelvo yap 
256 



GALEA XXIII. 2-4 

he went down to the camp to declare him Caesar 
and heir to the tlirone. And yet as soon as he set 
out^ great signs from heaven accompanied him on his 
way, and after he had begun to pronounce and read 
his address to the soldiers, there were many peals 
of thunder and flashes of lightning, and much dark- 
ness and rain pervaded both the camp and the city, 
so that it was plain that the act of adoption was 
inauspicious and was not favoured or approved by the 
heavenly powers. The soldiers also were secretly 
disloyal and sullen, since not even then was their 
largess given to them. 

As for Piso^ those who were present at the scene 
and observed his voice and countenance were amazed 
to see him receive so great a favour without great 
emotion, though not without appreciation ; whereas 
in the outward aspect of Otho there were many 
clear signs of the bitterness and anger with which 
he took the disappointment of his hopes. He had 
been the first to be thought worthy of the prize, and 
had come very near attaining it, and his not attain- 
ing it was regarded by him as a sign of ill-will and 
hatred on Galba's part towards him. Wlierefore he 
was not without apprehension for the future, and 
fearing Piso, blaming Galba, and angry with Vinius, 
he went away full of various passions. For the 
soothsayers and Chaldaeans who were always about 
him would not suffer him to abandon his hopes or 
give up altogether, particularly Ptolemaeus, who 
dwelt much upon his frequent prediction that Nero 
would not kill Otho, but would die first liiniself, and 
that Otho would survive him and be emperor of the 
Romans (for now that he could point to the first 
part of the prediction as true, he thought that Otho 

257 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

d\7)6e<; airohei^a^; rj^iov fjLi-jhe ravra aTrekirLi^eiv)' 
ovx rjKLara 3' ol avva^Ooiievoi /cpvcjya kol auv- 
€7ncrT€vovTe<; 009 d'^dpcara rrreirovOoTi. irXelaroi 
he r<t)v Trepl TcyeWlvov fcal Nv/xiplSLOv iv tl/jLtj 
yeyovorcov diTeppififievoL rore koX raTreivd irpdr- 
TOVT€<; icpOeipovTO 7rpo<; avrov fcal (TwqyavdKTovv 
Kol Trapco^vvov. 

XXIV. ^Fiv Se TOUTot9 Overovpto^ Kal ^dpj3io<;, 
o fjLev OTTTioiv, 6 he T€<T(Tepdpio<;' ovtco yap Ka- 
\ovprai ol SiayyeXcov kol Blotttijpmv vmjpeaia^; 
T€Xol)^'T6?. /xe^' 0)1' ''Oda)vo<; direkevdepof; ^Ovofia- 1064 
o"T09 i'7TL(f)Oiro)v TOL'9 ^lev dpyvpio), tov<; Be eXiria-L 
hi€.(f>6etp€v TjSr] aaOpov<; ovra^ koI Beo/jbivov; irpo- 
(f)acr€co<;. ov yap rjv rjfxepCiv Teaadpcov epyov 
vyiaivovTO^ o-rpaTOTrehov fMeraaTrjo-ai Triariv, oaau 
fiera^v t?}9 elcnroirj(Te(0<^ eyevovro Kal rrj<; cr(l)ayrj<;. 
kfcrrj yap dv7}pe6rj(7aVy rjv dyovdi 'PoyfiaLOi irpo 
BeKaoKTo) KaXavBoiv ^e^povapiwv. 

2 \iKeivr) yap ewOev ev6v<s 6 fxev Vd\^a<^ eOvev 
ev YlaXariw royv (piXcov irapovTcov, 6 Be Ovrt]<i 

OjilBpLKLo^ dfia Tft) Xa/Selv eh Ta9 ')(^eipa<; rod 
lepeiov rd cnrXdy^va Kal irpocnBelv ov Bl alviy- 
jji'oiv, aXV dvTLKpv; e^>; o-rj/jLeia fJLeyd\r]<; Tapa)(^rj^, 
Kai fierd B6\ov klvBvvov etc Ke(j)a\r]<; eiriKeifievov 
T(p avTOKparopi, fiovovov^l rov "Odwva rov Oeov 

3 %e^/3t XijTTTOP TTapaBcBovTO^. iraprjv yap oinaOev 
Tov VdX^a, Kal rrpoaelx^ TOt? XeyofievoL<^ Kal 
BeLKvyfievoL^i inro tov ^O/jl^pikIov. Oopv^ov/juei^fp 



^ January 15tli (a.d. xviii. Cal. Feb.), 68 aa). 






GALEA xxiii. 4-XXIV. 3 

should not despair of the second part). Above all, 
Otho was encouraged by those who secretly shared 
his resentment and chagrin on the ground that he 
had been thanklessly treated. Moreover, most ot 
the adherents of Tigellinus and Nymphidius, men 
who had once been in high honour, but were now 
cast aside and of no account, treacherously went over 
to Otho, shared his resentment, and spurred him on 
to action. 

XXIV. Among these were Veturius and Barbius, 
the one an '^optio," the other a ^^ tesserarius " (these 
are the Roman names for scout and messenger). In 
company with these Onomastus, a freedman of 
Otho's, went round corrupting the soldiers, some 
with money, and others with fair promises. The 
soldiers were already disaffected and wanted only a 
pretext for treachery. For four days would not have 
sufficed to change the allegiance of a loyal army, and 
only so many days intervened between the act of 
adoption and the murder, since on the sixth day 
after the adoption (the Romans call it the eighteenth 
before the Gdends of February ^), Galba. and Piso 
were slain. 

On that day, shortly after dawn, Galba was 
sacrificing in the Palatium in the presence of his 
friends ; and as soon as Umbricius, tlie officiating 
priest, had taken the entrails of the victim in his 
hands and inspected them, he declared not am- 
biguously, but in so many words, Uiat there were 
signs of a great commotion, and that peril mixed 
with treachery hung over the emperor's head. 
Thus the god all but delivered Otho over to arrest. 
For Otho was standing behind Galba, and noted 
what was said and pointed out by Umbricius. But 

259 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

d€ avTO) KOi %poa9 ajxei^ovTi TravroBaTra*; vtto 
oeov(; 7rapa(TTa<; ^Ovofjuacrjof; aTreXevOepo^i tjkclv 
ecjyrj Kat, jrepifiiveiv avrov oXkoi tou? ap^ueKrova^;. 
Tjv he avfi^oXov xaipov, 7rpo<; ov eSei cLTravrrjaai 
4 TOP OOcova T0t9 aTpaTict)TaL<;. eliroiv ovv, on, 
iraXaiav ecovT]/jL€vo<; olfcCav ^ovXerai ra viroirra 
Sel^at, T0?9 TrayXrjraU, dnrjXOe, xal Bia t?)? Tiffe- 
plov KaXov/jL€vr}<; olKta^ Kara^a^; e^dhi^ev et? 
a^opavy ov '^pvaov<i el(nr)K€t kLohv, ct? ov al 
T€T/jLr]fi€vai T^9 'IraXta? oBol irdarav reXeuTcoatv. 

XXV. ^EivravOa tov<; Trpcorov; iK^e^afjievov^; 
avrov Kai 7rpo(Tei,7rovTa<; avrofcpdropd <^aai /nrj 
7tX€lov<; rpicbv kol eLKoai yeveaOai. hio, Kaiirep 
ov Kara rrfv rov (7(iofiaro<s fxaXaKiav fcal drjXvrrjra 
'^fi "^^XV hiareOpvfjL/jL€VO<;, dXXd lra/Jio<; obv tt/jo? 

2 ra Beiva teal drpeirro's, direheLXiaaev. ol Be 
Trapovre^ ovk etcov, dXXa roL<^ ^icpecTL yvfivol^ 
7r€puovr€<s avrov ro ^opelov i/ceXevov atpecrOat, 
7rapa(f>deyyofi€vov rroXXaKi^; drroXwXevai Kal tou? 
<^opeia(^opov^ €7rira)(^vvovro<;. e^rjKOVOV yap evioi 
6avpLd^ovr€<^ jiaXXov rj raparrofievoL Bid rrjv 
6Xiy6rr)ra rcov diroreroXfirjiievcdV. (f>€pofj,6vq) Be 
ovro) Bl^ dyopd<; dirT^vrrjaav erepoi roaovroi, Kal 
itoXlv Kara rpel<; Kal rerrapa<i dXXoi irpoaerre- 

3 Xat^ov. elra crvvavear p€<^ov diravre<^ dvaKoKov- 
fievot Yiaiaapa Kal yvfivd rd ^L(f)t] 7rpola')(^o/i€VOi. 
ro)v Be '^iXidp)((ov 6 rrjv cf)vXaKr]v e^(ov rov 
arparoireBov MaprLaXi<;, W9 <f>aai, firj avp€iBd)<;, 
eKirXayel^ Be rro drrpoaBoKyJTfp Kal (poBrjOei*; 
260 



GALBA XXIV. 3-xx'v. 3 

as he stood there in confusion and with a countenance 
changing to all sorts of colours through fear, Ono- 
mastus his freedman came up and told him that the 
builders were come and were waiting for him at his 
Iiouse. Now, this was a token that the time was at 
hand when Otho was to meet the soldiers. With 
the remark, then, that he had bought an old house 
and wished to show its defects to the vendors, he 
went away, and passing through what was called 
the house of Tiberius, went down into the forum, to 
where a gilded column stood, at which all the roads 
that intersect Italy terminate. 

XXV. Here, as we are told, the soldiers who first 
welcomed him and saluted him as emperor were no 
more than twenty-three. Therefore, although he 
was not sunken in spirit to match the weakness and 
effeminacy of his body, but was bold and adventurous 
in presence of danger, he began to be afraid. The 
soldiers who were there, however, would not suffer 
him to desist, but surrounding his litter with their 
swords drawn, ordered it to be taken up, while Otho 
urged the bearers to hasten, saying to himself manv 
times that he was a lost man. For he was overheard 
by some of the bystanders, and they were astonished 
rather than disturbed, owing to the small number of 
those who had ventured upon the deed. But as he 
was thus borne through the forum, he was met by as 
many more soldiers, and others again kept joining 
the party by threes and fours. Then all crowded 
around the litter, saluting Otho as emperor and 
brandishing their drawn swords. At the camp, 
Martialis, the military tribune in charge of the 
watch at the time, who was not privy to the plot, as 
they say, but was confounded by their unexpected 

261 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



icf>7]fcev elaekOelv. 'yevofxcvw 5e ivTO<i ovB€l<; 
avTiireaev. ol yap ayvoovvre^ ra irparrofieva 
T0?9 elhoai Kol avveajwaiv eV 7rapaaK6V7]<; efxire- 
pie^^ofjievoL KaO^ eva kol Svo cnropd8e<i, viro Seou? 
TO irpoiTOVy elra Treiadevre^i eirr^KoXovOr^aav. 

4 Et? ^6 TO YlaXdriov evdv^ /xev aTTTjyyeXr] rqy 
rdX^a 7rap6vro<; ert rod Ovrov Kal tmv lepcbv iv 
')(epa\v ovTwv, ware teal tov<; iravv 7r/30<? ra 
TOiavra hvaTreiOoy^ kol drevax; e^ovra^ e/cirX'^Tre- 
adat Kal Oav/id^eiv to Oelov 6)(\ov Se TravroBa- 
7T0V arvppeovTO'^ e^ dyopd^, avTM jmev OvLvio<i koI 
AuKcov Kol T(x)v direkeuOepcdv evioi yvjxva ra 
^L(prj 7rpoia)(^6/jL€voi, irapeaTrfaav, o Be {leicrcov 
TTpoeXOuiv Tot9 (pvXdrrovai rrjv avXrjv Bopv(f)opoL<i 

5 ivervyx^ve. rod 8' ^IXXvpiKOv Tdy/jLaTo<; iv rfj 
KaXovfxevr) TraardBi ^iyjravLci crTpaT07reB€vovTo<^ 
direo-TaXr} Mdpiof; KeXao^;, dvrjp dya06<;, irpo- 
KaraXrj'ylro/ievo^;. 

XXVI. BovXevo/jL€vov Berov VdXffa irpoeXOelv, 
Kal OvLviou fiev ovk eo)VTO<;, KeXcrou Be Kal Ad- 
Kcopo^ TTapop/icovTcop Kal ac^oBporepov rov Oviviov 
KaOaTTTOfjLevcjv, 6pov^ BirjXOe ttoXv^ &)? dvrjpi]- 
fxivov Tov 'Od(ovo<; iv tw arparoTreBoi' Kai fiera 
fiLKpov a>(f)dr] 'louXfo? "Attiko^; tcov ovk da^/xcov 
iv TOL<; Bopv(f)6poi<; aTparevo/jLevo^; yvfivcp to) ftc^et 
irpoa^epofievo^ Kal ffocov dvrjprjKevai rov Kaiaa- 
po<i TToXefjiiov wadfxevo^ Be Bid twv irpoeardiTwv 
2 eBet^e tm FdX/Ba to ft^o? ■pfiayfievov. 6 Be 
/3Xeyfra<: tt/oo? avrov, " Tt? (J€," elirev, ^'iKeXevae ; " 
ToO Be dvdpd)7rov rrjv iriaTiv elirovTO'i Kal rov 



26a 



GALEA XXV. 3-xx'vi. 2 

appearance and terrified^ permitted them to enter. 
And after Otho was inside the camp, no one opposed 
him. For those who were ignorant of what was 
going on, scattered about as they were by ones and 
twosj were designedly enveloped by those who knew 
and were privy to the plot, and so gave in their 
adherence, at first through fear, and then under 
persuasion. 

News of this was carried at once to Galba in the 
Palatium and the priest was still standing there with 
the entrails in his hands, so that even men who 
were altogether indifferent and sceptical about such 
matters Avere confounded and filled with wonder at 
the divine portent. And now a motley crowd came 
streaming out from the forum ; Vinius and Laco 
and some of the freedmen stood at Galba's side 
brandishing their naked swords ; Piso went out and 
held conference with the guards on duty in the 
court ; and Marius Celsus, a man of worth, was sent 
off to secure the allegiance of the Illyrian legion 
encamped in what was called the Vipsanian portico. 
XXVI. And now, as Galba purposed to go forth, 
and Vinius would not permit it, while Celsus and 
Laco urged it and vehemently chided Vinius, a 
rumour spread insistently that Otho had been slain 
in the camp ; and after a little, Julius Atticus, a 
soldier of distinction among the guards, was seen 
rusliing up with his sword drawn, and crying out 
that he had slain the enemy of Caesar ; and forcing 
his way through the crowd about Galba, he showed 
him his sword all stained with blood. Then Galba 
fixed his eyes upon him and said, '^ Who gave thee 
thy orders ? " U'hereupon the man replied that it 
was his fidelity and tlie oath that he had sworn, at 

263 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

opKov ov cofioae, xal rov irXrjOov^; eVtySowi^ro? co? 
ev, KoX fcpoTOVPTo<;, ififfaf; et? to (f>opeLOv iKOfil- 
^€T0 Tft) T€ Ad Ovaai kol (f)av7]vaL rot? iroXiTai's 
ySofXo/ievo?. efJLpa\6vro<^ he eh Tr)v ayopdv, 
(aairep rpoirala 7rvev/jLaro<;, aTr^vrrjae (p^P'V Kpa- 

3 T€LV TOP "OOcova Tov arpaT6VfiaT0<i. oca Be ev 
TrXrjOet. ToaovTfp, rwv fxev avaarpecfyeiv, twj^ Be 
irpolevai, to)v Be dappeip, twv Be airLarelv ^ociop- 
TCDVy KOL TOV (f)opelov, KaOoLTTep ev kXvBcovi, Bevpo 
KuKec Bia^€po/j.ei'Ov kol ttvkvov airovevovro^, e^ai- 
vovTO irpwTOV iTTTret?, elra ottXItui Bca Trj<; IlaiJ- 
\ov ffa(TtXLKrj<; 'n-poa(f>ep6fJLevoL, paa (jxovfj p^eya 

4 /Socoj^re? eKTToBcov taraaOaL tov IBtcoTrjv, tojv 
fiev ovv iroXXojv Bp6/jL0(; rjv, ov (pvyfj <TKLBvap,ev(ov, 
aW' €7rt Ta9 crroa? koI to, fieTeoypa r^? dyopd<;, 
uidTTep deav KaTaXafi^avovTcov. ^AtiXXlov Be 
T^epyeX[a)vo<; elKova TdX/Sa irpoaovBlaavTO^, dp- 
)(T]v TOV TToXe/jLov TTOLTjad/iLevoL TrepirjKovTLaav to 
(jiopelov o)? B* ovK eTv^ov avTOV, Trpoarjyov 
ecnraafxevoL^ toI? ^[(^eaiv. rfp^vve Be ovBel<i ovBe 
vTrecTTT] TrXrjv evo^i dvBp6<i, ov [xovov '^Xco'i eTrelBtv 
ev /jLvpid(Ti T0cravTaL<; d^iov r?)? 'Poy/jialcDV r/ye- 

6 fj,ovLa<;' '^ep.TTpoovio'; rjv Arjv(TO<; eKaT0VTdp)(rj(;, 
ovBev IBia ')(^pi]<rT0v viro VdX^a ireirovdo}^, tw Be 

KaX(b Kol T(p VOfJiO) ^OTjOoiV 7rp0€(TT7J TOV (jiOpeiOV. 

Kal TO KXri/ia irpoiTov, c5 KoXd^ouaiv eKUTOVTdp- 
yav Tov<; TrXrjycjv Beop,evov<i, eTrapdfievof; toI<; 
eTn(^epop,evoL<i e^oa kol Bie/ceXeveTO (peiBeadat tov 
avTOKpdTopo^. eirecTa avfiTrXcKop^evcov avTw 
264 



GALEA XXVI. 2-5 

which the multitude cried out that he had done well, 
and gave him their applause. Then Galba got into 
his litter and was carried forth, wishing to sacrifice 
to Jupiter and show himself to the citizens. But 
when he was come into the forum, there met him, 
like a change of wind, a report that Otho was master 
of the army. Then, as might be expected in so 
great a crowd, some cried out to him to turn back, 
others to go forward ; some bade him to be of good 
courage, others urged him to be cautious ; and so, 
while his litter was swept hither and thither, as in a 
surging sea, and often threatened to capsize, there 
came into view, first horsemen, and then men-at- 
arms, charging through the basilica of Paulus, and 
with one voice loudly ordering all private citizens 
out of their way. The multitude, accordingly, took 
to their heels, not scattering in flight, but seeking 
the porticoes and eminences of the forum, as if to 
get a view of a spectacle. Hostilities began with 
the overthrow of a statue of Galba by Attilius 
Vergilio, and then the soldiers hurled javelins at the 
litter ; and since they failed to strike it, they 
advanced upon it with their swords drawn. No one 
opposed them or tried to defend the emperor, except 
one man, and he was the only one, among all the 
thousands there on whom the sun looked down, who 
was worthy of the Roman empire. This was Sem- 
pronius Densus, a centurion, and though he had 
received no special favours from Galba, yet in 
defence of honour and the law he took his stand in 
front of the litter. And first, lifting up the switch 
with which centurions punish soldiers deserving of 
stripes, he cried out to the assailants and ordered 
them to spare the emperor. Then, as they came to 

261; 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Gitaadiievo^; to '^i(j>o<^ i^^vvaro ttoKvv ')(^p6vov, 
ea>9 TV^6el<^ to.? l<yvva<; eireae. 

XXVIL 'Yov he Va\(3av, aTTOKKiOevro^; rov 

<l)Op€LOU irepX TOV l^OVpTLOV KoXoVfieVOV \aKKOV, 

iKKvKiaOkvTa reOwpaKLafxevov erviTTov iiriBpa/xov- 
re?. 6 Be ttjv acpayrjp irporeiva^, " Apdre,'^ elTrev, 
** el TOVTO T(p Brjfjiw 'Pa)/iaL(ov apLCLVov iari." 

2 TToXXa? /j,€P ovv e\aj3e 7r\7jya<i €L<i re ra aKekr] 
Kol TOv<; /Spaxiova'^, d7re(T(f)a^e Be avrov, o)? ol 
TrXeLdToi Xeyovori, Ka/xoupto? Ti? ifc rov irevjeKai- 
BeKciTOu rdyfiaro<!;. evioi Be Tepevrcov, ol Be Ae/ca- 
viov laropovcTLVy ol Be ^d^LOv ^t>d^ovXop, ov Kal 
(f)a(Tii' diroKoy^avra rrjv Ke(f)a\r]p Kop^i^eiv rw 
IfxajiM avWa^ovra, Bid Tr)v yjriXoTTjTa Bvarrepl- 

3 XrjTTTOv ovaav eireira rcov avv avicp KpvirTeiv 
ovK. eouvTcov, d\X €fC(f)av7} TrdcL iroielv rrjv dv- 
BpayaOlav, irepiTreipavTa irepX X6y)(^r]v fcal 
di'airr'jXavTa irpea^vTOV TrpocrcoTTOv, dpyovro^; 
T€ Koaplov Kal dp')(^i€pect)<; kul vTrdrov, Bpo/xcp 
-^wpelvy oioirep al l3d/c)(^ac, iroWdKt^; p^eraarpe^o- 
p.evov, Kal KpcBaivovra ttjv Xoyxv^ aL/xari Karap- 

p€Op,€in]V. 

Toz^ 5' 'Odwva, T/}9 Ke(f)a\rj<; KO/jLiad€Lar]<;, dva- 
Kpayelv Xeyovaiv " OvBev eari rovro, uy Gvarpa- 

4 Ticbrai, Tifv H€Lcr(ovo<i p^ot, Kec^aXrjv Bei^are.^ pLej 
oXiyov Be rjKe Kopn^op^evr]' rp(oOei<; yap e(^evyev 

' 6 veavLCTKo^i, kol KaTaBico-^^Oei^ viro ^lovpKov Tivo<i 
direat^dyrj 7rpo<i rw lep(p r^? Ecrrta?. dTTea^dr- 
rero Be Kal OuLVio<i op,o\oy(ov KOLvcovof; yey oikvai 
TTJf; eVl TOP Vd\^av avvoopoorla^;' e^oa yap 
dTTo6vi](jKii,v Trapd ttjv "O^wro? ypcop^rju. dWd 



266 



GALEA XXVI. 5-XXV11. 4 

close quarters with him^ he drew his sword, and 
Ibught them off a long time, until he fell with a 
wound in the groin. 

XXVII. The litter was upset at the place called 
Lacus Curtius, and there Galba tumbled out and lay 
in his corselet, while tlie soldiers ran up and struck 
at him. But he merely presented his neck to their 
swords, saying : " Do your work, if this is better for 
the Roman people." So, then, after receiving many 
wounds in his legs and arms, he was slain, as most 
writers state, by a certain Camurius, of the fifteenth 
legion. Some, however, ascribe his death to Teren- 
tius, others to Lecanius, and others still to Fabius 
Fabulus, who, they say, cut off Galba's head and was 
carrying it wrapped in his cloak, since its baldness 
made it difficult to grasp ; then, since his companions 
would not suffer him to hide his deed of valour, but 
insisted on his displaying it to all eyes, he impaled 
on his spear and thrust on high the head of an aged 
man, who had been a temperate ruler, a high priest, 
and a consul, and ran with it, like a bacchanal,^ 
whirling about often, and brandishing the spear all 
dripping with blood. 

But Otho, as they say, when the head was brought 
to him, cried out : "This is nothing, fellow-soldiers; 
show me the head of Piso." And after a little it 
was brought to him ; for the young man had been 
wounded and tried to escape, and a certain Murcus 
ran him down and slew him at the temple of V^esta* 
Vinius also was slain, and he admitted himself a 
party to the conspiracy against Galba by crying out 
that he was put to death contrary to the wishes ot 

^ So the Bacchanals with the head of Pentheus (Euripides, 
Bacchae, 1153ff.). 

367 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^ap Ka\ TOVTov rrjv fC€<f>a\r]v aTTOjejiovre'i koI 
AdKcovo<; €fc6/jLi(Tav irpo^ rov 'OOcoua 8(opea<i al- 

5 TOVVTC'^. o)9 Si <f>7]aiv 'Ayo;)^t\o^09, 

€7rTa yap veKpcop Treaovrcov, ov<i e/idpyjra/jLev 

TToaiv, 
'XLXlol (f)OVT]€<i ia/xiv, 

OVT(0<f TOT€ TTOWol TOV <f)6vOV fMT) (TVV€(f)aylrd- 

fi€vot, 'xelpa^; he koI ^l(f)r] KadaLpLdaaovT€<; eVe- 
BcLfCVVVTO Kol Scoped^; rjrovv ^i^Xla Bt,S6vr€<i rat 
"OOcovt. €LKoai jovv Koi c/caTou evpedrjcraif 
varepov ix rcov jpafifiarlcov, ou? o OmriXXto^; 

6 dva^r)T7]cra<; aTravra^ aTreKreLvev. ^xe Be koI 
Ma/}to? KeX(70<; eh ttjv TrapefifioXjjv. koI ttoX- 
X<av avrov Karrjyopovvrcov on tou? a-TparLcora^ 
eiretde tw TdXffa fforjOelv, teal rov ttXijOov; 
aTTOKTiuvvetv /3o(i)vro<;, "OOwv ovk e^ovXero' (f>o- 
^ovfxevo^ Be avrCXeyeiv ov^ ovt(o<; e(f)rj ra^eco^; 1066 
diTOKTevelv avrov elvai yap a Bet irporepov e/CTrv- 
deaOai, irapa rov dvBp6<i. ifceXevaev ovv Brjcravra^i 
(pvXdrreiv, /cal irapeBcoKe toc<; p-dXiara iriaTev- 
ofievoc<i. 

XXVIII. Eu^L»9 Be ^ovXff avveKaXecTo. kuI 
KaOdirep dXXoi yeyovoje^; rj Oecop dXXcov yeyovo- 
T(ov GvveXOovre'^ cjfivvov op/cov virep rov ^OOwvo^, 
ov avTO<; 6p,6Ga<^ ovk errjpriae' /cal Kaicrapa /cal 
^e^acrrov uvrjyopevov, en rSiv ve/cpcjp dKe(f)dXa)v 
ev ral^ viraTLKalfi ecdtjcnv eppt/jL/jLevcov eVt t^? 
2 dyopa^. rat? Be /ce<paXaL'i &)9 ovBev el^ov ert, 
')(^pr}a6ai, Trjv p,ev Oviviov rfj dvyarpl Bca-'^^tXicov 

1 Bergk, Lyr. Gr. Frag, ii.* p. 398. 
268 



GALBA XXVII. 4-XXV111. 2 

Otho. However, they cut off his head, and Laco's 
too, and brought them to Otho, of whom they 
demanded largess. And as Archilochus says ^ that, 

'^ Only seven lay dead on the ground, where we 
trod their bodies under foot. But we who slew are 
a thousand," 

so in this case, many who had no part in the murder 
smeared their hands and swords with blood and 
showed them to Otho, as they presented him with 
written petitions for largess. At any rate, a hundred 
and twenty were afterwards discovered by means of 
these petitions, all of whom were sought out and 
put to death by Vitellius. Marius Celsus also came 
into the camp. There many denounced him for 
trying to persuade the soldiers to defend Galba, and 
the majority clamoured for his death, but Otho 
did not wish it ; however, since he was afraid to 
oppose them, he said he would not put Celsus to 
death so quickly, since there were matters about 
which he must first question him. He therefore 
ordered that he be fettered and kept under guard, 
and handed over to those in whom he put most 
trust. 

XXVni. A senate was at once convened. And 
as if they were now other men, or had other gods to 
swear by, they united in swearing an oath to support 
Otho — an oath which he himself had sworn in 
support of Galba, but had not kept. Moreover, 
they gave him the titles of Caesar and Augustus, 
while the dead bodies, all iieadless in their consular 
robes, were still strewn over the forum. And as for 
the heads, when they had no further use for them, 
that of Vinius they sold to his daughter for twenty- 

269 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal TrevraKoaLOJV hpay^jxoyv direSovro, rrjv Se 
Heicrcovo'!; y yvvrj eXa/Sep Ovepavia BerjOelcra, rrjv 
he VaXfia tol<; Harpo/Slov Bov\ot<; ihwprjaavro. 
3 Xal36pT6<; Se i/celvoL Kal iravra rpoirov al/ciard- 
fievoL Kal KaO V ^ pia avT€<; eppv^av y tov<; vtto tu)V 
KaLorapwv Ko\a^ofjiivov<; davarovaiv o Se totto? 
'^eaacopiov KaXelrai. to Be <rci)fia rod VaX^a 
Tlpi(TKO<; 'EX/3/Si09 dvelXero, rov '06a)Vo<; eVt- 
TpeyjravTOf;' €6a^lr€ Be vvkto^ ^ApyeLO<i uTreXeu- ^ 
depo^. 

XXIX. To^aCra ra Kara top TdX^av, dvBpa 
fjb7]T€ yevec pLijre irXovrw iroXXwv d7roX€t(j)0evra 
^Vcofiaicov, op^ou Be irXovrw Kal yevei irpcorev- 
aavra irdvTwv rcov Ka6* aurov, irevre avroKpa- 
ropcov t)'y€poviaL^ ep,/3t(oaavra pLerd Tip,rj<; Kal 
oo^»;9, (0(TT€ Tj] co^rj paXXov r) rf) ovvapueL Kau- 

2 eXetv ^epoava. rSiv yap ^ avveTriTiOep^evcov rore 
Tou? pev ovBel'i y^lwae rrj<^ rjyepiovia^, ol B' eav- 
Tov(; dirrj^icoaav, FaXySa? Be Kal KXr]Oel<; Kal 
v7raKovaa<; avroKpdrcop Kal rfj OvtvBiK0<i epura- 
paa-)((jov ovopia roXpirj, Kii'tjpa Kal vecorepiap^ov 
avTOv XeyopevTjv rrjv dTroaraatv iiroirjcre iroXepiov 

3 ep,<f)vXLOV, dvBpo<; rjyepLOViKov Tv^ovaav. odev ov"^ 
kavTw ra Trpdypuara XapL^dvecp, aXXd /ndXXov 
eavTov ol6p,epo^ BiBovat toi<; irpdypbaaiv, dp)(^6cv 
rjPiov T(av VTTO TiyeXXiPov Kal Nu/xx^tStOf reriOa- 
a€vpL€V(op ft)<? 'Ekjjttlwp ripxe Kal ^a^piKio<i Kal 

4 Kri/iiXXo? t6)p Tore 'Pcofialcop. v7r€p6nr6p,€PO<; Be 
TO) yrjpa, d^pt roip ottXwp /cat twv arparevpid- 
rwp aKparof; tjv Kal dp)(^alo<; avTOKpdrojp, Ovipiw 

^ KadeXflu 'Hipoiva. ruv yap «.t,A. Bekker, after Coracs : 
KaQcXwu Kfpccpa rwv k.t.\. 

270 



GALBA XXVIII. 2-xxix. 4 

five hundred drachmas ; that of Piso was given to 
his wife \'erania in answer to her prayers ; and that 
of Galba was bestowed upon the servants of Patrobius. 
They took it, and after heaping all manner of insult 
and outrage upon it, cast it into a place called 
Sessorium, where those under condemnation of the 
emperors are put to death. The body of Galba was 
taken up by Priscus Helvidius, with the permission 
of Otho ; and it was buried at night by Argivus, a 
freed man. 

XXIX. Sucli were the fortunes of Galba, a man 
surpassed by few Romans in lineage and wealth, and 
both in wealth and lineage the foremost of his time. 
During the reigns of five emperors he lived with 
honour and high repute, so that it was by his 
high repute, rather than by his military power, 
that he overthrew Nero. For of his partners in 
tlie task, some were by all men deemed unworthy 
of the imperial dignity, and others deemed them- 
selves unworthy. But to Galba the imperial title 
was offered and by him it was accepted ; and by 
simply lending his name to the bold measures of 
V''index, he gave to his revolt (as his rebellious 
agitation was called) the character of a civil war, 
because it had acquired a man who was worthy to 
rule. Wherefore, in the belief that he was not 
seizing tlie conduct of affairs for himself, but rather 
giving himself for the conduct of affairs, he set out 
with the idea of commanding the petted creatures 
of Tigellinusand Xym})hidius as Scipio and Fabricius 
and Camillus used to command the Romans of their 
time. But being gradually weighed down by his 
years, in arms and camps, indeed, he was an 
*' imperator " of a severe and ancient type ; but 

271 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Sk fcal Ad/ccovc KoX roU aTreXevOepoi^ irdvTa ra 
irpayfiara TrcoXovat irape\^ufv eavrov, olov ^epayv 
7rap€L)(€ Toh dTrXijaroTaToi^, ovSeva iroOovvra 
TT)V dp')(^T]v, oUreloavTa^ Be tol/? ttoXXoi)? top 
ddvarov aTreXnTev, 



2^2 



GALBA XXIX. 4 

just as Nero put himself in the hands of his most 
insatiate favourites^ so Galba put himself in the 
hands of Vinius and Laco and their freedmen, and 
they made merchandise of everything, so that he 
left behind him no one who wished him still in 
power, but very many who were moved to pity at 
his death. 



273 



OTHO 



oeoN 

J. O Se vecorepo^ avrofcpdrcop a/M rj/iepa irpo- 
eXdoov et? to l^air LTwi\Lov eOvcre' Kal KeXevaa^ 
Mdpiov l^eXaov d^drjvat, Trpo? avrov rjairdaaTO 
Kal Bi€\e^07] (f)i\avdpco7rQ)<;, koX irapeKdXeae Tr]<; 
aiTLa<; eTriXaOeaOai /jloWov rj rrj^ d<f)€(T€co(; fivr]- 
fioveveiv. rov Se KeX-crou /itJt dy€vvco<; diroKpc- 
uafievov /jirjr avaiadf]T(o<;, dWd (f>rjcravTO<; avro 
Tov rpoirov StSovai rb eyKkijfia Triariv, iyKeKXi}- 
aOai yap on VdX^a jSi^aLOv kavrov irapea^ev, 
rp x^P*-^ ovhe/JLLav axpetXev, rjydaO'iiaav ol irapovre^ 

2 afjL<f)OT€p(ov Kal to arpaTKOTiKov iirriveaev. ev he 
crvyKXijTM TToXXd SrjfioTiKa Kal ^iXdvOpcoira Bia- 
Xe;^^et9, ov fiev avTo<; virareveLv XP^^^^ ^jfjueXXe, 
TovTOu fi€po<; €vet./jL€V OvepyivLfp 'Povcpo), Tot<; 8k 
aTToBeBeiyfJievoi,^ vtto Ne/jwj/o? rj TdX^a irdaiv 
errjprjae Td<; v7raT€ia<;. lepcoavvaL^; Be tov<; Ka&* 

3 rjXLKiav TTporjKOvra^ rj Bo^av eKOGjxriae. tol<; Be 1067 
CTTL Nepcovo<; (f)vyovori Kal KareXOovaiv iirl VdX^a 
(TvyKXrjTiKOL<; irdacv dweBcoKev oaa fir) ireiTpafjieva 

rS)v KTTjfjLdrcjv eKdarov ^ i^evpiaKev. odev ol 
irpoiTot, Kac KpdrLCTTOL 7r6(f)pLK6r€<; irpoTepov &>? 

' fKdcTTov Coraes and Bekker, after Stephanus, for the 
fKatrrov of the MSS. : fH6,(rr<av, 

276 



OTHQi 

I. At daybreak the new emperor went forth to 
the Capitol and sacrificed ; then^ having ordered 
Marius Celsus to be brought to him, he greeted that 
officer, conversed with him kindly, and urged him to 
forget the cause of his imprisonment rather than 
to remember his release. Celsus replied in a manner 
that was neither ignoble nor ungrateful, saying that 
the very charge made against him afforded proof of 
his character, for the charge was that he had been 
loyal to Galba, from whom he had received no 
special favours. Both speakers were admired by 
those who were present, and the soldiery gave their 
approval. In the senate Otho spoke at length in a 
kindly strain and like a popular leader. For part of 
the time during which he himself was to have been 
consul, he assigned the office to Verginius Rufus, 
and all those who had been designated as future 
consuls by Nero or Galba he confirmed in their 
appointment. To the priesthoods he promoted those 
who were preeminent in age or reputation. More- 
over, to all the men of senatorial rank who had been 
exiled under Nero and restored under Galba, he 
restored whatever portions of each man's property 
he found to be unsold. Wherefore the citizens of 
highest birth and greatest influence, who before this 

^ With Plutarch's Otho may be compared Suetonius, Otiw ; 
Dion Cassius, Ixiv. 10 — 15 ; Tacitus, Hist. i. 46 — ii. 49. 

277 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovK avhpo^y aWd tivo<; i) Tioivy)^ r) iraXafivaiov 
8ai/jLOvo<; dcpvco tol<; Trpdyfzaacv iirnreTTTayKOTo^;, 
r)8Lov<; iyepovro ralf; ikTriai, tt/oo? Tr)v r)yefJLOvlav 
coairep Sia/jLeiBLcoaav. 

IL 'OfjLov 8e ^V(x)fjLaiov<; Trai^ra? ovhev evcfipavev 
ovTco^ ovSe (pKeiooaaTO 7rpb<; avrov o)? ra irepl 
TiyeWlvov. i\e\7]0eL fxev yap rjZr) KoXai^ofievo^ 
avrSi r& ^o^w Trj<; Kokdaew^ rfv w^ X/^^o? d-rrprei 

2 Srj/jLocnov r) TToXi?, koI voarjixaaw dvqKearoL<i 
crot)yu,aT09, avTd<; re Ta<; dvoaiov^ koI dpprjrovfi ev 
yvvac^l TTopvai^ koI dfcaOdproL^; iyKv\ivBr}a€i<;, 
al? €TL TTpocriaTratpe hvadavarovvro^ avrov ro 
dfcoXaarov eirthparrofJievoVy ia^dnjv rcfiroplav 
irroLovvro Kal ttoWcov dvrd^ia 6avdrcov ol 
aco(j)povovvr€(y. rjvia he rovf; ttoWov^ 6fico<; rov 
rjXiOV opcov fierd roaovrov^ KaX roiovrov<; Si^ 

3 avrov ou% opoovra^. cTrefiyfrev ovv eV avrov 6 
"OOcov €^9 rov<; irepl Xivoecrcrav dypov<;' e/cel yhp 
SiTfrdro, ifkoKov irapopfjLovvrwv, ro? (f)6v^6fjL€vo<; 
dircorepco. Kal rov ye irefMipOevra ^(pvcrup ttoWw 
TrelOeiv €7r€)(^elp)]<T€ Trapeivar /jby iretadevri Ek 
d(opa fxev eCcoKev ovbev rjrrov, eoerjurj be virofxeuvai 
eaxi av diro^vprjraL ro yevetov Kal Xaficov avrb<; 
eavTOv e\aifioro/jbr)a€v. 

IIL Ovro) Be rS) BrjfjLw rr)v SiKaiordrrjv rjBovr/v 
aTToSov^ 6 Kalaap, avro^ IBia'; e')(6pa(; ovSevl 
rorrapdirav e/jLvrjoriKdKrja-e, roL<; Be ttoWol^} %a/o«- 
^Ofievo^ OVK e(f)evy€ ro Trpcorov ev Tot? dedrp0L<i 
^epcov TTpoaayopeveaOar Kai rivcov ecKova'i Ne- 
178 



OTHO I. 3-1II. I 

had felt a shuddering fear that it was not a man, but 
some genius of retribution or avenging spirit, that 
liad suddenly fallen upon the state, became move 
cheerful in their hopes for a government which wore 
a face so smiling. 

II. But nothing so gladdened all Romans alike, 
and won their allegiance to the new emperor so 
much, as his treatment of Tigellinus. Men were 
not aware that Tigellinus was already punished by 
his very fear of that punishment which the city was 
demanding as a debt due to the public, and also by 
incurable bodily diseases ; and besides, there were 
those unhallowed and unspeakable grovellings of his 
among the vilest harlots, for which his lustful nature 
still panted, clutching after them as his life painfully 
ebbed away ; these were looked upon by reasonable 
men as extremest punishment and an equivalent of 
many deaths. Nevertheless it vexed the common 
people that he should see the light of day after so 
many good men had been robbed of that light by 
him. Accordingly, Otho sent a messenger to fetch 
him from his country estate at Sinuessa ; for he was 
staying there, where vessels lay at anchor, that he 
might fly to more distant parts. He tried to bribe 
the messenger with a large sum of money to let him 
go, but failing in this, he made him gifts neverthe- 
less, and begged him to wait till he had shaved ; 
and taking the razor he cut his own throat. 

III. And now that the emperor had given the 
people this most righteous gratification, he did not 
remember his own private grievances agaijist any 
man soever, and in his desire to please the multitude 
did not refuse at first to be hailed in the theatres 
by the name of Nero, and when statues of Nero 

279 



PLUTAUCH'S LIVES 

pcovo<; 6t9 lovfi^ave^ irpoOefxevcov ovk CKooXvcre. 

2 KXouySto? Be 'PoO^o? et? ^IffrjpCav (fyrjal KO/jbiaBrjvai 
BnrXoo/jLara, 0*9 e/cTre/jLTrovo-c tov<; ypa/jLfiarr]- 
cf)opov<;, TO Tov Neyo&jz^o? Oerov ovofxa irpoaye- 
ypafifievov exovra rw rov"06(jdvo<;. ov /ii7]v aWa 
Toi;? TrpcoTOVi /cat KparLarovf; alaOofievo^; eirl 
TOVTfp hv(T')(epaivovTa<i eiravcraTO. 

ToLavTTju Be tt}? riyefiovia'^ Kardaracnv avrw 
\afi^avov(jr)<;, oi /xLadocpopoL x^XenTOVf; 7rap€l)(ov 
eavTov^f aincnelv irapaKeXevofJievoL koX (fyvXdr- 
Tea 6 at, koI KoXoveiv tou? a^ioX6yov<>, gXt aXrjdS)^ 
(^o^ovjJLevot, Bt, evvoiav, €lt€ Trpocpdaec ')(^pu)/jL6voi 

3 TaVTTJ TOV TapaTTCLV Kal TToXefMOTTOteLV. KpL(T7rl- 

vov Be Tre/jLyjravTO^; avTOv ttjv eTTTaKaLBeKaTTjp 
cnretpav ^flaTia^i dird^ovTa, KaKeivov vukto^; €tc 
(JvaKeva^Ofievov Kal to, oirXa rat? dfid^ai^ eiriTt' 
OevTo^, 01 Opa(TVTaTOL iTdvTes e/Socov ovBev vyie<i 
TOV K.pL(77rlvov rfKeLv Biavoov/ievov, dXXa ttjv avy- 
/cXrjTOV eTTtx^tpclvTrpdyfiaat. v€coTepoc<;,Kal tol oirXa 

4 KaTa K.aicrapo^, ov K.aLcrapi irapaKOfii^eadai,, tov 
Be Xoyov ttoXXcov aTTTOfievov xal 7rapo^vvopTo<;, oi 
fiev eTreXa/jL^dpovTO tcov dfia^ayp, oi Be tov<; ePL- 
(JTa/j,€Pov(; e/caTOPTdp^^a^i Bvo koI top KpcaTrlpop 
avTov direfCTeipap, irdpTe^i Be Biaa/cevaad/jLepoi xal 
TrapaKuXeaapTe^ dXX^Xov^ K.aLcrapi ^orjOelp rfXav- 
pop 649 Tr]P '^(t)fjLT]P' Kal TTvOofiepoi Trap avT(j> 
BeiTTPetP 6yBo7]KOPTa avyKXrjTiKoix;, €cf)epoPTO 7rpb<; 
Ta ^aaiXeia, pvp Kaipop elpau XeyoPTe<i ev TavTO) 

5 7rdpTa<s dpeXelp tou9 Kaiaapo^; TroXep>Lov^. 77 fiep 
ovp iroXif; (ii<; avTiKa BcapTrayyaofieprj dopv^op 

1 Of. Chap, viii 4 
280 



OTHO III. 1-5 

were produced in public, he did not prevent it. 
Moreover, Cluvius Rufus tells us that "diplomas/' ^ 
such as couriers are provided with, were sent to 
Spain, in which the cognomen of Nero was added to 
the name of Otho. However, perceiving that the 
men of highest birth and greatest influence were 
displeased at this, Otho gave up the practice. 

But while he was placing his government on this 
basis, the paid soldiers began to make themselves 
troublesome by urging him not to trust the influential 
citizens, but to be on his guard against them and 
restrict their power. It is uncertain whether their 
goodwill led them to be really apprehensive for him, 
or whether they used this pretext for raising dis- 
turbance and war. And so, when the emperor sent 
Crispinus to bring back the seventeenth legion from 
Ostia, and while that officer was still getting the 
baggage together at night and loading the arms 
upon the waggons, the boldest of the soldiers all 
began to cry out that Crispinus was come on no 
good errand, and that the senate was attempting to 
bring about a revolution, and that the transportation 
of the arms was an act of hostility, not of service, 
to the emperor. The notion prevailed with great 
numbers and exasperated them ; some attacked the 
waggons, others killed two centurions who opposed 
them, as well as Crispinus himself; and then the 
whole body, putting themselves in array and exhort- 
ing one another to go to the help of the emperor, 
marched to Rome. Here, learning that eighty 
senators were at supper with Otho, they rushed to 
the palace, declaring that now was a good time to 
take off all the emperor's enemies at one stroke. 
Accordingly, the city was in great commotion, 

VOL. XI. i^ 281 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

el^e iroKvv, iv he toI<; /^acrtXetoi? rjaav htahpofxai, 
Kol Tov 'OOoDva BeiVT) KareXafiffavev airopia, ^o- 
^ov/i6VO<; yap virep tmv avBpcov avTO<^ rjv (f)0^€pb<; 
eKeivoL<;, koX 7rpb<; ahrov dvrjpTijfievovq ecopa ral^; 
oyjreaiv dvavBov^ /cat irepiheel'i, eviov^ koX fiera 

6 <yvvaiKO)v rjK0VTa<i eirX to BecTTVov. a/ia Se tou? 
67rdp')(ov^ aTreareWe roi<; aTpaTL(OTaL<s BiaXiye- 
adai KOL irpavveiv Kekevcra^, afia Be tou? KeK\i]- 
fjLevov(; dvBpa<; dva(TTrj(Ta<; KaO* eTepa<; 6vpa<; 
d(f)r]K€' KOL fJbiKpov e(f>dr]aav vireK^vyovre^, Bid 
Twv /jLLado<p6pcov diO ov fJLevdiv el<; tov dvBpoyva koX 
TrvvOavofiepoyv ri yeyovaa-tv ol K.aiaapo<; TToXe- 

7 fJLioi. Tore fiev ovv 6pOb<; diro Trj<; Kkivr)^ nroWd 1068 
'napr]yopr](Ta<; fcal BerjOel^; kol firjBe BaKpvcov <pet- 
adfievo^ IxoXi^ direirefi'^ev avrov^' rfj B^ vaTepaia 
Bcoprjcrdfi€vo<; diravra^; /car dvBpa ^tXtat? koI Bia- 
Koaiai^ KoX TrevTrjKOVTa Bpa^/jboi'^ elcrrjXOev et9 to 

8 (TTparoTreBov, /cal to fiev ttXtjOo''; eirriveaev, o)? 
TT/oo? avTov evvovv koX 7rp6dv/xov, oXlyov; Be Tcpa<s 
ovfc eir dyaOcp (^rjaa^ viroiKOvpelv, Bia^dXXovra's 
avTOV TTjv /JLeTpiorrjra kol ttjp eKelvcov evard- 
detav, Tj^iov cvvayavaKjelv kol avyKoXd^eiv. 
eiraivovvTCdv Be ttuvtcov koI /ceXevoprcov, Buo /i6- 
vov<; irapaXa^cov, ol<; ovBel<; e/xeXXev d-^OeaOac 
KoXaaOelaiv, dvrjXXdyrj. 

IV. Tavra ol /xev dya7rcovTe<; 7]Br} Kal itl- 
0'TevovTe<; edavfia^ov rrjv /jLeraffoXtjp, ol B dvay- 
Kola TroXtTevfiaTa irpo^ tov Kaipov i^yovvTo^ 
282 



OTHO III. 5-iv. I 

expecting to be plundered at once ; in the palace 
there were runnings to and fro ; and a dire per- 
plexity fell upon Otho. For while he had fears 
about the safety of his guests, he himself was an 
object of fear to them_, and he saw that they kept 
their eyes fixed upon him in speechless terror, some 
of them having even brought their wives with them 
to the supper. But he sent the prefects of the 
guard with orders to explain matters to the soldiers 
and appease them, while at the same time he 
dismissed his guests by another door ; and they 
barely succeeded in making their escape as the 
soldiers, forcing their way through the guards into 
the great hall, asked what was become of the 
enemies of Caesar. In this crisis, then, Otho stood 
up on his couch, and after many exhortations, and 
entreaties, and not without plentiful tears, at last 
succeeded in sending them away ; but on the follow- 
ing day, after making a gift of twelve hundred and 
fifty drachmas to every man, he went into the camp. 
There he commended the great body of the soldiers 
for their goodwill and zeal in his service, but said 
that there were a few of them who were intriguing 
to no good purpose, thereby bringing his moderation 
and their fidelity into disrepute, and he demanded 
that they share his resentment against these and 
assist him in punishing them. All his hearers 
approving of this and bidding him to do as he 
wished, he took two men only, at whose punishment 
no one was likely to be distressed, and went away. 

IV. Those who were already fond of Otho and 
put confidence in him admired this change in his 
behaviour, but others thought it a policy forced upon 
liim by the situation, wherein he courted popular 

283 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

B7]/jLaycoyovvTO<; avrov Sia rov iroXe/xov. 7]Br] yap 
TjyyiWero ^epaloa^ OvlreWio^ a^Lco/xa koX Bvva- 
fiiv avTOKpdropo^ av€L\r](j)(o<;' fcal Trrepo^opoc 
avvex^'^ icfyoLTcov aei ti> Trpoa-xj^pelv iKeivw (ppd- 
^ovT€<;, ^Tepoi S« ^ TCi TlavvoviKa koI to, AaXfia- 
TLKCL Kol TO, TTcpl ^[vaLav (TTpaTCVfiara Srj\ovvT€<; 

2 riprjaOai fiera t5)v rjyeixovaiv "OOcova, Ta')(y hi 
d<f>iK€ro Kal irapa ^lovKtavov ypdfifiara koX irapa 
Oveaireaiavov ^iXia, rov fiev iv 'Evpua, rov Se ev 
^lovBala fieya\a<i Bvvdfxei^; i')(ovTwv. u0' o)v eirac- 
pofievof; eypa^jrev OvlTeWiO) irapaivMv (Trparico- 
TLKCL (ppOVetV, «09 %/37^yLtaTa TToWo, h(iicrovTO<; aVTOV 
KOL TToXlV, iv y ffl(OCr€Tai paCTTOV Kal ijBiCTTOV 

3 ^lov fxed^ r)(TVX'^CL^' avriypa^fre Be KaKetvo^; avrcp 
KaT€ipa)vev6/JL€V0<; r}(TV')(ri TrpcoTov e/c Be tovtov Bie- 
peOi^ofievoi TToXXa ^Xd(T<f>r]/j,a kol dcreXyrj ■^(Xevd- 
^ovT€(; dXXijXoi<; eypa(hoVf ov '\lr€vBo)<; fxev, dvorjTW^ 
Be Kal yeXolcoi; Barepov tov erepov a Trpoarjv 
d/jLcjiOTepoi^ ovelBt] XoiBopovvro'i. dacoTLaf; yap 
Kal fjiaXaKLa<; Kal direipia^ TroXeficov Kal rcov 
TTpoadev eirl irevla ^/oewj' TrXrjOov^ epyov r)v elirelv 
oTTOTepcp fielov avrcov fieTearL. 

4 ^Tj/i€L(i)v Be Kal (f)avracr/jLdTO}v ttoXXmv Xeyo- 
fievcov, ra fiev dXXa ^rj/iaf; dBecnrorovf; Kal dfi(f)i- 
y9oXov9 €l')(^ev, ev Be KaTnrcoXiq) Nt/c?;? ecfieaToxrTjf; 
appbari T(X9 r}v[a<; iravre^ elBov d(j)€Cfieva<i eK rcov 
'^eipodv, Mairep Kparelv fjurj Bwa/Jbevrj^, Kal rov iv 
fjLeaoTroTajJLLa vrjaco Tatov J^alaapof dvBpidvra 

284 



OTHO IV. 1-4 

favour because of the war. For already there were 
sure tidings that Vitellius had assumed the dignity 
and power of emperor ; and swift couriers were 
continually coming with accounts of ever new 
accessions to him, although others made it clear 
that the armies in Pannonia. Dalmatia, and Mysia, 
with their leaders, adhered to Otho. And quickly 
there came also friendly letters from Mucianus and 
\^espasian, who were at the head of large forces, the 
one in Syria, the other in Judaea. Otho was elated 
by these, and wrote to Vitellius advising him not to 
have more than a soldier's ambitions, in which case 
he should be rewarded with a large sum of money, 
and a city, where he could live in the utmost ease 
and pleasure and be undisturbed. Vitellius also wrote 
to Otho in reply, at first in a somewhat dissembling 
manner ; but afterwards both got excited and wrote 
one another abusive letters filled with shameful 
insults ; not that either brought false charges, but it 
was foolish and ridiculous for one to storm the other 
with reproaches applicable to both. For as regards 
prodigality, effeminacy, inexperience in war, and 
multiplicity of debts incurred in a previous state of 
poverty, it were hard to say which of them had the 
advantage. 

There were many reports of signs and apparitions, 
most of which were of uncertain and dubious origin ; 
but everybody saw that a Victory standing in a 
chariot on the Capitol had dropped the reins from 
her hands, as if she had not power to hold them, 
and that the statue of Caius Caesar on the island in 



^ 8^ supplied by Sint.', after Schaefer ; Bekker assumes a 
lacuna before (repoi. 

285 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

jjLrfTe aeiafiov <y€yopoTo<; /juJTe TTvevfiaro^ d(f)* ecr- 
5 Trepw; fieraarpa^evra 7r/)09 ra? dvaro\d<;' 6 ^aai 
avfJLpTjvaL Tvepl Ta9 rj/iepaf; i/C€Lva<; iv ah ol irepl 
OveaTTecnavov ifi^avod^; tjStj rcav Trpay/jLarcov dvre- 
\a/jL^dvovTO. KoX TO irepX top @v/jL^pLV Se avjx- 

TTTCOfia (77J/jL€L0V eiTOiOVVTO ol TToXkol jJLO^^drjpOV. 

Tjv /JL6V yap aypa irepX fjv jidXidTa ol TTOTafiol irXij- 
dovaiv, dX'k! ouirco TOcrovTO<^ VP^'H TrpoTepov, ovBe 
dircoXeae ToaavTa Kal Bi,e<f)6€cp€P, virep'xydelf; KaX 
KaTaKXvaa^ iroXv fJiipo<; t^? TroXeo)?, irXeia-TOV 
Se €P w TOP eVl TTpdcrei, BiaTrayXovan acTOP, co? 
Beipr]P drroplap rj/juepayp (rv)(pa)P KaTaa)(€lp. 

V. *E7r€t Be TCL^i "AXTTCi? KaT€^OPT€<i 7]Brj 

TTpoarjyyeXXoPTO K.6KLPa<; Kal OvdXT]^; OutreWi-o) 
aTpaTr]yovPTe<;, ep 'Vd)p,r) AoXo/^eWa?, eviraTpL- 
S779 dpTjp, viroy^iap irapelx^ tol<; fii,ado(f)6poL<i 

P€(OT€pa (f)pOP€CP. €K€CPOP fllp OVP, €iT€ aVTOP 6tT6 

dXXop BeBoLKa)^;, et? ttoXip ^Akvplop TrapeTrep.'^e Tva- 
paOappvpa<;. KaTaXiycop Be tcop ep TeXec avpsKBrj- 
/jLov<; eTa^ep ep rourot? Kal AevKiop top OviTeXXtov 
dBeX(j)6p, ovT€ irpoadel^ ovBep ovTe d^eXoi>p ^9 

2 el'x^e TiyLttj?. /o"%y/)&>9 Be Kal t^9 /jL7jTpo<; eirefie- 
XtjOt} tov OvLTeXXiOV Kal t% yvpaiKo^;, oircof; 
fjLTjBep (j)ol3y](TOPTai> irepl avTa>p. t^9 Be Pco/i7;9 
(f)vXaKa ^XaovLOP Xa^cpop, dBeX(j)OP Oueaireaia- 
pov, KaTeaTrjaep, clVe koX tovto 7rpd^a<^ eiri tl/jltj 
Ne/)&)i^09 (irap' CKeiPov yap elXr)(f>ei. ttjp dp')(r)p 
6 Xa^LP0<i, d<f>eiXeTO Be rdXfia<; avTOp), ecTC fidX- 
Xop evpoiap epeBeiKPVTO OveaTreaiapat Kai wiaTip 
aij^cop "Xa/BLPOP. 

3 AuTc>9 /J,ep OVP ep Bpi^iXXw, iroXet T?J9 'lTa\ta9 

286 



OTHO IV. 4-v. 3 

the Tiber, without the occurrence of earthquake or 
wind, had turned from west to east, which is said to 
have happened during the time when Vespasian was 
at last openly trying to seize the supreme power. 
The behaviour of the Tiber, too, was regarded by 
most people as a baleful sign. It was a time, to be 
sure, when rivers are at their fullest, but the Tiber 
had never before risen so high, nor caused so great 
ruin and destruction. It overflowed its banks and 
submerged a great part of the city, and especially 
the grain-market, so that dire scarcity of food 
prevailed for many days together. 

V. And now, when word was brought to Rome 
that Caecina and Valens, who were in command 
with Vitellius, were in possession of the Alps, Dola- 
bella, a man of noble family, was suspected by the 
praetorian soldiers of revolutionary designs. Otho 
therefore sent him away (through fear of him or of 
someone else) to the town of Aquinum, with words 
of encouragement. And in his selection of the men 
in authority who were to accompany him on his 
expedition he included also Lucius, the brother of 
Vitellius, without either increasing or diminishing 
his honours. He also took strong measures for the 
safety of the wife and mother of Vitellius, that they 
might have no fear for themselves. Moreover, he 
appointed Flavius Sabinus, a brother of Vespasian, 
prefect of the city, either because in this way also 
he could honour the memory of Nero (for Nero had 
bestowed the office upon Sabinus, but Galba had 
deprived him of it), or rather because, by advancing 
Sabinus, he could show how he favoured and trusted 
Vespasian. 

Well, then, Otho himself tarried behind at Brixil- 

287 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Trepl rov ^HpiSavbv direXeicfidr], orrpaTrjyov^ Be 
Tcov Svvdfiecov i^eTrcfiyfre ^Idpiov re KiXaov koX 
^ov7]TO)viov YiavXlvov en re TdWov kcll %irovpi- 
vav, dvhpa^ ivS6^ov<;, ')(^prjaaa6ai he firj SvvrjOevra'i 
iirl TOiv Trpayfidrcov to? Trporjpovvro rot? eav- 
TMV \oyi,(TfioL<; 8i dra^iav fcal Opaavrrjra tmv 

4 arparccoTcov. ov yap tj^lovv erepcov d/coveiv, (w? 
Trap avTOiv rov avTOKpdTopo<; ro dp')(€Lv e')(pvTO<;, 
Tjv fxev ovv ovBe rd rcov iroXefJLiwv vyiaivovTa 
TvavrdTTacTLV ovBe 'X^ecporjOt] to?? Tjye/jLoa-iv, dX)C 
€fjL7r\7]KTa KOLi (To/3apd Sid Tr}v avrijv aljiav. ov 
firjv dW eKeivoL^i epLTreipia ye Traprjv rov fxd^ecrOaL 

5 KoX TO Kdfiveiv ^ iOdBe^; 6vt€<; ovk €(f>evyov, ovroi 
Be fiaXaKol fxev rjaav vtto crxoXrj^ fcal SiaLT7)<i 
diroXefiov, TrXeLarov XP^^^^ ^^ Oedrpoi^; fcal iravr}- 
yvpeat Koi irapd aKrjvrjv /Seyi3t&)/coT€9, v^pet Be 
KoX KOfxirfp eirajjbiTe'XGiv e/SovXcvro, irpoo-iroirjca- 
(rdai Ta<r \eLrovpyia<^ o)? Kpeirrove^ dira^iovvre'^, 
ovx CO? dBuvaroc (j)epeLV. oBk'E'ROvpiva^ Trpoa/Sca- 
^6/jL€V0(} avrov<; eKtvBvvevae fxcKpov e\66vTa<s dv- 

6 e\elv avTov. v^p€co<; Be Kal ffXaaq)rj/ji[a<; ovBe/jLid<; 
€(j>eLcravTo, TrpoBorijv fcal Xvfxecjva rcov Kaiaapo^i 
KULpwv Koi irpayixdrcov XeyovTe<^. evioi Be Kal 
IxeOvaOevTe^ tjBtj vvkto<; tjXOov eirl rrjv crKrjvrjv 
€(f)oBLov alrovpref;' elvac yap avTol<; Trpo? Kaiaapa 
^aBiareop, otto)? e/ceuvov Karrjyoprjawcnv. 

VL 'rivijae Be rd irpdyfiara Kal ^irovpivav ev 
rS) irapavTiKa XoiBopla irepl YiXaKevriav yevo/xevrj 
rcov crrpariwroiv. ol yap OvlreXXlov roc<; rei^eai, 
7rpo(T^dXXovre<; e')(X€va^ov rov<; "06q)vo^ earcora<; 

' rh Kdjuvfiv Bekker, after Coraes : rov Kd/j-veiv. 
388 



OTHO V. 3-vi. I 

lum, a town of Italy on the river Po, but sent his 
forces on under the command of Marius Celsus and 
Suetonius Paulinus^ besides Gallus and Spurina. 
These were men of distinction, but were unable 
to conduct the camj)aign according to their own 
plans and wishes, owing to the disorderly and 
arrogant spirit of their soldiers. For these would 
not deign to obey other officers, since^ as they said, 
they had made the emperor their commander. It 
is true that the enemy's troops also were not 
altogether in condition, nor under the control ot 
their officers, but fierce and haughty, and for the 
same reason. Nevertheless, they were certainly 
experienced in fighting, and being accustomed to 
hard labour, they did not shun it ; whereas Otho's 
men were soft, owing to their lack of employment 
and their unwarlike mode of life, having spent most 
of their time at spectacles and festivals and plays, 
and they wished to cloak their weakness with in- 
solence and boasting, disdaining to perform the 
services laid upon them because they were above 
the work, not because they were unable to do it. 
When Spurina tried to force them into obedience, 
he came near being killed by them. They spared 
him no abuse nor insolence, declaring that he was 
betraying and ruining the opportunities and the 
cause of Caesar. Nay, some of them who were 
drunk came at night to his tent and demanded 
money for a journey, for they must go, they said, to 
Caesar, in order to denounce their commander. 

VI. But Spurina and the emperor's cause were 
helped for the time by tlie abuse which his soldiers 
received at Placentia. For when the troops of 
Vitellius assaulted the walls, they railed at the 

289 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irapa raf; eiraX^ei^, aKi]viKOV<i Kal wvppi'x^iaTa^ 
KOL HvOlwv fcal ^OXv/nTTioyv Oewpov<;, ttoXc/jlov Be 
Kal (TTpaT€i,a<; ciTTeipovf; teal a6edrov<; clttokoXovv- 
T€9, KoX pLe'ya cf)povovvTa<; iirl tw yepovro'; av- 
ottXov ic€(j)akT]v airorefielvy top TdX/3ai' Xeyovre^;, 
6t? Be dycova Kal iid')(rjv dvBpcov ovk av CKcpavcof; 

2 Kara^dvra^. ovroa yap eTapd')(dri(yav viro tov- 
Tcov rwv ovetBoyv Kal BieKdijcrav coare TrpoaTreaelv 
Tw ^iTOVpiva, Beofiepoi ')(^pr)adai Kal irpocrrdTreiv 
avTols, ovBeva kivBvvov ovBe ttovov diroiXeyo- 
fxevoL^, la^vpd^ Be avardcrrjf: TeL')(o fjia')(^ia^ Kal 
/jL7j)(^avr)/jLdTcop iroWoiv rrpo(ja')(devr(i)v eKpdTrjcrap 
01 Tov ^TTovpiva, Kal (f)6v(p TToWo) Tou? evavTLOvf; 
dnroKpovadfjievoL BteT')]pr]aav evBo^ov ttoXiv Kal 
TMv ^ItoXmv ovBefJLid^ r)TTOv dvOovaav. 

3 ^Yicrav Be Kal rd dWa rcov OuLTcWiOV (TTparrj- 
ycov ol "0^&)^'09 €vtv)(€Cp dXvTTorepot Kal TroXeart, 
Kal lBL(M}TaL<i' eKeivcov Be KeKLva<i fiev ovre (fxoprjv 
ovT€ a^P]/jLa Br]/j.oTtKo<i, a\X eiTa^6ri<i Kai dXXo- 
/C0T09, ad)fjiaTO<; fieydXav, VaXaTLKO)<^ dva^vpiai 
Kal ')(eiplaLv ep€crKevaa/j,6P0<^, ar}/j,eLOL<; Kal ap~)(^ov- 

4 (7L 'Po)ixaLKOL<; BiaXeyo/xevof;. Kal rrjv yvvalKa 
irapeTre/jLTrop avrw XoydBrjp liriTel^; 6')(^ou/u,€P7jp 
Iltttto) KeKOcrfjLTj/jLeprjp €7n(f)apa)<;. ^d^iop Be Ovd- 
Xepra top erepop arparrjyop ovre dpirayal iroXe- 
/jump ovre KXoiral Kal BcopoBoKiaL irapa av/uL/nd'^oyp 
epeiri/jLTrXaaap ')(pr]/jifiLTL^o/jL€POP, dXXa Kal iBoxei 
Bid TOVTO ^paBecof; oBevcop vareprjaai t>}9 Trpore- 

6 pa<; fxdyr)<i. ol Be top K^eKipap aiTLcoPTaL, airev- 
Bopra TTjp PLKrjp eavTou yepeaOat, irplp CKetpop 



290 



OTHO VI. r-5 

soldiers of Otho who manned the ramparts, calling 
them actors, dancers, spectators at Pythian and 
Olympian games, men who had never known or 
seen a campaign or fighting, and thought highly of 
themselves because they had cut off the head of a 
defenceless old man (meaning Galba), but would not 
openly enter a conflict and battle of men. Otho's 
soldiers were so disturbed by these reproaches, and 
so inflamed, that they threw themselves at the feet 
of Spurina, begging him to use them and command 
them, and pleading excuse from no danger or toil. 
And so, when a fierce assault was made upon the 
walls and many siege-engines were brought to bear 
upon them, Spurina's men prevailed, repulsed their 
opponents with great slaughter, and held safe a city 
which was famous and more flourishing than any in 
Italy. 

In other ways, too, the generals of Vitellius were 
more vexatious than those of Otho in their dealinos 
with both cities and private persons. One of them, 
Caecina, had neither the speech nor the outw^ard 
appearance of a Roman citizen, but was offensive and 
strange, a man of huge stature, who wore Gaulish 
trousers and long sleeves, and conversed by signs 
even with Roman officials. His wife, too, accompanied 
him, with an escort of picked horsemen ; she rode 
a horse, and was conspicuously adorned. Fabius 
Valens, the other general, was so rapacious that 
neither what he plundered from the enemy nor 
what he stole or received as gifts from the allies 
could satisfy him. Indeed, it was thought that this 
rapacity of his had delayed his march, so that he 
was too late for the battle at Placentia. But some 
blame Caecina, who, they say, was eager to win the 

291 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ekOelv, aXKoL^ re fit k pore pot<; irepi'Treaeiv afxaprrj- 
fxaai /cat fjia^rjv ov Kara Kaipov ovBe yevvaioyf; 
avvd-y^ai, fiiKpov iravra ra irpdy/xara hiac^OeL- 
paaav auroi?. 

VII. Evret yap dTrofcpovaOel^; rrj<! TlXaKevrta^ 
o K.eKLva<; iirl ^pepdivr^v copp^rjaev, iripav iroXiv 
evSaipova Kal /jbeydXrjv, tt/jwto? p,€v "Avvio<; 
rd\\o<i TT/oo? UXaKevrlav ^TrovpLpa ^ovjOoiv, o)? 
TjKovae KaO^ oSbv rov^ JJXaKevrlvouf; irepiyeyove- 
vai, Kivhvv6V€Lv Se Toi)? ev l^pepidovrj, p,eTr)yayev 
eKel TO arpdrevp^a Kal KaTeaTpaTOirehevae irXt)- 
(TLov T(>)V TToXeplcov €7r€lTa Kal TCOV dXX(OV 

2 eKaarof; i^orjOec tw (TTparyya). rov Be J^CKLva 
Xo^icravTOfi eh Xdaia '^^^copia Kal vXd)Sr) 7roXXov<i 
0TTXiTa<s, iTTTrec^ Be nrpoe^eXdcat, KeXevcravTo<^, Kav 1070 
(TVvdy^coaLV ol iToXep,ioL Kara puKpov dva')(wpelv 

Kal dva^evyetv, dxp^ civ v7rdyovTe<; out(o<; epl3d- 
Xcocrtv avTOV^ eh rrjv iveSpav, e^rjyyeiXav avro- 
p^oXot T(p KeXcr^. Kal ovro<; pbev liriTevcTLV 
dyad oh dvT€^eXdaa<i, nre^vXayp^evo)^ B^ XP^' 
p,evo<; rfj Bid)^€c Kal rrjv eveBpav irepLcrxf^v f^^l 
avvTapd^a<i, eKoXei Tot/? OTrXtra^ €k tov arparo- 

3 TreBov. Kal BoKovauv dv eTreXOovTe^ ev Kaipw p^rj- 
Beva XiTTelv rCyv iroXep.icov, dXXd irdv to /xexa 
Y^eKiva arpdrevp^a avvTplyjraL Kal dveXelv eirLairo- 
pevoL Toh iTrTrevo-r vvvl Be 6 UavXlvofi o-v^e Kal 
a^X^^V '^pocr^or]Oij(Ta(; alriav eax€v evBeiarepov 

4 tt}? 80^779 <TTpaT7]yrjo-aL Bt^ evXd^eiav. ol Be 
TToXXol Toiv (TTparioyrcov Kal irpoBoaiav eveKd- 
Xovv avTW, Kal Trapoi^vvov rov "OOcova, p,eyaXr)- 



292 



OTHO VI. 5-vii. 4 

victory himself before Valens came, and so not only 
made other minor mistakes, but also joined battle 
inopportunely and without much spirit, thereby 
almost ruining their whole enterprise. 

VII. For when Caecina, repulsed from Placentia, 
had set out to attack Cremona, another large and 
prosperous city, first Annius Gallus, who was coming 
to the help of Spurina at Placentia, hearing upon the 
march that Placentia was safe, but that Cremona was 
in peril, changed his course and led his army to 
Cremona, where he encamped near the enemy ; then 
his colleagues^ came one by one to his aid. Caecina 
now placed a large body of men-at-arms in ambush 
where the ground was rough and woody, and then 
ordered his horsemen to ride towards the enemy, 
and if they were attacked, to withdraw little by 
little and retreat, until they had in this way drawn 
their pursuers into the ambush. But deserters 
brought word of all this to Celsus, who rode out 
with good horsemen to meet the enemy, followed 
up his pursuit with caution, surrounded the men in 
ambush, and threw them into confusion. Then he 
summoned his men-at-arms from the camp. And 
apparently, if these had come up in time to the 
support of the cavalry, not a man of the enemy 
would have been left alive, but the whole armv with 
Caecina would have been crushed and slain. As it 
was, however, Paulinus came to their aid too slowly 
and too late, and incurred the charge of sullying his 
reputation as a commander through excessive caution. 
But most of the soldiers actually accused him of 
treachery, and tried to incense Otho against him, 

^ Celsus, Paulinus, and Spuriua (v. 3), although Spurina is 
not mentioned further. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'yopovvT€<i 0)9 veviKYjKOTWv avroov, Trj<; Be plktj<; 
ovK eiTi irav 7rpo€X6ovar]<; kuklu tcov arparriycov. 
o 06 'OOcov ov^ ovT(o<; eTTLarevev avrol^ co? e/3ou- 
\eTO fir) hoKslv airiaTelv. eTrefi^jrev ovv TiTiavov 
€7rt ra (Trparev/iara rov aSeXcpov /cat UpofcXov 
rov eirapxov, o? eZ^ev epyo) ttjv rrdaav ap^rjv, 
5 Trpoa')(r)ixa 8e r)v 6 Tiriav6<;. ol he irepl rov KeX- 
(jov Kol YlavXlvov aWo)? e^eiXKovro avfjbl3ovX(ov 
ovofjua Kai (^lXcov, e^ovcnav kol Svva/iiv ev tol<; 
TTpdyfiaa-L /uLijSefiiav e'X^ovre^. rjv Be Oopv^oiBrj 
Kai ra irapa rot? TroXe/jLLOi^, /jLaXcara Be to?? vtto 
TO) OvdXevTi' Kai t% Trepl Tr]v eveBpav iJLd'^ri<; 
dirayyeXO ei(T'q<i ey^aXeiraLVov on firj irapeyevovro 
firjBe rjfivvav dvBpayv roaovTMV diroOavovTcov. 
/jLo\t<; Be Tretcra? kuI irapaLrrjadfjievo^ ct)p/jLr)/j,evov<{ 
avTov<; ^dXXeip dve^eu^e /cat (Tvpfjyjre rot? irepl 
KeKLvav. 

VIII . O Be ' OOcov irapayevofxevo^ eh ^rjrptaKOv 
€t9 TO arpaTOTreBov [eari Be ttoXI^vtj TrXrjcriov 
Kp€jjLOi)vr]<; TO JirjrpiaKOp) e^ovXevero irepl Trj<; 
fid'X^T]^;. Kai TIpoKXa) fiev eBoKet Kai Tiriavw, 
rwv arparevfjidTcoif ovrcov irpoOvjicov kol irpoa^d- 
Tou T% vLKrj<^, BiayaypLaaadai Kai fit) Kadrja-Oai 
Tr)v aKp^rfV d/jL^XvPovra t^}? Bwdp^ew^ Kai irepc- 
fxevovra OvireXXiov avrov eV TaXaria's eireXOelv' 

2 Y\ayXlvo<; Be toI<^ piev iroXefxioi^ ecprj irdvra fieO* 
(xiv fia')(^ovvTaL irapelvai, koI /jLrjBev evBelv, 'OOwvi 
Be t% r)Brj 7rapovcrr}<; ovK eXdrrova irpoaBoKLfjiou 
elvai BvvapLiv €k Mfcr/a? Kai TIavvovLa<;, av rov 
avTOV Trepi/jbii'T) Kaipov, dXXa firj (rrparrjyfj 7rpo<; 

3 Toi» Tcov iroXe/jLicou. ov yap d/jL/3XvTepoi<; ye XP^1~ 



294 



OTHO VII. 4-V111. 3 

loudly boasting that they had been victorious, but 
that their victory was made incomplete by the 
cowardice of their commanders. Otho did not 
believe them, and yet wished to avoid the appear- 
ance of disbelieving them. He therefore sent to 
the armies his brother Titianus, and Prociilus, the 
prefect of the guards ; of these two men Proculus 
had the entire authority in reality, and Titianus 
only in appearance. Celsus and Paulinus, too, 
enjoyed the empty title of friends and counsellors, 
but had no power or influence in the conduct of 
affairs. There were disturbances also among the 
enemy, and especially among the troops of Valens ; 
for when these were told about the battle at the 
ambuscade, they were enraged because they were 
not present and had given no aid where so many 
men had lost their lives. They actually began to 
stone Valens, but he finally succeeded in pacifying 
them, and then broke camp and joined Caecina. 

VIII. Otho now came to the camp at Bedricum 
(a little village near Cremona) and held a council of 
war. Proculus and Titianus were of the opinion 
that he ought to fight a decisive battle while his 
armies were flushed with their recent victory, and 
not sit there dulling the efficiency of his troops and 
waiting for Vitellius to come in person from Gaul. 
Paulinus, on the contrary, said that the enemy 
already had all the resources with which they would 
give battle, and lacked nothing, whereas, in the case 
of Otho, a force as large as the one he already had 
might be expected from Mysia and Paniionia, if he 
would only wait for his own best opportunity and 
conduct the campaign to suit that of the enemy. 
For his men were now confident of success in spite 

295 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aeaOai rore toI<^ vvv Oappovaiv air eXarrovcov, 
av liKeiova^; tov<; dycovi^Ofievovf; TrpocrXd^coaiv, 
dW €K irepiovcTia'^ cfycov tela Oar Koi %w/)t9 he 
TOVTOV rrjv Siarpi^rjv elvai it pa's avrcov iv d(f)06' 
voi^ Traaiv ovrcov, €fC€ivoL<; Se tov 'y^povov diropiav 
Trape^ecv rcov dvayKaiwv iv TroXefila KaOe^ofxevoi^, 
4 ravra Xeyovrt TlavXivw MdpLo<^ KeA.<ro? iyevero 
avfMylr7]cj)0(;. "Avvlo^: Se TdWo<; ov Traprjv fxev, 
aW edepairevero TreTrrfOArco? a<^ 'lttttov, ypdyjrav- 
T09 36 "0^0)1^0? avTO) crvve^ovXevcre /it} (nreuSeiv, 
aXXa rrjv e/c Mucrta? 7repip.€P€iv Svvafiiv 'ijSi] /caO^ 
oBou ovcrav. ov /xrjv eTreiOeTO tovtol^, dXXd eKpd- 
TTjaav OL 7rpo<; ttjv fxd')(^i]v Trapop/jLcovre';. 

IX. Alriai he 7^\eto^'69 dXXai vir dXXcov Xi- 
yovrar irpoSrjXcof; Be ol crTparrjyiKol irpoaayo- 
pevofxevoi, Kal rd^iv €)(pv7e^ Bopv<^6po)V, totc 
fidXXov dXy]6i,vrj(! yevofxevoi aTpareLa<; Kal ra? iv 
Vo)fxrj BiaTPL^d^; Kal SiaiTa<i diroXifiovf; Kal Travrj- 
yvpLKCi^ 7rodovvr€<;, ovk ^crav KaOcKTol (nrevBovre^ 
iirl Tr]v fjidy^v, ft)? €vOv<; ef i7nBpo/jLi]<; dvapiracTO' 

2 fievoL rov<; ivavruov;. BokcI Se fiTjBe avTo<; "OOcov 
i^avacpipeiv eri irpo'^ ttjv dBrjXoTtjra /lyBe viro- 
fxeveiv drjOeta Kal /naXaKOTrjri tou? irepl rcjv Bet- 
v6)v Xoyia/iovi;, iK7rovov/ievo<i Be Tal<; (^povriai 
airevBeLV iyKaXvyfrdfjievo<;, wairep diro KpijfjLvov, 

3 fieOeliai rd irpdy/uLara 7rpo<; rb avvrvyov. Kal 1071 
TOVTO fJbev BtrjyeLTO ^eKovvBo^ 6 pijrayp eVt rojv 
iTTiaroXwv y€v6fjLevo<f tov "06(ovo<i. erepwv Be rjv 

296 



OTHO VIII. 3-ix. 3 

of their inferior numbers, and he would not find them 
less keen after they had received reinforcements^ 
nay, their superiority would lead them to fight all the 
better. And besides, delay was to their advantage, 
since they had everything in abundance, while to the 
enemy time would bring a scarcity of supplies, since 
they were occupying a hostile country. So Paulinas 
argued, and Marius Celsus voted with him. Annius 
Gallus was not present, being under treatment for a 
fall from his horse, but Otho asked his advice by 
letter, and his counsel was not to hasten the battle, 
but to await the forces from Mysia, which were 
already on the march. Nevertheless, Otho would 
not listen to these counsels, and the day was carried 
by those who urged immediate battle. 

IX. Various other reasons for this are given by 
various writers ; but manifestly the praetorian 
soldiers, as they were called, who served as the 
emperor's guards, since they were noAV getting a 
more generous taste of real military service and 
longed for their accustomed life of diversion at 
Rome in which festivals abounded and war was 
unknown, could not be restrained, but were eager 
for the battle, feeling sure that at the very first 
onset they would overwhelm their opponents. 
Moreover, it would seem that Otho himself could 
not longer bear up against the uncertainty of the 
issue, nor endure (so effeminate was he and so unused 
to command) his own thoughts of tlie dire peril con- 
fronting him ; but worn out by his anxieties, he veiled 
his eyes, like one about to leap from a precipice, and 
hastened to commit his cause to fortune. And this 
is the account given by Sccundus the rhetorician, 
Avho was Otho's secretary. But others would tell us 

297 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

uKoveiv on rol<; crrpaTevfiaaiv afi(f>OTepoi,<; irapi- 
aravTO op fiat TroWal o)? et? rauro crvvekOeiv' fcal 
fjuaXicTTa fjL€v avrov^ ofJiocjipovi^aavTa'; ifc rcov ira- 
povTcjv r}y€/jLOvt,Ka)v eXedOat tov aptarov, el Se /jltj, 
rrjv o-vjKXrjTOV ofiov KaOiaavra^; i(f>€LPai Trjv 

4 atpecTLv ifceivrj rov avTOKpdropo^. koI ovk direi- 
k6<; ian, /jLrjSerepov rore rcov Tvpoaayopevop.evwv 
avTOKparopodv €vSoKCfiovvro<;, iiriiTnTTeLv tolov- 
rov<; ScaXoyiafiov'; tol<; yvrjcrioi<; fcal hiairovoi^ kcu 
aa)(ppovovcn rcov arpaTLwroov, o)? €')(6l(Ttov eXrj 
real Becvov, a iraXai Bid 'EvWav Kal M^dptop, elra 
K.aLaapa Kal Tlo/jbTrrjiov (pKreipovro Bpcovre^; d\- 
\r)\ov<; Kal 7rda')(^ovT€<; ol iroXlrai, ravra vvv viro- 
/JL6V6LV rj OvireXXLO) Xaiixapyia^ Kal olvo<l)Xvyia<i 
rj TpV(prj<^ Kal dKoXaaia<; "Odwvi TrjV rjyefio- 

5 viav 'yppii']yy]\xa irpoOefievov^. ravr ovv vtto- 
voovai Tov<; re irepl rov J^iXaov alaOavofievov^ 
€fi/3aX€iv BiaTpi^7]v, iX7rL^ovTa<; dvev /jud-^jjf; Kal 
TTovayv KpiOijcreaOac rd irpdyfiaTa, Kal rov^ irepl 
Tov'OOcova (f)o^ov/ji€VOV<; eiriTayyj'ai r-qv p.d')(rjv. 

X. Auto? Be irdXiv et? ^pi^iXXov dve^^coprjae, 
Kai TovTo 7rpo(T€^afJLapT(oVy ov)^ on fiovov rrjv ei> 
o<pOaXfioL<^ avTOv irapovro^ alBco Kal (^iXonfiiav 
atpelXe rwv dycovi^ofievcov, dXXd Kal tov<; eppw- 
fiei'eaTaTov<; Kal 7rpodvp.OTdrov<i Bi avrov iTrrrels 
Kal ire^ovf; dirayaydiv (f)vXaKi)i' rov awfjuaTc; 
ajairepel aro/ico/jLa ^ tt}? Bvvdfieco<i aTreKoy^re. 
2 Zivve(3r) Be TaL<; r)iJiepaL<s eKelvaL<i Kal irepl rov 
HpiBavoi' dywva yevkaOai, rov fiev KeKiva ^ev- 
yvvvro^ rrjv Bid^acnv, rcov Be "O0(ovo<i elpyounov 



298 



OTHO IX. 3-x. 2 

that both armies were strongly inclined to confer ; 
and above all, if they could agree, to elect as 
emperor the best of the commanders who were with 
them, but if not, to convene the senate and commit 
to it the choice of an emperor. And since neither 
of the men who then had the title of emperor 
enjoyed high repute, it is not unlikely that the 
real soldiers, those who knew what hardship was and 
had sense, should be led to reflect that it would be a 
dreadful and most hateful thing if the evils which 
the citizens had once to their sorrow inflicted 
upon one another and suffered because of Sulla and 
^Iarius, and again because of Caesar and Pompey, 
should now be endured again only to make the 
imperial power a means for providing for the glut- 
tony and drunkenness of Vitellius or for the luxury 
and licentiousness of Otho. It is suspected, then, 
that Celsus was aware of these feelings, and there- 
fore tried to interpose delay, hoping that the issue 
would thus be decided without hardship and battle, 
and that Otho, fearing this, hastened on the battle. 

X. Otho himself returned to Brixillum, and in 
this too he made a mistake, not only because he 
took away from the combatants the respect and 
ambition which his presence and oversight inspired, 
but also because, by leading away as his bodyguard 
of foot and horse the men who were most vigorous 
and eager to please him, he cut away, as it were, 
the head and front of his army. 

During this time there was also a conflict at the 
river Po, where Caecina tried to build a bridge 
across the stream, and Otho's soldiers attacked him 

^ (TTo/Ltw/xa Doelmer's correction of the viilgate n o-w^ta, 
adopted by Sint.'' 

299 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX TT po(Tfxa)(^ofj,€V(ov. CO? ^€ ovBev eiTepaivov, 
€v6€/jL€Vcov et9 TO, irXola BaBa deiov koI TrtTrr;? 
avcLTrXewv y Bia rov iropov 7rvev/xa Trpoaireaov 
a^vw T7JV 7rap€(7K€vaa/jL6VT]v v\r]v eirl rovf; iroXefiL- 
3 Of 9 e^eppiTTL^e. Kairvov Be irpoirov, elra \a/JL7rpa<; 
0X0709 €K7r6(Tov(Trjf;, rapaTTOjievot koI aTTOirr}- 
B(i)VT€<s eh rov Trora/xov rdf; re vav<s averpeirov 
Kal ra crco/iara toI<; TroXe/jiLOif; /xera yeXci)ro<; 
'Trapel')(pv. ol Be Tepfiavoi rol<; "OOcovo^ fxovo- 
/id'\^ot<; Trepl vrjcrcBa rov irorafiov rrpoaixi^avref; 
€Kpdrr}aav kol BL€<t)Oeipav avrcov ovk 6XLyov<;. 

XI. Tevo/xevcov Be rovrcov, Kal rSiv ev "BrjrptaKO) 
(Trparicoroyv rov "OOcovo^ eKcpepofievcov fier 6pyrj<; 
eirX rr)v /j,d')(i'iv, rrpoijyajev avrcv^ 6 11/30/^X09 e/c 
rov J^TjrpiaKOv, fcal KareorrparoireBevaev diro 
irevr-qKovra araBlcov ovrco<i direipw^i Kal Karaye- 
Xd(Tra)<; coare, rf]<; fJLev copa^ iapivrj<; ovar]^, rcov 
Be kvkXm TreBlcov iroXXd vdjiara Kal Trorajxov^; 

2 devvdov^ e')(pvrwv, vBarof; airdvet met^eaOai. rfj 
Be vcrrepata ^ovXo/iievov rrpodyeiv eirl rov^ iroXe- 
liiov^ 6B0V OVK eXdrrova araBlcov eKarov ol Trepl 
rov TlavXcvov ovk €lo)V, aXX' (povro Belv rrepi- 
fjLeveiv Kal fx-q irpoirovelv eavrov^, firjBe ev6v<; Ik 
7ropsia<; p,d')(r}v nOeadat irpo's avBpa<; wirXicr fie- 
vov(; Kal 7rapar€ray/jLevov<^ Kad^ riavyjavy ev oaM 
^povcp irpoiacnv avrol ro<javr7]v oBov dvap^e/niy- 

3 fievcov VTTO^vyicov Kal aKoXovOcov. ovar}^ Be irepi 
rovrcov dvnXoyia^ ev roh arparrjyoh rjXOe 
Trap "O0(ovo<; l7r7rev<; rcov KaXovfxevcov NofidBcov 
ypd/ji/jLara KOfxi^cov KeXevovra fir} fievetv fjurjBe 
BiarpifteLV, aXX' dyeiv evdv^ eVl tol'9 7ro\epiov<;. 
CKelvoi p.€v ovv dpavre<; €')(^copovv, Be KeKuva^; 
300 



OTHO X. 2-xi. 3 

and tried to prevent it. Not succeeding, Otho's 
men loaded their vessels with torchwood lull of 
sulphur and pitch_, and began to cross the river ; 
but a blast of wind suddenly smote the material 
which they had prepared for use against the enemy, 
and fanned it afire. First smoke arose from it, then 
bright flames, so that the crews were confounded 
and leaped overboard into the river, upsetting their 
boats, and putting themselves at the mercy of a 
jeering enemy. Moreover, the Germans attacked 
Otho's gladiators at an island in the river, over- 
powered them and slew not a few of them. 

XI. These disasters threw Otho's soldiers at 
Bedriacum into a rage for battle, and Proculus 
therefore led them forth out of Bedriacum, and after 
a march of fifty furlongs pitched his camp, but in a 
manner so ignorant and ridiculous that his men were 
troubled by lack of water, although it was the 
spring of the year and the plains around abounded 
in running streams and rivers that never dried up. 
On the following day he proposed to make a march 
of no less than a hundred furlongs and attack the 
enemy, but Paul in us objected, and thought they 
ouffht to wait and not tire themselves beforehand, 
nor join battle immediately after a march with men 
who had armed and arrayed themselves at their 
leisure, while they themselves were advancing so 
great a distance with all their beasts of burden and 
camp-followers. While the generals were disputing 
about the matter, there came from Otho a Numidian 
courier with a letter which ordered them not to 
wait or delay, but to march at once against the 
enemy. Accordingly, they decamped and moved 
forward, and Caecina, who was much disturbed on 

301 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7ru06/jL€PO(; Tr]v €(f)oSoi^ avrcop edopv^rjST], kol Kara 
(Tirovhrjv airoXLTTCDV ra epya koX top irora/jLOv 
4 >)k€v et? TO (TTparoTTehov. wttXkt fjbivwv he ijErj 
TMV TToWwv, /cal TO (TvvOrjfjLa 7rapa\afi/3av6vT(t)v 
irapa tov Ovd\€VTO<?, eV octm ttjp tcl^lp BieXdy- 
X<^^€ ra rdy/jLaTa, tou? dpicrrov^ rcop iTnrecop 
7rpo6^67r€/iyjrap. 

XII. 'EyLtTTtTTTet Se TOt? 7rp0T€Tay/l€P0L<{ T(OP 

"Odcopo^ €K 8i] rLPO<^ alTLa<; 86^a koX X0709 0)9 
/lera/SaXov/jLepcop tcjp OulTeXXiov crrparrjyoyp 
7r/309 avTOv<;. co? ovp iyyv<i rjaap, T^airdaapTo 
(^LXi(o<i crvcTTparicoTa^ rrpocrayopevaavTe^. CKei- 
P(op Be TTjp irpoaayopevcnv ovk evixepo}<st dXXa 
/lera Ov/nov koX (fxovrj^ TroXefiLKrj^; dfjLeiyjrafiei'cop, 
ro2<i fiep dairaaa/juepoi^ dOvfiia, ro2<; Be XoiTroi? 
vTTOPOLa Kara tcop dcnraaaixepcop 0)9 irpoBiBovTwp 

2 Trapea-rr). koI toOto irpoiTOP avTov<; erdpa^ev 1075 
i^Brj Tcjp TToXefjLLcop €P 'xepalp optcop, elra tcop 
dXXoop ovBep rjp KoafiM yipo/xepop, dXXa ttoXXtjp 

fxep dra^lap rd (rKevo(f)6pa T0t9 /LLa)(^o/jLepoi<i 
e/i7rXa^6fjLepa 7rapel)(€, 7roXXov<; Be rd ')(^u>pia 
BtaGiraafJLOv^ eiroieL rdcfypcop opra fieard xal opvy- 
/xdriDP, a ^ojBovfiepoL Koi TcepiioPTe^ rjpay/cd^oPTO 
(f)vpBr]P fcal fcard jxepr] iroXXd avfiTrXefceaOat T0t9 

3 epavTLoi'i. fiopai Be Bvo X€yea)pe<i (ovrco yap rd 
rdy/xara ^Fcofiaioi KaXovcnp), e7n/cXr)aip tj fxep 
OvLTeXXiov "A/07raf, rj Be ^'Odwpo<i lioT]06<;, a 9 
TreBiop e^eXi^aaai yjnXop Kal dpaTreTrrafiepop, 
po/iLfjLOP TLva p.d-)(T)Vy av/jLTTecTovcrai, (paXayyrjBop, 
€p,d')(ppTO iroXvp ')(p6pop. ol fxep ovp *'06(opo<; 
dpBpe<; rjaap evpcoaroi Kal dyaOol, iroXefjuov Be 
Kal p,d')(r)f; rore TrpcoTOP irelpap Xa^^dpopre^' ol 
302 



OTHO XI. 3-xii. 3 

learning of their approach, hastily abandoned his 
operations at the river and came to his camp. 
There most of the soldiers had already armed them- 
selves, and Valens was giving out the watchword to 
them, and while the legions were taking up their 
positions, the best of the cavalry were sent out in 
advance. 

XII. And now, for some reason, it was believed 
and rumoured among Otho's vanguard that the 
generals of V^itellius would come over to their side. 
Accordingly, when these drew near, Otho's men 
greeted them in a friendly fashion and called them 
fellow-soldiers. The enemy, however, returned the 
salutation in no kindly spirit, but with anger and 
hostile cries, so that those who had greeted them 
were dejected, and were suspected of treachery by 
the others on their side. This was the first thing 
that threw Otho's men into confusion, and at a 
time when the enemy were close at hand. And 
besides, nothing else was done properly, since the 
baggage-train wandered about among the fighting 
men and caused great disorder. Moreover, the line 
of battle was often broken by the nature of the 
ground, which was full of trenches and pits, and in 
avoiding or going around these the men were com- 
pelled to engage their opponents promiscuouly and 
in many detachments. Only two legions (to use the 
Roman word), that of Vitellius called " Rapax " (or 
Devoiirer) and that of Otho called " Adiutrix " (or 
Helper), got out into a treeless and extended plain, 
engaged in full formation, and fought a regular 
battle for a long time. Otho's men were sturdy 
and brave, but were now for the first time getting a 
taste of war and fighting ; those of Vitellius, on the 

3^3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Se OvireWlov iroWcov dycoi'cov iddSe^, ijSrj 8e 
yjjpaiol fcal TrapaKfjid^ovre^. 

4 'OpfirjcravT€<; ovv eV* avrov^ ol ' O0covo<i icoaavTo 
Kol TOP derbv dfpeiXovro, 7ravTa<i ofiov rt tov<; 
irpofid'^ovf; diroKTeivavre'^' ol he utto alcr'^vvrjf} kcu 
opyi)^ ifi7r€cr6vTe<; avTOC<; rov re irpea-^evTrjv rov 
rdyiJLaTO<; ^OpcplBLOv efcrecvav Kol ttoWo, tcop 
(rrjixei(DV rjpiraaav. rot? he fiovofxdyoL'i epLireipiav 
T6 Kal ddpao^ e'X^eiv tt/Oo? Ta? avfJLirXoKd^ So/cov- 
aiv iirrj'ya'yev Ovapo<; ^A\(f)r]vo^ rou? KaXov jxivov^ 

5 BaTa/3ou9. elcrl he Tepfiavcov tTTTret? dptaroi, 
vrjGov oIkovvtc^ vtto tov 'I^tjvov Trepippeo/jLevrjp. 
TOVTOV(f oXiyoi fxev tcov fiovo/jid^cov {jirearijaav, ol 
he irXela-TOi ^€vyovT€<; iirl top Trorafibv ifMirLTTTov- 
aip eh air6ipa<i tcop TroXe/JLLcop avToOc TeTayfiepw^y 
ut/)' MP dfjLVPO/iepot 7rdpT€<i 6/bLa\co<; hLec^Odprjaap. 

6 atcr')(^LaTa he yycoPiaapTO TrdpTCOp ol aTpaTijyLKol, 
/jLrjhe 6(T0P €P %6pcri yepecrOai tov<; epaPTLOV<; viro- 
fietpapTe^, dXkh Kal TOv<i dr)TTr]TOV^ eVt (jyoffov 
Kal Tapa)^rj(i dpeTrifJUTXaaap (pevyoPTe^; hi avTcop. 
ov fxr]p dWd iroWol ye tcop "OOcopo^! pepiKrj/c6Te<; 
Tou? KaO^ auT0v<i e^tdaaPTO Kal hie^eireaop hia 

TCOP TToXe/jLLCOP KpaTOVPTCOP €69 TO (XTpaTOTTehoP. 

XIIL Tcop he aTpaTrjycop ovt€ ITpo/cXo? ovTe 
Tlav\iPO<; avpeiaeXOelp eToX/jLrjaap, dW i^eKXipap 
(f)o/3ou/jLepoi, TOv<i aTpaTtcoTa<; TJhrj ttjp alnap eni 
T0U9 aTpaTrjyov<; TpeiroPTaf;. ^ Applo<; hk FaXXo? 
apeXd/x/Bapep ep Trj iroXei Kal irapefJbvOetTO tov<; 
€K T7J9 fJ'd')(^ri<^ avXXeyo/iepov<;, ct)9 dy')(^co fidXov 
yey €PTjfM€Pr]<i Kal 7roXXot<^ KeKpaTrjK0Ta<; fxepecrt 
2 TCOP TToXefiicop. Mdpto<; he KeXaof; tol'9 €p TeXei 

304 



OTHO XII. 3-X111. 2 

other hand, had seen many battles and were used to 
them, but they were now old and past their prime. 

So Otho's men charged upon them, drove them 
back, and captured their eagle, killing nearly all 
who stood in the first rank ; but the others, impelled 
by shame and anger, fell upon their foes, slew 
Orfidius, the commander of the legion, and seized 
many of their standards. Against Otho's gladiators, 
too, who were supposed to have experience and 
courage in close fighting, Alfenus Varus led up the 
troops called. Batavians. They are the best cavalry 
of the Germans, and come from an island made by 
the Rhine. A few of the gladiators withstood these, 
but most of them fled towards the river, where they 
encountered cohorts of the enemy in battle array, 
and in defending themselves against these, were cut 
off to a man. But the praetorian soldiers fought 
more shamefully than any others. They did not 
even wait for their opponents to come to close 
quarters, but fled through the ranks of their still 
un vanquished comrades, filling them with fear and 
confusion. Notwithstanding all this, many of 
Otho's men conquered those who opposed them, 
forced their way through the victorious enemy, and 
regained their camp. 

XI 11. But as for their generals, neither Proculus 
nor Paulinus ventured to enter the camp with them, 
but turned aside through fear of the soldiers, who 
were already laying the blame for their defeat upon 
their commanders. But Annius Gallus received into 
the town the soldiers who gathered there out of the 
battle, and tried to encourage them. The battle 
had been nearly equal, he said, and in many parts of 
it they had overcome their enemies. Marius Celsus, 

305 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avva'ya'yoiv e/ceXevcre cr/coTreLV to koivov, co? iirl 
av/jL<j)opd TrfKiKavrr) koI ^ovw roaovTtp ttoXitcov 
fjLTjSe ^OOoavo^y euTrep avrjp ayaOo^; iarcv, eOeXrj- 
crovTO<; ert ireLpaadai t^9 ti'%'79? ottov koX J^drcov 
Kol '^Ki^Tricov, ¥iaL<TapL fcparovvri fxera ^dpaaXov 
el^ai fit] deXrjaavTe^;, alriav e^oucriv co? ttoXXoi;? 
/cal dyaOov<; dvSpa(; iv Ai/Bvrj 7rapava\(t)aavT€<; 
ovK dvayfcatay^, Kairrep dycovL^ofievoL rrepl tt}*? 

3 'Pw/jLalcov iXevOepla^;. rd yap dWa KOLvrjV rj 
TVXV Trapexovaa Trdaiv iavrrjv €P ovk dcjiaipeiTai 
Tcoi^ dyaOa)v, to kup irTaiaaxnv evXoytaTelv TTyOO? 
rd avvTvy')(dvovTa, 

Tavra Xeywv eireiOe tov<; iqy€/J.ovt,Kov<!. eTrel 
he rreipciifievoL tov<; arparicoTaf; ecopcov elp^vrjf; 
S€o/jL6i>ov<; Kol ^Lnavo^ eKeXeve irpecr^eveiv virep 
ofiovoia^y eho^e KeXcro) koI VdXX(ii ^aSu^eiv xai 
hiaXeyeaOai rol<; irepX top K.€Kipap kol OvdXePTa. 

4 ^ahit^ovGt, he auTOL<s dirrjPT'qaap SKaTOPTdp-^ai ttjp 
fi€P Bvva/JLiP 7]Sr} KeKLpr)fiepr]p XeyopT€<; €pxo/J'€pr]p 
iirl TO "BrjTpiaKOP, avTol Be viro tcop aTpaTTjycop 
direcTTaXdac Tvepi o/juopoia^. eTraipecraPTe^ ovp at 
irepl TOP K^iXaop eKeXevaap avTov^ dpaaTpe^ap- 
Ta^ TToXip diraPTCLP /jl€t avTOJp tol<; irepl top 
KefCiPUP. eirel Be iyyvf; rjaap, eKipBvpevaep 6 
KeXcro9. eTv^oP ydp at irepl ttjp ipeBpap rjTTT}- 

5 fiepoL TTpoTepop Linrec^ it poe^eXavpopTe<i. o)? ovp 
irpodLOPTa TOP l^eXaov fcaTelBop, ev0v<; ^orjaaPTe^ 
0)p/i7]crap eir ^avTOP, ol Be e/(aTOPTdp')(^ac irpo- 
eaTYjaap dpeipyopTe^' koI tmp dXXoup Xoy^ay&p 
306 



OTHO XIII. 2-5 

raoreover_, assembled the officers and urged them to 
consult the public good. In view of so great a 
calamity^ he said, and the slaughter of so many 
citizens, not even Otho himself, if he were a good 
man, would wish to make further trial of his fortune, 
since even Cato and Scipio, by refusing to yield to a 
victorious Caesar after Pharsalus, had incurred the 
charge of needlessly squandering the lives of many 
brave men in Africa, although their struggle was in 
behalf of Roman freedom. For in general all men 
alike are subject to the decrees of fortune, but of 
one thing she cannot rob a good man, and that 
is the ])rivilege, in case of adversity, of taking 
reasonable measures to correct the situation that 
confronts him. 

By this speech Celsus won over the officers. And 
after they had sounded the soldiers and found them 
desirous of peace, and when Titianus urged that an 
embassy be sent in the interest of concord, Celsus 
and Gallus decided to go and confer with Caecina 
and Valens. But as they were on the way they 
were met by some centurions of the enemy, who 
said that their army was already in motion and was 
on its way to Bedriacum, and that they themselves 
had been sent out by their generals to treat for 
concord. Accordingly, Celsus commended them, 
and bade them turn back with him and go to meet 
Caecina. But when they were near the army of 
Caecina, Celsus ran risk of his life. For it chanced 
that the horsemen who had formerly been worsted 
by him at the ambush were riding on in advance. 
So when they saw Celsus coming up, they forthwith 
raised a shout and dashed against him. But the 
centurions stood in front of him and kept them off; 

307 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(jf>eiheadav ^ocoptcov ol irepi rov KeKLvav ttvOo- 
fieuoi Kol 7rpoa€\daavT€<; rrjv aKoafiiav ra-^v jSiV 1073 
liTirecov eiravorav, rov he KeXcrov aa-iraadfjievoi 
<f)iXo(f)p6vco<; i^dSc^ov /ler avrcov et? to ^i^rpcaKov. 

6 iv Se TOVT(p fierdvoca TcTiavov ea^(^ev eKTrefiyfravra 
Tov<; Trpea^ei<^' Kal rcov arpaTccorcov tou<; Opaavv- 
ofjLevov<; av0t,<; dvejBi^a^ev eirl rd rei")(ii Kal rou? 
dX\ov<i TrapeKdXei jSorjdelv. rov Se KcKiva TTpoa- 
ekdaavTO^; rat 'Linr(p koX ttjv he^iav opeyovro'^ 
ovheX^ dvria'^^ev, aW' ol fiev dizo rcov ret^oiv 
rjaTrd^ovTO tou? (rrpaTLcoTa<;, ol Be ra? TruXa? 
dvoL^avT€<; e^yeaav Kal dve/JLiyvvvTO tol^; irpoa-- 

7 i)KOvaLV. rjBiKei Sk ouSet?, dWa Kal (f>L\o(f)po- 
(Tvvac Kal Be^tcoa€i<; yaav, oSjJLoaav Be Trai^re? ire pi 
Tov OvLTeWiOV Kal Trpoae'^^^coprja-av. 

XIV. OvTO) fiev ol irXelaTOL rcov Trapayevofie- 
vcov aTrayyeXXovcrt yeveaOai rrjv fid')(r)v, ovBe 
avTol cra^W9 6/jLoXoyovvT6<; elBevai rd KaO^ eKaara 
Bid Ti]v dra^iav Kal t7]i> dvcofxaXiav. e/xol Be 
varepov oBevovri Bid rov ireBiov MecrryOio? ^XSipo<^, 
dvrjp v7raTiK0<; tcov rore fir) Kard yvcofirjv, dXX* 
dvdyKTj /jLerd rov "OOcovo^ yevofiepcov, veoov ovra 
TraXaiov eiriBei^a^ Btr^yelro fierd rrjv jJ'd'xrjv 
iireXOcov IBecu veKpoiv awpov rrjXiKOvrov axrre 
2 Tovi e7n7roXr)<; aTrreaOac rcov derwv, Kal rrjv 
alriav e<f)'r) ^rjrcov ovre avro^; evpelu ovre rrap* 
dXXov rov TTvOeadac. OvrfaKeiV fxev ydp rrapd 
rov^ €/uL(f>vXlov<; 7roXe/jiOu<;, orav rpoirrj yevrjrai,, 
rrXeiova^ eiKO^ ian, ru> fi-qBeva ^wypelv, y^prjaOat. 
ydp ovK ear I roL<; dXi,aKo^evoi,<it rj B eirX roaovro 



308 



OTHO XIII. 5-XIV. 2 

the other officers also shouted to the horsemen to 
spare Celsus, and Caecina. hearing their cries, rode 
up and speedily brought his horsemen to order. 
Then he greeted Celsus in a friendly manner and 
went on with him to Bedriacum. But meanwhile 
Titianus had repented of having sent the embassy, 
and after ordering the more resolute of the soldiers 
back again upon the walls, he exhorted the rest to 
go to their support. However, when Caecina rode 
up on his horse and stretched out his hand to them, 
not a man resisted further, but some greeted his 
soldiers from the walls, while others, throwing 
open the gates, went forth and mingled with tiie 
advancing troops. There were no hostilities, on 
the part of Otho's men, but only friendly salutations 
and greetings, and all took oath to support Vitellius 
and went over to his side. 

XIV. This is the account which most of the 
participants give of the battle, although they them- 
selves confess that they were ignorant of its details, 
owing to the disorder and the unequal fortunes of the 
several groups. At a later time, when I was travelling 
through the plain, Mestrius Florus, one of the men 
of consular rank who were at that time with Otho 
(by constraint, and not of their own will), pointed 
out to me an ancient temple, and told me how, as 
he came up to it after the battle, he saw a heap of 
dead bodies so high that those on top of it touciied 
the gable of the temple. The reason for this he 
said he could neither discover himself nor learn 
from anyone else. It is natural, indeed, that in 
civil wars, when a rout takes place, more men 
should be killed, because no quarter is given (there 
being no use for prisoners) ; but why the dead 

309 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

acopela koI <jv/jL(popr)cri<; ovk e^ei tt]v air lav 

€V<JVW6yi(TT0V. 

XV. Tco Be "OOcovL TTpwTov fiev daa<l)'^<;, wairep 
el(ode irepX royv rrjXiKOVTcov, Trpoaeirecre Xoyo^;' 
€7ret Be Kal rerpcofjuepoi Tive<; tjkov ck Tfj<; fid^r]<i 
dirayyeWovTe^, tov<; puev (J)lXov<; tjttov dv tl<; 
eOavfiaaev ovk eo)vra^ dirayopeveiVy dWd Oappelv 
7rapaK€\€VO/jLevov<^, to Be rcjv arpaTLcoTayv irdOo^; 
diraaav virepe^aXe iricnLv. co? ovBe\^ aTTrjXdev, 

2 ovBe fiereaTrj tt/jo? tov<; fcpaTovvTa<;, ovB^ w(f>dr] 
TO Ka6' avTov l^r^TOiv direyvoaapukvov tov rjy€/ji6vo<;, 
irdvTe^ 6' ofjuaXo)^ iirl 6vpa<i rfxOov, eKdXovv 
avTOKpaTopa, irpoeXOovTO^ iyivovTO irpoaTpo- 
iraiot, pueTa ^07]<; Kal iKeaiaf; ')(€ip(iiv tjittovto, 
TrpoGeTTiTTTOv, iBaKpvov, eBeovTO pit) (T(f)d<; eyKaTa- 
Xiirelv, pLt) irpoBovvai to2<; 7roXepioi<^, dXXd '^prjardat 
p^e')(^pi dv ipLTTvecoai Kal yfrvxciU Kal aoopaaiv virep 

3 avTov. TavTa opLOv Traz/re? iKeTCVov. el? Be tmv 
d<f)av€crT€po)v dvaTeiva^ to ^l<j)o<; Kal ecTrayv, 
""lo-^t, Kalaap, ovTO)<y virep aov irapaTeTay- 
pLevov^ dvavTa^iy direac^a^ev eavTov. 

^AXXd TovTfov ovBev eireKXacre tov "Odwva, 
<l)acBpa) Be Kal KaOeaTCOTt irpoaayircp 7ravTa)(^6ae 
Td(; o^fr€L<; Trepiayaycov, " TavT7]v,^' elirev, " (a 
(TvaTpaTicoTat, .ttjv rfpuepav eKeivrjf;, ev rj p.e 
TrpoiTov eiroi'qa'aTe avTOKpdTopa, pLaKapccoTepav 
rjyovpLai, toiovtov<; opwv vpd<; Kal tijXckovtcov 

4 d^iovpL€vo<;. dXXa prj pei^ovo<; dr-oaTepetTe, tov 
KaXayf; diroOavelv virep ToaovTWV Kal tolovtcov 
TTO^LTWV. el T?}? 'Pcopaicov r]yepovia<; d^co<; yey ova, 
Bet pue T^<? ipLrj<i ^/^f X% virep t% 7raTplBo<; d^euBelv. 
olBa TTJV I'iKTjv TOt? ivavTLoi^ ovT€ ^e^aiav ovtc 

310 



OTHO XIV. 2-xv. 4 

bodies should be collected and heaped up in such a 
manner is not easy to determine. 

XV. To Otho there came at first, as is usual in 
such catastrophes, an indistinct rumour of the 
result ; but presently some of his soldiers who had 
been wounded came with direct tidings of the 
battle. Here one cannot so much wonder that his 
friends would not let him give up all for lost, and 
exhorted him to be of good cheer ; but the feelings 
of his soldiers towards him passed all belief. Not a 
man of them left him, or went over to the victorious 
side, or was seen to despair of the emperor's cause 
and seek his own safety, but all alike came to his 
door, called upon him as emperor, became his 
humble suppliants when he appeared before them, 
seized his hands with cries and prayers, fell down 
before him, wept, begged him not to abandon them, 
and not to betray them to their enemies, but to use 
their lives and persons in his service as long as they 
had breath. Such were their united supplications. 
And one obscure soldier held up his sword, and with 
the words '^ Know, O Caesar, that all of us stand in 
this fashion at thv side," slew himself. 

None of these things, however, broke Otho down, 
but looking all around with a countenance composed 
and cheerful, he said : " This day, my fellow-soldiers, 
I deem more blessed than that on which ye first 
made me emperor, since I see you so devoted to me 
and am judged worthy of so high honour at 3^our 
hands. But do not rob me of a greater blessed- 
ness — that of dying nobly in behalf of fellow-citizens 
so many and so good, [f I was worthy to be Roman 
emperor, 1 ought to give my life freely for my 
country. I know that the victory of our adversaries 

3" 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

IcT^vpav ovaav. aTrayyeWovai rrjv i/c Mucrta? 
r)/jL(bv Svvafiiv ov ttoXXmp rifiepcov oSbv airkyj^iv, 

5 »;5>7 Kara^aivovaav errl tov ^ASptav. ^Aala /cat 
%vpla Kol AcyvTrro^ koI to, noXefJiovvTa ^lovSaioL^ 
aTpaTevp,aTa fied* tj/jlcov, tj re (TvyK\r)TO<; irap 
rjfuv Kol reKva rcov evavricov kol yvvalKe^. oKfC 
ovK ecTTL TTyDo? ^ AvvL^av ovBe Uvppov ovSe Klfl- 
ffpov<; TToXeyLto? virep TTJ^'IraX/a?, aWa'PcofjiaiOL'i 
7roX€/jLOVVTe<; aficfyorepoi tt)V irarpiha koX viKMvre^ 
ahiKovfiev kol vtKcofMevoL, Kal yap to dyadbv rev 

6 KpaTOvvTO^i €K€iV7} /caKov eari. Tnareva-are ttoX- 
\dKi<; OTi hvvafjbai koXKiov diroOavelv rj ap')(eLv. 
ov yap opo) rt, rrfKLKOvrov 'PcopLaiOL^ 6(j)e\o<; 
eaop^ai Kparrjcra^, rfkiKOv €7rc8ov<; ifiavrbv virep 107 
elprjvrji; Kal ofjLOVoia^y Kal rov /irj ttciKlv rjixepav 
Tot-avrrfv iiTiBelv rr^v ^IraXlav.* 

XVL Toiavra BiaXexOel^y, Kal tt^oo? tou? ivl- 
araaOai Kal TrapaKaXelv eTri-^eipovpraf; d'ma')(vpi- 
adfievof;, rov^ re 0tXou9 eKeXevev dTTaXXdrTeaOai 
Kal rcov avyKXrjTLKOiv tov<; '7Tap6vTa<i' rot? Be firj 
Trapovaiv iirecTTeXXe Kal ypd/jifiara 7rpo<; rd<; 
TToXei?, OTTO)? TrapaKOfiKrOeoaiv eVrZ/xa)? Kal perd 
2 da(f)aXeia<;. Trpoaayo/nevo^ Be tov dBeX^uBovv 
KoKK^iov, €Tt pbeipdKLOv ovTa, Oappelv irapeKdXei 
Kal p,r) BeBievai OvLTiXXcov, ov Kal p^rjTepa Kal 
yevedv Kal yvvalKa avT6<;, cocrTrep olk€L(ov KrjBo- 
fievo<iy Bia(f)vXd^ai. Bid touto yap ovBe OeaOai, 
iralBa ^ovX6p,€vo<; avTov, dXX* dvajSaXeadac ttjv 
€l(TiT0Lr)(TLv, 6iT(o^ avvdp^ot KpaTT]aavT0<; avTov, 
py TrpoaaTToXoiTO TTTaiaavTO^' *' ^Ekclvo Bi,^ 
elirev, " o) nraly irapeyyvoypai aoi TeXevTalov, 

312 



OTHO XV. 4-xvi. 2 

is neither decisive nor assured. I have word that 
our forces from Mysia are already approaching the 
Adriatic, and are only a few days distant from us. 
Asia, Syria, Egypt, and the armies fighting against 
the Jews, are on our side ; the senate, too, is with 
us, as well as the wives and children of our 
adversaries. Still, it is not to defend Italy against 
Hannibal, or Pyrrhus, or the Cimbri, that our war is 
waged, but both parties are waging war against 
Romans, and we sin against our country whether we 
conquer or are conquered. For the victor's gain is 
our country's loss. Believe me when I insist that I 
can die more honourably than I can reign. For I 
do not see how my victory can be of so great 
advantage to the Romans as my offering up my life 
to secure peace and concord, and to prevent Italy 
from beholding such a day again." 

XVI. So he spake, and after resisting firmly those 
who tried to oppose and dissuade him, he ordered 
his friends to depart, as well as the men of senatorial 
rank who were present ; to those who were absent 
he sent the same command, and wrote to the cities 
urging them to escort the travellers on their way 
with honour and in safety. Then he sent for his 
nephew Cocceius, who was still a youth, and bade 
him be of good cheer and not fear Mtellius, whose 
mother and wife and children he had kept safe and 
cared for as though they were his own. He had 
desired, he said, to make him his son, but had put 
off the adoption, in order that the youth might share 
his power after he had prevailed, and not perish with 
him after he had failed. '"'And now, my boy," he 
said, " this is my last charge to thee ; do not alto- 

VOL. XI. L 313 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

liTJre einXaOeaOaL iravTairaai /jLrjre dyav fivrj- 
fioveveiv on Kalaapa Oelov ecrT^e?." 
3 V€Voii€vo<^ 8e aiTO toutcov fiera fxiKpov i^KOvae 
Bopv^ov Kol 3or]<; eVl Ovpai^. oi yap arparLcoTai 
Tcov avyK\r)Tifccov TOL<i uTriovac ^irjireiXovv diro- 
a(f)d^€t,v, el fjbT) irapa/iievovaiv, aXXd ol)(^}']aoPTaL 
Tov avTO/cpdropa Kara\L7r6vTe<^. irdXiv ovv irpo- 
TjXOei^ virep Tcav dvhpwv ^o^rfOei's, /cal tov<; 
aTpaTicoTa<s, ov/ceri S€t)tik6(; ovSe 7rpao<;, d\Xd 
Tpa^v<; ucf)d6i(i, teal fxer 6pyri<^ et9 ro Oopv/Sovv 
/jidXiara 8La/3Xe\lra<;, aTreXOelv eTrolrjaei^ el^avra^ 
Kol hiarpeaavra^. 

XVIL 'H3?; he ecrvrepa? oi/crrys* ehi-^rjae, koI 
TTcayv oXtyov vSaro^, Sveiu ovtodv avTw ^i,(f>cov, 
exarepov Kare/xdvOave ro airdajxa iroXvv ')(^p6vov, 
KoX TO erepov aTreBcoKe, Odrepov he el<^ rd^ ay KdXa<i 
dvaXa^oiu rov^ olKeTW^ TrpoaeKaXelro. koI (f)t,- 
Xo(f)povou/jLevo<; hievefjLe tmv 'y^pTj/idrcov T(p fiev 
TvXeop, TO) he eXarrov, ov^ oiairep dXXoTpicov 
d<^eihoiVy dXXd to /car d^lav /cal to ixeTptov 

2 e7nfieXo)<^ (j>vXdTT(ov. dTroire/jbylraf; he tovtov<; 
Tjhr) TO XoLTTOv dveiTaveTO t^? vvkto's, wcrre TOv<i 
KaTevvaaTUf; alaOdvecrOaL I3a0e(o<; avTov KaO- 
evhovTO<^. opOpov he KoXeaa^ direXevdepov <p 
avvhiMKiqae Ta irepl tov<; crvyKXr]TiKov<;, jiaOelv 
TTpoaera^e- Kal irvOofievo's yeyovtvai tow direp- 
')(OfJiivoi'^ a)v eKaaT0<i 6)(^pr}^€v, "'\6l Toivvv^ e(f)7), 
" av, Kat TTOiet, tol<; aTpaTLcoTai<; e/iKpavrj aeavTov, 
el firj 6tX€t<; KaKO)<i vtt' avTwv diroOavelv tw? efJiol 

3 avfjiiTpd^a^ tov OdvaTOv^ e^eXOovTO^ he tov 
dvd pdyirov to ^L(f)0<; viroar^aa'; opOov u/ji(f)0TepaL<; 
TaL<i '^epaiy Kal Trepnrea'cov dvcoOev, oaov dira^ 

3M 



J 



OTHO XVI. 2-xvii. 3 

gether forget, and do not too well remember, that 
thou hadst a Caesar for an uncle." 

This done, after a little he heard tumult and 
shouting at his door. For as the men of senatorial 
rank were departing, the soldiers threatened to kill 
them if they did not remain, instead of forsaking 
their emperor. Once more, then, he went forth, 
since he feared for the men's safety. He was no 
longer gentle and suppliant, however, but stern of 
countenance, and looking angrily round upon the 
most turbulent of the soldiers, he made them go 
away submissively and in fear. 

XVII. It was now evening, and being thirsty, he 
drank a little water. He had two swords, and after 
examining the blade of each for a long time, he 
laid one of them aside, but put the other under 
his arm, and tlien called his servants. These he 
addressed kindly, and distributed money to them, 
more to one and less to another, not as though 
lavish with what was no longer to be his, but with 
strict regard to moderation and the claims of merit. 
After sending the servants away, he betook himself 
to rest for the remainder of the night, and slept so 
soundly that his chamberlains heard his heavy breath- 
ing. Just before dawn he called a freedman with 
whom he had arranged for the departure of the 
senators, and bade him learn how they fared. And 
when he was told that all of them had what was 
needful for their journey, '' Go thou, then," he said 
to the freedman, ''and show thyself to the soldiers, 
unless thou wishest them to put thee to a miserable 
death for helping me to die." Then, when the man 
had gone out, witli both hands he held his sword 
upright beneath him, and fell upon it, giving but a 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

areva^av fxavov rjaOero rov irovov xal to?? e/cro? 
ataOrjaiv 7rap(i(T-)(€v. dpa/xevcov Se tmv iraihayv 
OL/uLcoyrjv evOv^ airav to arpaTGireSov /cal ti]P 
TToXip iirel'X^e /cXavO/j,6(;' Kal /jLera /Sorj^; ol (TTpaTC- 
(orat eiatTrecrov em Ta<; Ovpa<; fcal ooXo^vpovTO, 
TrepLTTaOovvTe^ koI Xot,SopovvT6<; eavrov^; /jLT) <^v\d- 
^avTa<; rov avroKpdropa fjurjEe K(i)\v(TavTa<^ diro- 
4 Oavelv hirep avrcov. direcTTT] Be ovBel^ tmv Kar 
avrov, €yyv<i ovtcov tcov TroXe/jULcov, dWd koct/jLiJ- 
aavTe<i to aca/jLa koI rrvpav KaTa(TfC6vdaavT€<; 

€^€KOpLL^OV €V T0i9 OTtXoL^ ol (^OddaVTS'^ VTToBvvai 

Kai ^aaracrai to Xe;\;o? iiriyavpov/jievoL. tmv Be 
aWcov OL fxev to Tpavjia tov veKpov KaT€<pi\ovv 
irpoaTTiTrTOVTe'^, ol Be yitttovto tcov ')(^6ip(ov, ol Be 
TTpoaeKvvovv TroppcoOev. evioi Be ttj irvpa Xa/jLird- 
Ba^ v(j)evT€<; eavTOv^ d7reo-(f)a^av, ovBep eKB7]\(o<; 
ovTe ireTTOvOoTef; '^pr^aTov inro tov Tedvr}K6T0<^ 
ovTe TTeiaecrdai Beivov vtto tov KpaTovvTO^ BeBio- 
6 T69. aW eoiKe fJLrjBevl Tciyv TTCOTroTe Tvpdvvwv rj 
fSaaCKewv Betvb^ ovt(o<; epco^; eyyeveadai, /cal 
Trepifxavrjf} tov dp-)(^eLv, co? efcelvoL tov ap')(^eadaL 
/cal vTra/coveiv "OOcovo^ r/pdadrjaav 01/9 ye /jltjB* 
uTToOavopTo^ 6 TTO^o? TTpovXiTTev, dXXd irapefxeipep 
el<; dvrjKeaTOP €')(6o<s OmTeXXi(p TeXevTr}aa<i. 

XVI I L Ta fiep ovp dXXa /caipop oLKelop e%et 
Xe')(6rjpaL' /cpvyjrapTe^; Be ttj yjj tcl Xel^jrapa tov 
'O0(t)po<; ovTe /jieyeOei cnjfjbaT0<i ovt eTnypa(j>rj<^ 1075 
6yfca> TOP Td(f)OP eiToirjaap eiri^Oopop, elBop Be 
€P TipL^lXXo) yepofxepo^ /cal /jLprjfjia fieTpiOP Kal 
316 



OTHO XVII. 3-XV111. I 

single groan as he felt the pang. The servants 
outside heard his groan and raised a wailing cry, and 
at once the whole camp and the city were filled 
with lamentation. The soldiers, with loud cries, 
burst in at the door, and then bewailed their 
emperor, full of anguish, and reviling themselves 
because they had not watched over him and pre- 
vented him from dying in their behalf. Not one of 
his followers went away, although the enemy were 
near, but after attiring the body and preparing a 
funeral pyre for it, they escorted it thither with 
military honours, and full of exultation were those 
who won the privilege of carrying the bier. Of the 
rest, some embraced the emperor's body and kissed 
his wound, others grasped his hands, and others still 
made him their obeisance at a distance. There 
were some, too, who first put their torches to the 
pyre and then slew themselves, not, so far as could 
be known, because they were either indebted to 
the dead for favours, or fearful of punishment at 
the hands of the victor. Nay, it would seem 
that no king or tyrant was ever possessed by so 
dire and frenzied a passion for ruling as was that 
of these soldiers for being ruled and commanded 
by Otho ; not even after his death did their yearn- 
ing for him leave them, nay, it abode with them 
until it finally changed into an incurable hatred for 
Vitellius. 

XVTII. Well, then, the rest of the story is now in 
place. They buried the remains of Otho, and made 
a tomb for them which neither by the great size of 
its mound nor by the boastfulness of its inscription 
could awaken jealousy. I saw it when 1 was at 
Brixillum. It is a modest memorial and the inscrip- 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tr}v iiTL'ypa^rjv ovto)<; e')(^ovaav, el fieTa^pacdeiri' 

'* A7]\d)(T€L ^ MdpKOV "O^ftJI^O?.*' 

2 ^ KireOave he "OOwv eri] jxev eTrra koI rpiaKovra 
/3ta)cra<;, ap^a<; Se rpel'^ /jif]va<;, a7ro\i7ra>v Se /jly) 
yeipova^ fxrjh^ eXdrTov^ rcov tov ^lov avrou 
-xlreyovToyv tov<; eiraivovuTa^; rovOdvarov. jSiooaa^; 
yap ovhev eTneiKearepov Ne/3a)i^09 diredavev evye- 
vearepov. 

3 Ot he (TTpariMTaL TIoWi(ovo<; rov erepov tmv 
€'7rdp)(^(ov op^vveLV evOv's el's rov OulreWtov KeXeu- 
aavTO^ eBvdX^paivov koX irvOop.evoi tmv avy- 
K\r]TiKO)v eviov<; en irapelvai tou? p^ev aXkov<; 
d(j)7]/cav, OvepyiviO) Se 'Poixpw irpdy/JLara irapel- 
ypv dpa rot? ottXol^; eXOovref; eVl rrjv oIkiqv kul 
Kara/caXovvref; avOt^ fcal KeXeuovret; ap)(€iv rj 

4 Trpecr/Seveiv iiirep avrcov. 6 Se rrjv r^yepovlav 
r)TroipLev(jL>v irapaXa^elv, vevLKTjKOTcov irporepov 
prj 6eXrj(Ta<i, piaviKov rjyetro' tt pea ^eveiv Se 7rpo<^ 
Tou'i Vepp>avov<; SeStcof;, ttoXXo, ^e^tdaOai- irapa 
yvcop^rjv vir avrov SoKOvvraf;, eXaOe Sl erepwv 
dvpcbv eicTroSwv '7roi^aa<; eavrov. co? Se tovto 
eyvroaav oi crrpaTLcoTaL, roix; re 6pK0V<; eSe^avro 
KoX Tot9 ire pi rov KeKLvav TrpoaeOevjo avyyvot}/jLrj(; 

' A-nKwcTfi Bekker adopts A%i/xoai, the correction of 
Lobeck. 



3«8 



OTHO XVIII. 1-4 

tion on it, in translation, runs thus : " To the 
memory of Marcus Otho." 

Otho died at the age of thirty-seven years, but he 
Iiad ruled only three months, and when he was gone, 
those "who applauded his death were no fewer or 
less illustrious than those who blamed his life. For 
thougls he lived no more decently than Nero, he 
died more nobly. 

As for his soldiers, when Pollio, their remaining 
j)refect,^ ordered them to swear allegiance at once 
to V^itellius, they were incensed ; and when they 
learned that some of the senators were still there, 
they let all of them go except Verginius Rufus, 
and him they annoyed by going to his house in 
military array and inviting him again,^ and even 
urging him, to assume the imperial power, or to go on 
an embassy in their behalf. But Verginius thought 
it would be madness for him to accept the imperial 
dignity now, when they were defeated, after refusing 
it before, when they were victorious, and as for 
going on an embassy to the Germans, he feared to 
do so, since they felt that he had often done them 
violence beyond all reason; and so he stole away 
unobserved by another door. When the soldiers 
learned of this, they consented to take the oaths, 
and joined the forces of Caeciim, thus obtaining 
pardon. 

^ Tlie other was Proculus, (vii. 4 ; xiii. 1). 
2 See The Ualba, vi. 3 ; x. 2ff. 



3'9 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



The Roman numerals refer to the volume, the Arabic to the page. Numbers 
marked off by semicolons belong to lemmata omitted for the sake of brevity. 

A name without a number following two or more with numbers indicates 
uncertainty as to the identity of the person referred to. 

Bergk is used for Bergk, Poetae Lyrici Graeci, 4th ed.; Kock for Kock, 
Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta; Nauck for Nauck, Tragicorum Graecorum 
Fragmenta, 2nd ed. 



ABAXTES, Euboean tribe referred to 

by Homer and Archilochus, 1. 10 
Abantidas, aimed at tyranny of 

Sicyon, XI. 4; slain, 6 
Abas, river where Pompey defeated 

Albanians, v. 208 
Aboeocritus, boeotarch defeated at 

Chaeroneia by Aetoliaus, xi. 34 
Abolus, river where Timoleon defeated 

Mamercus, VI. 340 
Abra, attendant of Pompeia, VII. 

152, 464 
Abriorix (Ambiorix) destroys army of 

Titurius and Cotta, vu. 500 
Abuletes, imprisoned by Alexander, 

VII. 414 
Abvdos, scene of naval battle, iv. 

78 
Academus, gave name to Academy, 

1.74 
Academy, near Athens, XI. 78 ; 

beautified by Cimon, ii. 446; 

ravaged by "Sulla, IV. 362. See 

also I. 406 
Academy, new, rep. by Philo, Cleito- 

machus, Cameades, VII. 88, il. 606 
Academy, old, rep. by Antiochus of 

Ascalon, ll. 606 
Acamantis, tribe of Pericles, ill. 6 
Acanthians, their treasurv, iv. 234, 

280 
Acamania, overrun by Pericles, III. 

60; given to Pyrrhus, IX. 360 



Acarnanians, defeated by Agesilaus, 
V. 62 ; fight for Antigonus, X. 114 

Acastus, sou of Pelias, eaten by worms, 
IV. 440 

Acca Larentia, wife of Faustulus, I. 
100 

Acerrae, city north of Po, v. 446 

Acestodorus, quoted, II. 38 

Achaeans, helped by Agesilaus, V. 62; 
league against Philip, vil. 40; 
league joined by Sicyon, Xl. 20; 
choose Aratus general, 34; alliance 
with Alexander, 38; joined by 
Corinth, 52 ; by Megara, Troezen, 
Epidaurus, 54, 58; joined by 
Cleonae, 64 ; ask aid of Sparta, 

X. 30; joined by Megalopolis, 

XI. 68; allied with Aetolians, 74; 
joined by Aegina, Hermione, 
Arcadia, 78 ; by Argos and Phlius, 
80 ; by Mantineia, 82 ; war with 
Sparta, X. 64, 58, 62, 80, 84, XI. 86, 
90 ; aided by Antigonus, X. 266 ; 
recover Argos, XI. 102 ; war with 
Aetolians, X. 126, XI. 108; Philo- 
poenien cavalry leader, X. 272; 
invite Philip, xi. 108; defeat 
Machanidas, X. 280, 284; with 
Romans against ^iabis,292 ; against 
Philip, 334 ; exiles restored, ll. 326. 
See also X. 274, 314, 360, 370 

Achaeans, Phthiotic, III. 56, V. 418, 
43U, X. 350 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Achaeans' harbour, in Troad, II. 506 
Achaicus, surname of Mummius, 

IX. 464 
Acharnae, Attic deme, II. 66, 252 
Acheloiis river, ill. 60 
Achillas, has Pompey killed, V. 316; 

wars on Caesar, vii. 558 ; executed, 

V. 324 
Achilles, defeats Paris, I. 78 ; deified 

in Epeirus, IX. 346 ; slain by Paris, 

IV. 452 

Achilles, rescues infant Pyrrhus, 

IX. 350 
Achradina, strongest part of Syracuse, 

V. 484, VI. 62, 66, 76, etc. 
Acilius, friend of Brutus, VI. 176 
Acilius, soldier of Caesar, Vll. 478 
Acilius, C, quoted, I. 158 ; interprets 

Greek, II. 370 
Acilius Glabrio, M', defeats Antiochus, 

etc., II. 334, 340, IV. 364, X. 366 
Acontium, mountain in Greece, IV. 

380, 388 
Acrae, in Sicily, VI. 58 
Acrillae,in Sicily, V. 482 
Acrocorinthus, X. 82, 90, XI. 34, 36, 

54, 76, 102 
AcroD, slain by Romulus, 1. 134, 190, 

V. 454 
Acropolis of Athens, IF. 28, 54, 416, 

446,612, III. 42, TX. 338 
Acrotatus (1), son of Oleomenes, 

father of Areus, X. 10 
Acrotatus (2), sou of Areus, slain at 

Megalopolis, IX. 434, X. 10 
Acrurium, mountain iu Phocis, Vlll. 

222 
Actaeon (1), Plataean hero, II. 246 
Actaeon (2), torn to pieces by dogs, 

VIII. 2 
Actaeon (3), torn to pieces by lovers, 

VIII. 2 
Acte, joins Cleomenes, XI. 94; Deme- 
trius, IX. 58 
Actiuin sea-fight, IX. 278, VI. 246; 

V. 174 
Acuphis, made ruler by Alexander, 

VII. 390 
Ada, queen of Caria, VII. 286 
Adeimantus (1), Athenian archon, 

11.16 
Adeimantus (2), Athenian general at 

Af>g(>-potarai,lv. 106 
Adiahenl, supfiort Tigranes, II. 562, 

668 

322 



Adiutrix, legion of Otho, XI. 302 
Admetus (1), loved by Apollo, i. 

318 
Admetus (2), king of Molossianp, 

shelters Themistocles, II. 6 4 
Adonia festival, described. III. 256, 

IV. 48 
Adramyttium, home of Xenocles. 

VII. 90 
Adranum, saved by Timoleon, vi. 286. 

298 
Adranus, god honoured in Sicily, Vl, 

286 
Adrasteia, mountain range, 11. 496 
Adrastus, helped by Theseus, I. 66, 

VII. 150 
Adria, Tuscan city, II. 128 
Adria, northern sea, II. 128 
Adria, where Philistus wrote history, 

VI. 24 
Adria? garrisoned by Antigonus, XI. 

26 
Adrian, officer under Lucullus, II. 

520 
Adriatic sea, II. 198 
Adultery, unknown at Sparta, I. 252 ; 

Solon^'s law, 466 
Aeacidae, II. 44 ; IX. 432 
Aeacides, father of Pyrrhus, IX. 58, 

346, 350 
Aeacus, described, I. 20, VII. 224; 

sanctuary at Aegina, 70 
Aeantid tribe, lost 52 at Plataea, 

11.272 
Aedepsus hot springs, iv. 408 
Aedile:-, two kinds, IX. 470; IV. 158 
Aedui, rebel against Caesar, vii. 506 
Aegae (1), little Aeolic citadel, ll. 

70 
Aegae (2), garrisoned by Pyrrhus, 

IX. 432 
Aegean, made free sea by Cimou, 

11.428 
Aegeid, Attic tribe, ill. 254, IV. 56 
Aegeus, his history, I. 6, 24, 32, 44, 

196.200 
Aegialia, little island, X, 118 
Aegias, banker of Sicyon, XI. 40 
Aegina, II. 44, IV. 252, VII. 2, 64, 

70 
Aeginetaup, attacked by Athens, 

IT. 10; 46; 62; in. 84 ; expelled by 

Athenians, 98; 230; restored by 

Lysander, iv. 268; join Achaean 

league, XI. 78 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Aegium, attached to Rome by Cato 

Major, Ti. 336; X. 86; 106; XI. 84, 

96; 120 
Aegle, loved by Theseus, I. 40, 66 
Aegospotami, Lysander defeats 

Athenians, IV. 106, 254, 258, 

XI. 176 
Aegyptian?, I. 318; months in year, 

368 ; wheel, 356 ; revolt from 

Persia, II. 84; send grain to Athens, 

III. 108 
Aelia, wife of Sulla, IV. 344 
Aelii, their poverty, VI. 366, 432 
Aelius, Seitu?, consul with Flamini- 

nus, X. 324 
Aelius Tubero, married Aemilius 

Paulus' daughter, VI. 366, 426, 432 
Aemilia (1), mother of Romulus by 

Mars, I. 92 
Aemilia (2), wife of Scipio Magnus, 

VI. 358 
Aemilia (3), wife of Glabrio, then of 

Pompey, IV. 432, v. 134 
Aemilii, patrician family, I. 334, 

VI. 358 
Aemilius, common crier, vi. 454 
Aemilius, M., elected consul, ll. 206 
Aemilius Lepidus, M., stone bridge 

over Tiber, 1.338; vi. 454 
Aemilius Papus, Q., consul with 

Fabricius, ix. 410 
Aemilius Paulus, Lucius (1), death at 

Cannae, ill. 158 f., vi. 358 
Aemilius Paulus, Lucius (2), son of 

preceding, vi. 358; aedile, augur, 

360; war in Spain, 362; divorces 

Papiria, children, 364; subdues 

Ligurians, 366; general against 

Perseus, 378 ; victory at Pydna, 

400 f.; triumph, 440; two sons 

die, 446 ; address to people, 448 ; 

censor, 454 ; death, 456 
Aemilius Scaurus, see " Scaiirus." 
Aenaria, island near Jlinturnae, IX. 

566. 574 
Aeneas, father of r>omulus and 

Aemilia, husband of Roma, l. 92 ; 

descendants ruled in Alba, 96; 

brought Palladium and Sarao- 

thracian images to Italy, ii. 144; 

foimded Lavinium, I v. 188 
Aenus, Thracian city, VIII. 258 
.\eolia, Nicogenes its wealthiest man, 

II. 70 
Aeolian, spoken In Phocis, it. 408 



Aequians, defeated by Postumius 
Tiburtus, II. 96; war on Rome, 
176, 182; IV. 216 
Aeropus (1), Macedonian, IX. 46 
Aeropus (2), friend of Pyrrhus, IX. 

368 
Aeschines (1), of Lamptrac, plotted 

with Persians, II. 252 
Aeschines (2), the Socratic, quoted, 

11.292,111.68, 92 
Aeschines (3), orator, I. 430, VII. 8, 

20, 30, 38, 52, 58 
Aeschvlus (1), kinsman of Timoleon, 

VI. 270 
Aeschylus (2), Argive, XI. 56 
Aeschylus (3), defeated by Sophocles 
died in Sicily, II. 430; \^I.242 
Eleusinians, cited, I. 68 
Persians (341-3), II. 40 
Prometheus Loosed (Nauck 68), 

V. 116 
Seven against Thebes (396 f. and 

435), I. 4 (592 f.), II. 220 
Suppliants (226), 1.116 
— (Bergk, n.« 242), vil. 214 
— (Xauck, 107), IX. 84 
Aesculapius, friend of Sophocles, 

I. 320; temple in Epidaurus, v. 
174 

Ae.' ion, on Attic orators, \U. 26 
Aeson, Macedonian river near Pvdna, 

VI. 396 

Aesop, talk with Solon, I. 482; 

fables. III. 418, XI. 70, 88; V. 

428 
Aesop, tragedian imitated by Cicero 

VII. 94 

Aesuvian meadow, battle between 

Tarquin and Romans, I. 522 
Aethiopians, attacked by Perseus, 

II. 410 

Aethra, Theseus' mother, I. 8, 12, 16; 
carried off by Hector, etc., 7S 

Aetolians, defeat Athenians, ill. 226; 
destroy city of Oeniadae, alliance 
with Antipatcr, \ni. 366, XI. 8; 
defeat Boeotians at Chaeroneia, 34; 
driven from Pcllcne by Aratus, 70, 
X. 32 ; allied with Achaeans, XI. 74 ; 
invade Laconia, X. 88; war with 
Demetrius, ix. 100; conquered, 
364, XI. 94; war mth Achaeans, 

X. 126; defeat Aratus at Caphyae, 

XI. 108; support Romans, X. 331, 
338 ; at Cyuo.scephalae, 344 ; oppose 

2i^3 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Flamininns, 346 f.; join Antiochus, 

362, II. 340; kill Nabis, X. 296; 

attacked by Acilius GHabrio and 

Philip, 364 
AeTos, title of tyrants, II. 228, 

IX. 370 
Afranius, Pompey's legate in Spain, 

VIII. 52 ; held Armenia, v. 204 ; 

defeats Parthians, 208; subdues 

Arabians about Amanus, 216 ; 

consul, 228; defeated by Caesar, 

in Spain, 290, VII. 530, 542 ; V. 286 ; 

defeated at Thapsus, vil. 566 
Africa, governed by Sextilius, IX. 576 ; 

secured for Sulla by Pompey, v. 140 ; 

province of Pompey, Vll. 512 ; of 

Cassius, VI. 168 
African war, II. 310 
"Africanus," Scipio's surname, IX. 

464 
Agamemnon, sacrificed daughter, v. 

14; ten years taking Troy, ill. 82; 

V. 12; VIII. 2 
Agarisie, Pericles' mother, III. 6 
Agatharcus, with Zeuxis,III. 40 ; with 

Alcibiades, IV. 42 
Agathocleia, Ptolemy's mistress, X. 

124 
Agathocles, of Syracuse, gives 

daughter Lanassa to Pyrrhus, 

captures Corcyra, IX. 368; nearly 

takes Carthage, 388; 60; 386 
Agathocles, Lysimachus' son, IX. 76 ; 

war on Demetrius, 116 f. 
Agave, in " Bacchae " of Euripides, 

III. 420 

Age, golden, II. 436 

Ager Romanus, divided up by Numa, 

I. 362 
Ageiiias, of Acharnae, II. 252 
Agesilaiis, Archidamus' son, Uncage 

and character, V. 2, 36, 50, 64, 70, 

I. 298, VI, 344, VIII. 152, X. 8; 
king with Lysander's help, V. 6, 

IV. 292; war on Persia, V. 12 f., 

II. 464, IV. 296 f., XI. 174; defeats 
Tissaphernes, V. 24, XI. 174; 
given control of navy, V. 26; 
alliance with Cotys, 28; sets cities 
in order, plans attack on Susa and 
Ecbatana, recalled, 38, 416 ; defeats 
Trallians, 42; invades Boeotia, 
Coroneia battle, 44 f ., suppresses 
Lysander's speech, 54, IV. 318; 
attacks Corinth and Argos, V. 56; 



seizes Heraeum, 58 ; defeats Acarna- 
uians, 62 ; approves seizure of 
Cadmeia, 66; invades Boeotia, 
criticized, 72, 374, I. 244; declares 
war on Thebes, Leuctra, V. 78; 
XI. 178; declines battle with 
Epaminondas, v. 86 ; refuses peace 
with Thebans, 94; goes to Egypt, 
100; deserts Tachos for Nectana- 
big, 106 ; death, 112 

Sayings: I. 268, v. 58; IV. 300, 
V. 20; 32; 44; 64; 72; 104; 106; 
110; XI. 174; 178 

Agesilaus, supports Agis, X. 14 20; 
spoils Agis' plans by avarice, 30, 
34; saved by son Hippomedon, 
36 

Agesipolis, Pausanias' son, succeeded 
by Cleombrotus, v. 66, X. 8; 
befriended by Agesilaus, v. 54; 
saves Epaminondas and Pelopidas 
at Mantineia, 350 

Agesipolis, Cleombrotus* son, short 
reign, X. 8 

Agesistrata, Agis' mother, X. 10; 
supports son in reforms, 16 ; 42 ; 
death, 46 

Agiadae, royal line of Sparta, IV. 302, 
318, X. 8 

Agias, w th younger Aristomachus 
seizes Argos, XI. 66 

Agiatis, Gylippus' daughter, Agis' 
wife, then Cleomenes', X. 50; 
death, 98 

Agis (1), son of Archidamus and 
Lampido, brother of Agesilaiis and 
king of Sparta, I. 296, V. 2 ; wife 
Timaea corrupted by Alcibiades, 4, 
8, IV. 64 ; plots against Alcibiades, 
66 ; from Deceleia besieges Athens, 
252, 268; fined for omitting sacri- 
fice, I. 238 ; gold and silver subvert 
Lycurgus' laws, 296, X. 12; when 
dying acknowledges Leotychides as 
his son, IV. 292, v. 6 

Agis (2), son of Archidamus III., slain 
by Antipater at Megalopolis, v. 40, 
vn. 58, X. 8 

Agis (3), son of Eudamidas, 5th from 
Agesilaus, V. 112, X. 8; character, 
10; seeks to restore Lycurgus' 
constitution, 14 f.; got "rhetra" 
before senate, 16 ; "rhetra "rejected, 
24; pupplants ephors by otliers, 
28; ruincil by Agesilaus, 30, 34; 



324 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL ^THE LIVES' 



aids Achaeans against Aetolians, 

30, XT. 70; slain by Leonidas, v. 

112, X. 42 f.; saying, 46 
Agis, sayings, I. 264, 268 
Agnus, Attic deme, I. 26 
Agrarian law of Licinius Stolo, n. 194 
Agraule, Attic deme, n, 62, IV. 60 
Agraulus, young warriors' oath in 

sanctuary of, iv, 38 
Agriculture of Cato Major, ll. 366, 

378, 390 
Agrigentum, supports Dion, yi. 56; 

NeapoUs in its territory, 102: 

repeopled after Timoleon pacified 

Sicily, 344; IX. 416 
Agrippa, M., Octavius' friend, IX. 214 ; 

Cassius' prosecutor, VI. 184; at 

Actium, IX. 284 f. ; married Marcel- 

lus and Octavia's daughter, then 

Octavius', 330 
Agrippa Menenias, speech to plebs on 

Mons Sacer, IV. 130 
Agrippina the Younger, had son 

Lucius by Ahenobarbus, married 

Claudius Caesar, ix. 332 ; motiier 

of Nero, XI. 234 
Agylaeus, Spartan ephor, x. 66 
" Agoge," defined, V. 2, X. 72 
Ahala, Servilius, slew Spurius Maelius, 

VI. 126 
Ahenobarbus, origin of name, VI. 420 
Ahenobarbus, Cn. Domitius (1), 

invaded Africa, v. 136; slain at 

Utica by Pompey, 140 
AhenobarbiLs, Cn. Domitius (2), with 

Antony against Parthians, IX. 230 ; 

264; deserts to Octaviits and dies, 

280 
Ahenobarbus, Cn. Domitius (3), 

married Agrippina, had son L. 

Domitius, IX. 332. 
AJhenobarbus, L. Domitius (1), pro- 
consul of Hither Spain, slain by 

Sevtorius' quaestor, \'lll. 30 
Ahenobarbus, L. Domitius (2), married 

Porcia, sues for consulship, m. 358, 

426, V. 250, vm. 332; yields 

Oorfinium to Caesar, vn. 526 ; in 

Pompey's camp, v. 290, 334, vn. 

178, 544; led Pompey's left at 

Pharsalus, V. 294, vn. 548 
Ahenobarbus, L. Domitius (3), married 

Antony and Octavia's daughter, ix. 

332 
Ahenobarbus, L. Domitius (4), son 



of Cn. D. Ahenobarbas and Agrip 

pina, adopted by Claudius, became 

Emperor Nero, ix. 332 
Aias, Periboea's son, I. 66 ; Eurysaces 

and Philaeus' father, 426, IV. 2 
Aidoneus, king of Molossians, had 

wife Persephone, daughter Cora, 

dog CerberiLS, slew Peirithoiis, 

imprisoned Theseus, i. 72, 80 
Aigialia, see " Aegialia." 
Aigikoreis, original Attic tribe, why 

so called, I. 468 
Aigle, see " Aegle." 
Aiyb? eA.o<:, see " Goat's Marsh " 
Au Locutii ara, erected bv Camillus. 

n. 168 
Aipcia, Cyprian city renamed Soli, I. 

478 
Ajai, see " Aias." 
'A/ceo-is, possibly related to "ancile," 

I. 352 
Alalcomenius, Boeotian for Maimac- 

terion, II. 278 
Alba, ruled by Aeneas' descendants, 

I. 96; 112 ; Romiilus king on death 

of Numitor, 172 ; 11.130; VII. 582 
Albau lake, its overflow a prodigy, 

11.98 
Alban mount, V. 494 
Alban villa, Pompey's, V. 254, 324, 

\ll. 160 
Albanians, adjoin Iberians in Cau- 
casus, II. 554, V. 204; crushed by 

Pompey, 206 f., 230; conquered 

by Canidius, IX. 214 
Albinius, Lucius, helps Vestals in 

flight, II. 144 
Albinus, Postumius, wrote history in 

Greek, II. 336 
Albinus, legate slain by Sulla's 

soldiers, IV. 342 
Alcaeus, wTOte epigram on defeat of 

Philip at Cynoscephalae, X. 344 
Alcaeus of Sardis, poisoned by 

Mithridates, V. 212 
Alcander, blinded Lycurgus in one 

eye, pardoned by him, I. 234 
Alcetas, Tharrhypas' son, Arybas' 

father, IX. 346 
Alcetas, gets letter from Alexander 

the Great, vii. 382 ; refuses to serve 

under Eumenes, VIII. 90; wants 

chief command under Eumenes, 102 
Alcibiades, his family, guardians, 

tutor, etc., I. 256, IV. 2, n. 296; 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



character, lll, 236, 246, IV. 4 f., 38, 
62, VIII. 150, an orator, III. 62, 
IV. 24 ; favourite of Socrates. 8 f ., 18 ; 
of Timon, 42, IX. 296; fought at 
Potidaea, at Delium, IV. 18; 
married Hipparete, 20; victorious 
in chariot races, 24, VII. 2; 
enters public life, iv. 22, 28 ; with 
Nicias effects ostracism of Hjrper- 
bolus, II. 232, III. 246, IV. 30; 
upsets Peace of Nicias, III. 242, 
IV. 32 ; made general, allies Argos, 
Mantinea, and Elis with Athens, 

III. 244, IV. 36; urges Sicilian 
expedition, iil. 250, IV. 44; 
general with Nicias and Lamachus 
for Sicilian expedition, iii. 252, 

IV. 46 ; accused of mutilating the 
Hermae, iv. 48, 60; sails, takes 
Rheginm, plans campaign, recalled, 
lU. 258, IV. 52, 58; saves Messana 
from Athenians, escapes at Thurii, 
58; flees to Sparta, 60; urges 
sending Gylippus to Sicily and 
fortifying Deceleia, 62; corrupts 
Agis' wife, Timaea, 64, v. 4; 
flees to Tlssaphernes, IV. 66, v. 6; 
advises him in conduct of war, 
IV. 68, 240 ; opposed by Phrynichus, 
70; made general by army at 
Samos, 74; recalled from exile, 
makes great change in situation, 
wins naval battle oflf Abydos, 78, 
238; imprisoned by Tissaphernes, 
escapes, SO ; captures Cyzicus, 82 ; 
defeats Pharnabazus, takes Selym- 
bria, 86 ; takes Byzantium, 90 ; 
returns to Athens, 92 ; attacks 
Andros, leaves Antiochus over lleet 
at Samos, 102, 212; fleet defeated 
by liysander, 104 ; deposed, warns 
Athenian generals at Aegospotami, 
106, 256; flees to Bithynia, 108; 
then to Pharnabazus in Phrygia, 
110; slain, 114; statue in forum 
at Rome, I. 336. See also II. 296 ; 
III. 106 

Savings : IV. 6, 14, 16, 22, 34, 38, 
58, 60 
Alcidamas, his rhetorical system 
obtained by Demosthenes according 
to Ctesibius, vii. 12. 
Aleimenes, Achaean noble, with 
Dion's expedition against Syracuse, 
1.48 

326 



Alcimus, the Epeirot, sturdiest man 
under Demetrius, slain at Rhodes, 
IX. 50 

Alcimus, place near Piraeus, II. 88 

Alcmaeon, Amphiaralis' son, re- 
sembled Orontes, the Persian, xi. 8 

Alcmaeon, Megacles' father, l. 486; 
led Amphictyons in defence of 
Delphi, 430 

Alcmaeon, Leobotes* father, li. 62 ; 
denounced Themlstocles, 292 

Alcmaeonidae, Athenian family, l. 492 

Alcman, lyric poet. Helots forbidden 
to sing his songs, I. 290; eaten of 
worms, IV. 440; Fragment 35 
(Bergk ill.* 51) quoted, I. 272 

Alcmene, Lysidice's daughter, Pelop's 
granddaughter, Heracles' mother, 
I. 16; body disappeared like 
Romulus', 180; her monument at 
Haliartus near Rhadamanthus' 
tomb, IV. 312 

Alcmeon, see *' Alcmaeon." 

Alcyoneus, son of Antigonus, IX. 458 f. 

Alea, name of Rhadamanthus' tomb 
at Haliartus, IV. 312 

Alesia, Gallic city taken by Caesar, 

VII. 506 

Alexander (1), see *' Paris." 
Alexander (2) the Macedonian, warned 

Aristides of Maxdonius' plan, 11, 

256; 448 
Alexander (3), king of Macedonia, at 

war with Ptolemy, v. 404 ; slain by 

him, 406 
Alexander (4), soldier of Alexander 

the Great, Vll. 390 
Alexander (5), son of Alexander the 

Great and Roxana, engaged to 

Deldameia, ix. 354 
Alexander (6), son of Polysperchon, 

married Cratesipolis, IX. 22; 

approaches Athens with army, 

VIII. 220 

Alexander (7), son of Gassander, 
expelled by his brother Antipater, 
asks help of Demetrius and P\Trhus, 

IX. 86; given Antipatcr's land by 
Pyrrhus, 360 ; slain by Demetrius, 
90, 340, 362 

Alexander (8), son of Demetrius and 
Deidameia, lived and died in Egypt, 
IX. 134 

Alexander (9), son of Pyrrhus and 
Lanassa, IX. 370 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Alexander (10), tyrant of Corinth, 
made alliance with Achaeans, XI. 
38; poisoned by Antigonus, 36 

Alexander (11), 'led Thracians at 
Pydna, VI, 400 

.Uexander (12), 3rd son of Perseus, 
his fate, VI. 452 

Alexander (13), Polyhistor ( ?) taught 
Crassus philosophy of Aristotle, 
III. 320 

Alexander (14), Strabo's freedman, 
stole public property, V. 122 

Alexander (13), son of Antony and 
Cleopatra, IX. 218; given Armenia, 
Media, and Parthia, 262 

Alexander of Antioch, vrtth Antony 
against Parthians, IX. 244, 248 

Alexander the Great, lineage, VII. 224 ; 
birth, 228; appearance, V. 118, 
VII. 230: character, 232, 242, 284 f., 
338 f., IX. 152; teachers, VII. 236, 
240, 286, 296; as regent subdued 
Maedi, fought at Chaeroneia, 244; 
quarrel with father, 246; at 20 
becomes king, 250 ; defeats Svrmus, 
king of Triballi, 252; defeats 
Thebans, 54, 254, VIII. 180 f., 
IX. 140 f.; by Greeks chosen 
leader against Persians, Vll. 258; 
strength of his armv, 260 ; battle of 
Granicus, II. 138, Vll. 262 f.; 
storms Halicarnassus and Miletus, 
268; subdues Pisidia, Phrygla, 
Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, cuts 
Gordian knot, 272; treated for 
illness by Philip the Acamanian, 
276; defeats Dareius at L«sus 
278 f.; takesTyre, 292; takes Gaza, 
296; founds Alexandria, visits 
Temple of Ammon, 300 f.; holds 
contests of dithyrambic choruses 
and tragedies, 308 ; rejects Dareius' 
peace proposals, 310; defeats 
Dareius at Arbela, 316 f. ; pro- 
claimed king of Asia, 326 ; traverses 
Babylonia, 328; takes Susa, 332; 
ravages Per.-L^, hears Dareius is 
captured, sends Thessalians home, 
348; takes Dareius' camp, 350; 
invades Ilyrcania, v. 206, VTI. 352; 
invades Parthia, assumes barbaric 
dress, 354 ; routs Scythians, 356 ; 
attempts to mix Macedonians and 
barbarians, marries Roxana, 358 : 
plotted against by Philotas and 



others, 362 f . ; murders Cleitus 
368 f . ; prepares to invade India, 
VI. 384, \TI. 384; exchanges gifts 
with Taxiles the Indian, massacres 
Indian mercenaries, 390 ; conquers 
Poms, 394 f . ; founds Bucephalia, 
398 ; his men refuse to cross Ganges, 
400 ; severely wounded in attacking 
Malli, 402 ; pardons captured 
gymnosophists, 404 f . ; reaching 
ocean orders Nearchus to return by 
sea with fleet, reaches (Jedrosia, 
410, VIII, 80; punishes erring 
subordinates, vil. 414; reaches 
Persia, 416; marries Stateira, 418; 
reaches Ecbatana in Media where 
Hephaestion dies, v, 428, vil, 424; 
reaches Babylon, 426 ; dies of fever, 
66, 432 

See aUo II, 248, V, 38, 232, VI. 
372, 384, VII. 48, 58, 60, VIII. 80, 
86, 182, 184, 190, IX. 58, 64, 338, 

X. 264, 3S2 

Savings: V. 40; VII. 232; 234; 
236; 240; 246; 250; 252; 256, VIII. 
184; VII. 258; 260; 262; 268; 280; 
282; 284; 286; 288; 298; 306; 310; 
320; 334; 338; 340; 342; 346; 350; 
370; 372; 37»; 388 f.; 392; 394; 
406; 426; 430 
Alexander of Macedon, quoted, I. 12 
Alexander of Mvndus, quoted, IX. 

506 
Alexander of Pherae, humbled by 
Pelopidas, v. 402 f, ; takes Pelo- 
pidas prisoner, induced by Epami- 
nondas to surrender him, 406 ; 412 ; 
renews his oppressions, 418; 420; 
defeated at Pharsalus by Pelopidas, 
422 ; slain at instigation of wife, 
430 f.; ruled Thessaly 10 months, 
called tragedy-tyrant by Dionysius, 

XI. 208 

.Alexandria, founded, Vll. 298; great 

library destroyed, 560; VIII. 320; 

X. 122 
Alexandrians, worship Cleomenes after 

his death, X. 140; liked Antony, 

IX. 202 
Alexandropolis, city repeopled and 

renamed by Alexander, vii. 244 
x\.lexas, the Laodicean, niO;?t influential 

Greek with Antony, executed bv 

Octavius, IX. 302 
Alexas .the Syrian ,IX. 2S6 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Alexicrates, chief cup-beaxer to 
Pyrrhus, ix. 358 

Alerippus, physician, cured Peucestas 
of illness, Vll. 346 

Aliens at Athen?, Ii. 2, iv. 12 

Allia, river flowing into Tiber, II. 136 

A]lia, battle of, I. 34S, II, 134 f. 

Alliance, see " Treaty." 

Allies, Athenian, continue to pay 
assessments but stop military 
service, li. 436. See also " Hel- 
lenes" and "Delos, Confederacy 
of." 

AUobroges, their part in conspiracy 
of Catiline, vil. 124 

Alopece, deme of Lysander, ll. 86; 
of Aristides, 210; of Thucydides, 
III. 32 

Aiopecus, bilinear Haliartus, IV. 318 

Alphabet, that used after Eucleides, 
11.212 

Alps, II. 126; northern boundary of 
Tuscany, 128; vi. 366 

Alsaea, city seized by Cleomenes, x. 64 

Alycup, Sciron's son, slain at 
Aphidnae, I. 76 

Alycus, place in Megara, I. 76 

Amantius, disgraces Caesar by greed, 
\1I. 562 

Amanus, mountain in Oillcia, V. 216, 
VII. 174, IX. 122, 124 

Amarsyas, father of Phereclus, I. 34 

Amathusians, I. 42 

Amazoneum, place at Athens, place 
in Chalcis, I. 62 

Amazons, war with Theseus, I. 58, 60, 
62, 64, 190 ; attacked by Heracles, 
II. 544 ; their queen visits Alexander, 
VII. 366 ; habits and country, V. 208 

Ambiorix, see " Abriorix." 

Ambracia, ill. 57 ; given Pyrrhus bv 
Alexander, IX. 360; 368 

Ambrones, ancestral name of Ligur- 
ians, IX. 514; defeated Manlius 
and Caepio, defeated by Romans 
at Aquae Sextiae. 612 f, 

Ambustus, Q. Fabius, one of three 
sent to consult oracle at Delphi re 
Alban lake, II. 102; though 
ambassador, fights Oauls, I. 348, 
11.132; appointed military tribune, 
134 

Ameuiias, the Deceleian, slays 
i\riamnes, Xerxes* brother, II. 42; 
rivals Aristides at Plataea, 388 

328 



Ameinias, the Phocian, Antigouus' 
general, enters Spai-ta, IX. 444 

Ameria, Italian city, IX. 508 

Amestris, Artaxerxes' daughter, 
married to father, XI. 192 

Amfidius, Tullus, of Antium, plans 
with Coriolanus war on Rome, iv, 
170 f. ; quoted, 172; advises 
Volscians to summon Coriolanus, 
182; becomes jealous, 192; causes 
Coriolanus' death, 214; slain by 
Romans, 218 

Amisus, rich city founded by Athens, 
II. 510, 530; besieged, 514; sacked 
by Lucullus, 526 ; restored by him, 
530; V. 212; 222 

Ammon, son of Zeus and Pasiphae, 
XI, 20; II. 462; III, 254, 260; his 
temple in Africa, iv. 288; 304; VII. 
228; consulted by Alexander, 304; 
424 

Ammonius, philosopher, taught Plu- 
tarch and his friend Themistocles 
11.90 

Amnaeus, Roman senator, vni. 280 

Amoebus, singer, Xl. 38 

Amompharetus (1), one of five 
Spartan umpires re Salamis, I. 428 

Amompharetus (2), Spartan at Plataea, 
II. 264 

Amorgus, Athenian naval defeat oS, 
IX. 28 

Amphares, compasses death of Agis, 
his mother, and grandmother, X. 40, 
4G, 48 

Amphiaraiis, father of Alcmaeon, 
XI. 8; II, 220; his oracle, 270 

Amphicrates, rhetorician, died at 
court of Tigranes, II. 540 

Amphictyons, persuaded by Solon, 
wage war on Cirrha, I, 428; urged 
by Sparta to exclude cities that did 
not fight against Persia, II. 56 ; 336 ; 
426; IV. 362 

Amphilochia, given Pyrrhus by 
Alexander, IX, 360 

Amphipolis, won by Athenians, il. 
426; Cleon and Brasidas fall in 
battle there, III. 236 ; 242 ; V. 308 ; 

VI, 416; 418 

Amphissa, Philip successful there, 

VII. 42; IX, 198 

Amphitheus, bribed by Persian money, 

IV, 308 
Amphitrope, Diophantus' deme, II. 294 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Amphitryon, Alcmene's husband, IV. 
312 

Amulius, descendant of Aeneas, dis- 
possesses his brother Xumitor, 
exposes Ilia's children, I. 96 ; father 
of Ilia's twins, 98, 102 ; slain by 
Romulus and Remus, 112, 158, 188 

Amycla, Alcibiades' Spartan nurse, 
I. 256, IV. 2 

Amyclas, father of Daphne according 
to Phylarchus, X. 20 

Arayntas, Macedonian, sent by Philip 
on embassy to Thebes, VII. 42 ; in 
exile advises Dareius not to attack 
Alexander in narrow passes, 278 

Amyntas, king of Lycaonia and 
Galatia, sends army to Antony, 
IX. 276 ; deserts to Octaviiis, 280 

Anacharsis, meeting with Solon, ban 
mot, I. 414 

Anacreon of Teos, poet. III. 4, 78 

Anaiti«, name of Artemis of Ecbatana, 
XI. 192 

'.\»'<ucef, derived from avdcrx,evi.<:, I. 352 

'Avoxres, why kings so called, I. 78 

Anaphlystus, Euthippus' deme, II. 458 

Anapus, river in Sicily, vi. 58, 312 

'Avdax€cn<;, possibly related to 
" ancile." 

Anaxagoras of Clazomene, teacher of 
Themistocles, ll. 6 ; his philosophy, 
influence on Pericles, III. 10, 14, 16, 
290, IV. 262; III. 20; 52; attacked 
by Diopeithes' bill, 92 ; saved from 
imprisonment by Pericles, 290; 
saying, 54 

Anaxandrides, Delphian, quoted, IV. 
280 

Anaxarchus, sophist, Alexander's 
friend, VII, 244, 306, 374 

Anaxenor, lute-player with Antony, 
IX. 186 

Anaxidaraus, of Chaeroneia, helps 
Sulla, IV. 382, 390 

Anaxilas, one of five Spartan umpires 
re Salamls, I. 428 

Anaiilalis, of Byzantium, tried at 
Sparta for surrendering city and 
acquitted, IV. 90 

Anaxiraenes, orator, says funeral 
orations began with Solon, I. 526, 
VII. 70 

Anaxo, carried off by Theseus, I. 66, 
196 

Anazarbus, see " Quinda." 



Ancharia, Octavia's mother, ix. 206 

Ancharius, of senatorial rank, slahi 
by Marius' men, ix. 584 

Ancilia, story of, I. 350 f. 

Ancus Martins, Numa's grandson, 
completed wooden bridge over 
Tiber, I. 338; IV. 118 

Andocides, orator, II. 88 ; suspected 
of mutilating Hermae and im- 
prisoned, III. 254, IV. 54 f. 

'AfSpeia, Cretan name for ovaaiTia, 

I. 236 

Andrians, reply to Themistocles 

asking money, II. 56 
Androcleides (1), accused of being 

bribed by Persia to oppose Spartans, 

IV. 308 ; outlawed from Thebes, 

slain through Leontidas, V. 350 f. 
Androcleides (2), helps rescue infant 

Pyrrhus, IX. 348 
Androcleides, records saying of 

Lysander, iv. 250 
Andiocleion, helps rescue infant 

Pyrrhus, IX. 348 
Andirocles, opponent of Alcibiades, 

IV. 48 

Androcottus, subdued all India, Vll. 

400 ; his opinion of Alexander, 402 

Androcrates, Plataean hero, his shrine, 

II. 246 f. 

Androcydes of Cyzicus, painter, v. 400 
Androgeos, Minos' son, his murder 

led to invasion of Attica, I. 28 f., 190 
Andromache, character in " Trojan 

Women " of Euripides, V. 414 
Andromache, Dion's sister, murdered 

by Hicetas, VI. 120 
Andromachus (1), Timaeus' father, 

welcomes Timoleon's expedition, 

VI. 284 
Andromachus (2), betrays Romans to 

Parthians, III. 406 
Andron of Halicarnassus, cited, I. 56 
Andronicus, the Rhodian, published 

copies of works in Apellicon's 

library, IV, 406 
Andros, given 250 settlers by Pericles, 

III. 34; people defeated by 
Alcibiades, IV. 102 

Androtion, re Solon's seisachtheia, I. 
442 ; speech against by Demos- 
thenes, VII. 36 

Anecdotes, I. 262, 204, 268, 270, 276, 
280, 290, 392, 412, 420, II. 232, 

V. 340, VII. 76, 90 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



'ApsKaOev, used for ai/co by Athenians, 
I. 78; possibly related to " ancile," 
352 

AveKa;, used for avw by Athenians, 
1.78 

Angelus, helps rescue infant Pyrrhus, 

IX. 348 

Anicius, L., captures Genthius, king 

of Illyrians, with wife and children, 

VI. 386 
Anienus, ordered by Caesar to cut 

through isthmus of Corinth, vil. 

578 
Animals, examples of Greek kindness 

to, II. 316, III. 2, IV. 22, 24, V. 144, 

148, 388, VII. 396 
Anio river, I. 558 ; plebs seceded to it, 

IV. 128; battle of, II. 198 f. 
Annalius, L., senator, struck by 

Crassus,Ill.426 
Annius, C, sent to Spain by Sulla, 

worsts Sertorius, VI II. 18 
Annius, T., defeats Ti. Gracchus in 

public debate, X. 178 
Annius, soldier of Marius, slays M. 

Antoniup, IX. 588 
Annius Gallus, see " Gallus, Annius." 
Antaeus, killed by Hercules, l. 22; 

buried in city of Tingis, viii. 24 
Antagoras, the Ghian, offends Pausan- 

ias, joins Athenians, II. 284 
Antalcidas, Spartan, Leon's son, sent 

to Tiribazus re peace, V. 62 ; 

peace of, dictated by Artaxerxes, 

its terms, XI. 176; V. 416, XI. 178; 

V. 86 ; fitarved to death, XI. 178 
Sayings : I. 244, V. 72, 374; 86 

Antemnae, its people conquered by 
Komulus and transferred to Rome, 
1.138; yieldstoSulla, IV. 422 

Antenor, Epicharmus' treatise dedi- 
cated to him, I. 334 

Anthedon, Boeotian city destroyed 
by Sulla, IV. 408 

Anthemiou, Anytus' father, iv. 12, 150 

Anthcmocritus, Athenian herald, ill. 
86 

Anthesterion, IV. 372, IX. 60 f. 

Antho, Amulia's daughter, intercedes 
for Ilia, I. 96 

Antias, Valerius, re Sabine girls 
seized by Romans, I. 130 ; re books 
put in Numa's coffin, 380 ; version 
of scandal about L. Flamininus, 

X. 374 



Antiates, most warlike of Volscians, 
IV. 136. See also " Antium." 

" Anticato," writen by Caesar, VII. 
568 

Anticleides, re queen of Amazons, 

VII. 356 

Anticrates, Spartan, slew Epaminon- 
das, V. 98 

Anticyra, granary for Antony, ix. 
294 

Anticyra, prostitute of Demetrius, 
IX. 54 

Antigenes the One-eyed, punished 
by Alexander, vil. 420; leader of 
Silver-shields, envies Eumenes, Vlll. 
116; with Teutamus plots against 
Eumenes, 126 

Antigenes, says queen of Amazons 
came to see Alexander, VII. 356 

Antigenidas, re flute-playing, ix. 4 

Antigone of Pydna, reports Philotas' 
words to Alexander, Vll. 362 

Antigone, Berenice's daughter by 
Philip, married to Pyrrhus, IX. 
356, 358; had son Ptolemy, 360, 
368 

Antigoneia, new name given Man- 
tineia, XI. 106 

" Antigonids," name of bowls, VI. 442 

Antigonis, new tribe at Athens in 
honour of Antigonus, IX. 26 

Antigonus the One-eyed, general and 
successor of Alexander, his children, 
his career, vi. 372, vill. 4, IX. 6, 8, 
332, 334; VIII. 84; with Antipater 
to conduct war against Eumenes, 
102; defeats Eumenes at Orcynii, 
104; 108 ; aspires to supreme power, 
114;120;122; defeated by Eumenes, 
130; decides to execute Eumenes, 
134; punishes Eumenes' betrayers, 
136; IX. 10; sends son Demetrius 
against Ptolemy, 12' 16; frees 
Athens, 18; 24; asks Demetrius to 
fight Ptolemy for Cyprus, 34; wins 
Cyprus, 40; when 80 years old 
attacks Ptolemy unsuccessfully, 
42 ; defeated by league of other 
kings and slain, 66, VIII. 210; his 
royal line brought to end by 
Aeniilius Paulus, vi. 460 

Sayings: I. 140, V. 340, 342, 

VIII. 108, IX. 40, 366 
Antigonus Doson, made regent, then 

king by Macedonians, lY. 142, vi. 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE MJVES ' 



372; crosses Geraneia with large 
force, X. 92 ; garrisons Corinth, 

X, 96, XI. 88, 98, 100, 102; takes 
Tegea by siege and surprises 
Orchomenos and Mantineia, X. 100, 

XI. 104; advances to Argos, X. 
106 f . ; defeats Cleomenes at 
Sellasia, 112 f ., 266 f. ; offered 
Philopoemen command, 270; 274; 
takes Sparta, restores laws and 
constitution, returns to Macedonia 
and dies, 118; XI. 106 

Antigonus Gonatas, Demetrius' son, 
had a con Demetrius, VI. 372; IX. 
134; defeats Boeotians, 98; tries to 
liberate his father Demetrius, 128; 
buries him, 132 ; defeated by 
Pyrrhus, 430 ; 444 ; agrees to leave 
Argos, 450 ; 452 ; defeats Pvrrhus, 
who is slain, 460; XI. 8; 20; 32; 
gets Acrocortnthus, 36 ; loses 
Megara, 54; ally of Aristippus, 
tyrant of Argos, 58 ; dies, 76 
" Sayings : IX. 430, XI. 32 

Antigonus the Jew, beheaded by 
Antony, IX. 218 

Antigonus, re Tarpeia's father, I. 
142 

Antilibanus, Mount, Arabs dwell near 
it, VII. 292 

Antilochus, writes verses in honour of 
Lysander, IV. 282 

Antimachns of Colophon, defeated 
in poetic contest by Niceratus, 
consoled by Plato, IV. 282; his 
poetry seems laboured, \l. 346 

Antimachus of Teos, epic poet, saw 
eclipse on day Rome founded, I. 
120 

Antioch by Daphne in Svria, ll. 534, 
V. 218, VIII. 262, IX. 78" 

Antioch in Mygdonia, called Nislbis 
by barbarians, captured by Lucul- 
lus, II. 578 

Antiochis, Aristides' tribe, II. 210; 
victorious in poetic contest, 212; 
opposed Persian centre at Marathon, 
224 

Antiochus, sea captain, great favourite 
of Alcibiades, IV. 22; defeated and 
slain off Ephesus by Lysander, 
102 f., 242, 454 

Antiochus (Soter), son of Seleucus 
and Apameia, IX. 76; defeated by 
Demetrius, 70 ; married his father's 



wife Stratonice, 92 ; made king of 
Upper Asia by his father, 94 

Antiochus the Great, not to be 
compared with Xerxes, II. 396; 
spurred on by Hannibal, x. 346; 
348; 354; won back most of 
Seleucus Nicator's dominions, II. 
384 ; V7. 362 ; crosses to Greece, 
joined by Aetolians, X. 362 ; 
defeated at Thermopvlae, returns 
to Asia, II, 336 f., 3*88, IV. 364, 
X. 302, 364; in flight marries 
Cleoptolemus' daughter, 304, 366 ; 
defeated in Phrygia bv Scipio, 
II. 504, III. 398, X. 378;' terms of 
peace, VI. 370 

Antiochus of Ascalon, in treatise 
" Concerning Gods " mentions 
battle of Taurus, II. 564; led Old 
Academy, friend of Lucnllus, 606 ; 
admired by M. P.rutus, VI. 128; 
his lectures attended by Cicero; 
his philosophy, Vli. 88, 90 

Antiochus of Commagene, besieged 
by Veatidius, comes to terms with 
Antony, ix. 212 

Antiope, Amazon, seized by Theseus, 
loved by Solols, I. 58, 62, 196; had 
son Ilippolytus by Theseus, 64 

Antiorus, Lycurgus' son, I. 302 

Antipater, ^Uexander's general, bis 
surrender demanded by Thebans, 
VII. 254; 280; defeated and slew 
Agis in Arcadia, V. 40, X. 8 ; fearing 
Alexander, makes alliance with 
Aetolians, Vli. 366 ; rebelled against 
by Olympias and Cleopatra, 414 ; 
suspected of poisoning Alexander, 
436; besieged by Leosthenes in 
Lamia, 66, VIll. 86, 196; with 
Leonnatus defeated by Greeks in 
Thessaly, 200; defeats Greeks at 
Crannon, ll. 138; advances on 
Athens, vil. 70, VIII. 202 f.; exe- 
cutes Hypereides, Aristonicus, and 
Himeraeus, vii. 70; gives Atlienian 
poor land in Thrace, Vlll. 208 ; 210, 
VII. 218; sends soldiers to arrest 
Demosthenes, 70 f.; 78; v.ith 
Craterus crosses to Asia against 
Perdiccas, VIII. 90; 92; to help 
Antigonus against Eumenes, 102 ; 
married daughter Phila to Deme- 
trius, IX. 32, 90, 334; before dying 
appoints Polysperchon general-in- 

331 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



chief, and Cassander chiliarch, 

VIII. 216; died in Macedonia, 
114 

See also VII. 342, 382, 388, 422, 

428 

Sayings: n. 390, IV. 224; vni. 

144; 212 
Antipater, Cassander's son, murders 

his mother Thessalonice, expels his 

brother Alexander, attacked by 

Pyrrhus, IX. 8G, 90, 360 
Antipater of Tarsus, dedicated philo- 
sophical treatises to Blossius, X. 

162 ; his dying words, IX. 596 
Antipater of Tyre, Stoic philosopher, 

friend of Cato the Younger, vill. 

244 
Antiphanes, wrote farce ridiculing 

Batalus, VII. 10; 24 
Antiphates, rebuked by Themistocles, 

II. 50 

Antiphilus, Phocion's successor, 
defeats and slays Leonnatus, VIII. 
198 f. 

Antiphon, the Khanmusian, slanders 
Alcibiades, IV. 8; discredited, 

III. 226 ; executed owing to Demos- 
thenes, VII. 36 ; saying, IX. 196 

Antisthenes, says Amycla Alcibiades* 

nurse, IV. 2 

Sayings : I. 300, ill. 4 
Antistia (1), Appius Claudius' wife, 

quoted, X. 150 
Antiritia (2), Antistius' daughter, 

married to Pompey, V. 126 ; divorced 

by him, 134, IV. 432 
Antistius, praetor, gave Pompey 

daughter in marriage, V. 124; slain 

by Marius' men, 136 
Antistius (should be Appuleius) gives 

Brutus 500,000 drachmas, VI. 180 
Antium, Volscian town, its people 

fight Romans, IV. 136; its land 

raided by Coriolanus, 148 ; attacked 

to distract plebs* attention, 162 f.; 

166; 214; VI. 172 
Anton, Hercules' son, progenitor of 

Antonii, ix. 146 
Antonia (1), C. Antonius' daughter, 

M. Antony's wife, divorced by him, 

IX. 156 

Antonia (2), M. Antony and Octavla's 
daughter, wife of Domitius Aheno- 
barbus, IX. 332 

Antonia (3), M. Antony and Octavla's 

332 



daughter, Drusus' wife, Germani- 
cus' motiier, IX. 332 

Antonias, name of Cleopatra's " flag- 
ship," IX. 274 

Antonii, descended from Anton, 
Hercules' son, IX. 146 

Antonius, C. (1), consul with Cicero, 

VII. 108, IX. 156 ; bribed by offer of 
province of Macedonia to support 
Cicero, Vll. 110; sent to light 
Catiline, 120 ; defeats Catiline, 136 

Antonius, C. (2), praetor, ix. 170; 

captured and executed by order of 

Brutus, 184, VI. 182 f., 186 
Antonius, L., tribune of plebs, IX. 170 ; 

fought against Octavius, fled from 

Italy, 202 
Antonius (Saturninus, L.) revolts 

from Domitian, defeated, VI. 420 
Antonius, M., supported Sulla, slain 

by order of Marius, IX. 138, 586 
Antonius Creticus, M., M. Antony's 

father, brief account of, ix. 138 
Antonius, P., prosecuted by Greeks 

before M. LucuUus, praetor of 

Macedonia, VII. 448 
Antonius Honoratus, military tribune, 

loyal to Galba, against Nymphidius, 

XI. 232 
Antonius, helps to murder Sertorius, 

VIII. 72 

Antonius, celebrated triumph, his 
daughter captured by pirates, 
V. 176 

Antony, Mark (1), son of Antonius 
Creticus and Julia, IX. 138; cor- 
rupted by Curio and Clodius, 
studied oratory in Greece, 140; 
defeats and captures Aristobulus 
in Syria, 142 ; supporting Ptolemy, 
takes Pelusium, 144; appearance 
and character, 144 f., 188 f . ; joining 
Caesar's party, elected tribune of 
plebs and augur, reads Caesar's 
letters to senate, 148, V. 268, VII. 
516; presents Caesar's new pro- 
posals, with Cassius flees to Caesar, 

IX. 150, V. 270, VII. 518; disgraces 
Caesar by dissoluteness, 562, IX. 
152, 158; captures liissus, brings 
troops from Italy to Caesar, 154, 
VII. 536; led Caesar's left at 
Pharsalus, V. 294, IX. 156; marries 
Fulvia, Clodius' widow, 160 ; consul 
with Caesar, 162 ; offered Caesar 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



diadem, 164, vii. 584; Antony 
spared by conspirators on plea of 
Brutus, detained outside senate, 
596, VI. 162 f., IX. 166; proposes 
amnesty on murder of Caesar, 
pronounces funeral oration, 168, 
XI. 166 f ., VII. 190 ; has rival in 
Octavius, VI. 174, Vll. 192 f., IX. 
170 f.; attacked bv Octavius at 
Mutina, 174, VI. 452, VII. 198; 
forms triumvirate with Octavius 
and Lepidus, 200, VI. 186, ix. 178; 
proscribes Cicero, 180; defeats 
Cassius atPhiUppi, 182 f ., VI. 216 f . ; 
gives Brutus burial, 246, 256, IX. 
184; levies money in Asia, 186; 
meets Cleopatra, 194; divides 
empire with Octavius, marries 
Octavia, 204; learns of Ventidius' 
victory over Parthians, 210 ; makes 
peace with Antiochus of Com- 
magene, 212; meets Octavius at 
Tarentum, 216; increases Cleo- 
patra's territory, 218; begins war 
against Parthians, 218 ; deserted 
by Artavasdes, Armenian king, 224 
led by Phraates to retreat, 228 
crosses river Araxes into Armenia 
250; met by Cleopatra, 254 
Octavia reaches Athens on way to 
htm, 256 ; beguiled from wife by 
Cleopatra, 258; drawn into war 
with Octavius, 260 f . ; war against 
Antony voted at Rome, 272; 
Antony's forces, 274 f.; defeated 
in naval battle off Actium, 282 f., 
I. 372 ; flees with Cleopatra to 
Egypt, IX. 288; revels with Cleo- 
patra, 300 ; hearing Cleopatra is 
dead, falls upon his sword, 310; 
left 7 children bv his 3 wives, 330 

See also VI. 140, 186, 190, 192, 
210, 230, VII. 142, 188, 192 

Sayings : IX. 148, 186, 304, 310 
Antony (JuUus Antonius), Fulvia's 
son, third in esteem of Octavius, 

IX. 330; marries Octavia and 
Marcellus* daughter, Agrippa's 
divorced wife, 332 

AntylUus, Q., lictor slain in brawl, 

X. 226 f . ; not murdered by C. 
Gracchus, 248 

Antyllus, Antony and Fulvia's son, 
executed by Octavius, EX. 300, 318, 
330 



Anytus, Anthemion's son, lover of 

Alcibiades, rv. 12 ; tried for 

failure to relieve Pylos, first to bribe 

jurors, 150 
Aollius or Avillius, Eomulus and 

HersUia's son, 1. 130 
AoUs, river in Greece, vil. 534 
Apama (1), Artaxerxes' daughter, 

married Phamabazus, XI. 192 f. 
Apama (2), Artabazus' daughter, 

given in marriage to Ptolemy by 

Alexander, viii. 80 
Apama (3), Antiochus' mother by 

Seleucus, EX. 76 
'ATreAAa^eij/, to assemble the people, 

1.222 
Apelles (1), painted Alexander of too 

swarthy a colour, vil. 230 ; opinion 

of Protogenes' painting, ix. 52 ; 

gave talent to be admitted to 

society of artists of Sicyon, xi, 28 
Apelles (2), courtier of Philip, Anti- 

gonus' son, XI. 110 
Apellicon, his library seized by Sulla, 

etc., IV. 406 
Apeimantus, admirer of Timon, rx. 

298 
Aperantians, harried by Macedonians, 

X. 364 
Aphetae, reached by Persian army, 

11.20 
Aphidnae, Helen hidden there, I. 72 f . ; 

captured by Dioscuri, 76; 78; lost 

to Athens under Theseus, 198 
Aphidnus, Theseus' friend, guarded 

Helen, I. 72 ; adopted Tyndaridae, 

78 
Aphrodite, Theseus' guide to Crete, 

why called " Epitragia," I. 36; 

" April " derived from '* Aphrodite," 

368, II. 506 ; mother of Harmonia 

by Ares, V. 386 ; abhors wars, 

myrtle her plant, 496 
Aphytae, city in Thrace, besieged by 

Lysander, IV. 288 
Apis, sacred bull, X. 128 
Apollo, loved Phorbas, Hyacinthus, 

Admetus, Hippolytus the Sicyouian, 

I. 318; father of Syrus by Sinopc, 

II. 544; patron of Athens, flayed 
flute-player, iv. 8 ; gave Cadmus 
cow for guide, 382 ; temple of at 
Actium plundered by pirates, v. 174 

Apollo, name of costly room of 
Lucullus, II. 602 



333 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Apollo the Laurel-bearer at Phlya, 
11.44 

Apollo Lyceius, TX. 450, 454 

Apollo, Pythian, half property of 
Thebans consecrated to him bv 
Sulla, IV. 390 ; 420 ; gets golden bowl 
from Romans, V. 456 ; Antony 
plans to finish his temple, IX. 186; 
vouches for Lycurgus' laws, X. 244 

Apollo Tegyraeus, brief account of, 
V. 378 

Apollo Thurius, why so named, 

IV. 382 

Apollocrates, eldest son of Dionysius 
the Younger, put in command of 
citadel of Syracuse, VI. 80; 116; 
makes terms with Dio and leaves 
Syracuse, 106 

ApoUodorus (1) of Phalerum, ardent 
disciple of Socrates, vill. 346 

ApoUodorus (2), used speeches wTitten 
for him by Demosthenes, Vll. 36, 
216 

ApoUodorus (3), commandant of Baby- 
lon under Alexander, vil. 426 

ApoUodorus (4), proves Lycurguslived 
long before first Olympiad, I. 204 

ApoUodorus (5), the Sicilian, Cleo- 
patra's friend, VII. 558 

Apollonia (1), in Illyria near Dyrrha- 
chium, rv. 408; taken by Caesar, 
VII. 532; Octavlus studied there, 
194, VI. 174, IX. 170; favoured 
Brutus, VI. 180 f. 

Apollonia (2), on the river Rhvndacus, 
II. 504 

Apollonia (3), in Sicily, ruled by tyrant 
Leptines, VI. 318 

ApoUonides (1), Dion's intimate 
friend, IX. 126 

ApoUonides (2), Stoic, with Cato at 
Utica, VIII. 396, 402 

Apollonius (1), Molon's son, taught 
Caesar and Cicero oratory, vii. 90, 
446; quoted, 92 

Apollonius (2), tyrant of Zenodotia 
in Mesopotamia, lll. 364 

Apollophanes of Cyzicus, brings 
Agesilalisand Pharnabazus together, 

V. 32 

Apollothemis, says Lycurgus died in 

Elis, I. 302 
Aponius, informer under Nero, XI. 

222 
Apothetae, at foot of Mt. Taygetus, 

334 



where Spartans exposed sicki'x 

children, i. 254 
Appian Way, see " Way, Appian." 
Appii, always belonged to party of 

senate and nobles, Vl. 454 
Appius, governor of Sardinia, visit.- 

Caesar at Luca, vii. 494; brings- 

from Gaul Pompey's troops lent 

Caesar, V. 266 
Appius, M., questioned by Cicero, 

VII. 148 
Appius Claudius (1), hostile to plebs, 

supports Coriolanus, IV. 164 
Appius Claudius (2), marries daughter 

to Ti. Gracchus, X. 150; helps Ti. 

Gracchus frame agrarian law, 16'^^; 

one of three to distribute public 

land, 174 
Appius Claudius (3), partisan of Sulla 

defeated by Telesinus the Samnite, 

IV. 418 

Appius Claudius Caecus, gave suffrage 

to freedmen, I. 518 ; opposes peace 

with Pyrrhus, speech quoted, ix. 

402 f. 
Appius Claudius Pulcher (1), sent with 

force to Syracuse, V. 466, 470; 

when consul, helped take Capua, 

III. 200 
Appius Claudius Pulcher (2), candidate 

for censor with Scipio Africanus 

the Younger, vi. 452 f . ; quoted, 454 
Appius Clausus, Sabine, with 5000 

families migrates to Rome, founder 

of Claudian family, i. 556 f . 
Appius Clodius, brother of LucuUus' 

wife, sent to Tigranes by Lucullus 

with demand for surrender of 

Mitliridates, II. 526, 534 f . 
Appuleius, see " Antistius." 
April, origin of name, celebration en 

the 1st, 1.368 
Apsephion, archon, names judges in 

contest between Aeschylus and 

Sophocles, 11.428 
Apsus river, described, X. 328 
Aptera, place in Crete, IX. 448 
Apuleius, L., accuser of Camillus, 

II. 122 
Apulia, where Hannibal defeats and 

Slavs proconsul Gnaeus Fulvius, 

V. 502 

Aquae Sextiae, scene of battle 
between Romans and Teutones, 
IX. 510 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Aquedacts, P. and Q. Marcius, 
brought best supply of water to 
Rome, IV. 118 

Aquillii, nephews of CoUatinus the 
consul, corrupted by Tarquin's 
enToys, I. 510 f.; condemned and 
beheaded, 516 f . 

Aquillius, tribune of plebs, supporter 
of Cato the Younger, Vlll. 338 

AquilUus, M'., left in charge of army 
by Marius, IX. 498 

Aquinius, il., called Adrastus by 
Cicero, vil. 150 

Aquinum, town, XI. 286 

Aquinus, defeated by Sertorius, VIII. 
36 

Ara Aii Locutii, see " Aii Locutii ara." 

Arabia, triumphed over by Lucullus, 
V. 230; III. 382; traversed by 
Antony, IX. 220 

Arabia Nabataea, invaded by Deme- 
trius, IX. 16 ; part toward outer sea 
given to Cleopatra, 218 

ArabianGulf, IX. 296 

Arabs, those about Mt. Antilibanus 
attacked by Alexander, vil. 292 ; 
nomadic A. moved to new localities 
by Tigranes, II. 536 ; come from sea 
of Babylonia to join Tigranes, 554; 
kings of, ofEer Lucullus their 
possessions, 668; slay Roman 
fugitives after Carrhae, III. 416; 
those about Petra burn Cleopatra's 
ships, IX. 296 

Arachosia, has Sibyrtins as governor, 
VIU. 136 

Aracus, appointed admiral to succeed 
Callicratidas, IV. 248 

Arar river, Tigurini crushed there by 
Labienus, vii. 486 ; 504 

Arateium, tomb of Aratus in Sicyon, 
XI. 120 

Araterium, place in Gargcttus, I. 80 

Aratus (1), on murder of father 
Cleinias, escapes to Argos, xi. 4 f . ; 
plots to overthrow tyrant Nicocles, 
10; expels Nicocles, attaches city 
to Achaean League, 20, X. 256 ; 
his character, 276, XI. 22, 30 f.; 
gets 25. talents from Ptolemy, 24; 
going to Egypt gets 150 talenti 
more, 30; courted by Antigonus, 
32 ; as general of League, ravages 
Locris and Calydouia, goes to help 
Boeotians, 34; takc& Acrocorinthus 



from Antigonus, 40 f ., X. 82 ; 
persuades Corinthians to join 
Achaean League, Xl. 52 ; tries to 
free Argos from tyranny, 56 f . ; 
brings Cleonae into Achaean League, 
64; defeats and slays Aristippus, 
tyrant of Argos, 66; brings 
Megalopolis into League, 68 ; in 
Aetolian war gets help from Sparta, 
70, X. 32 f.; defeats and drives 
Aetolians out of Pellene, XI. 72 f.; 
makes peace and alliance between 
Achaeans and Aetolians, 74; tries 
to seize the Peiraeus, 76 

Defeated at Phylacia by Bithys, 
Demetrius' general, 76 ; persuades 
Diogenes to give up the Peiraeus, 
Munychia, Salamis, and Sunium 
to Athenians for 150 talents, brings 
Aegina, llermione, and greater part 
of Arcadia iu to League, 78; brings 
Argos and Phlius into League, 80; 
defeated by Cleomenes near Mt. 
Lycaeum, captures Mantineia, 82, 
X. 60 ; fails to support Lydiades, 
who is defeated and slain by 
Cleomenes, 62, XI, 84; defeats 
Megistonolis at Orchomenus, but 
refuses re-election as general, 86, 
X. 80 ; after defeat of Achaeans at 
Hecatombaeum blocks peace with 
Cleomenes, 86, XI. 90; punishes 
disaffected at Sicyon, 92 ; loses 
Corinth, 94, X. 90; at Aegium 
secures vote of assembly to call in 
Antigonus, 82, 92, XI. 98; sailing 
to Epidaurus, helps recover Argos 
from Cleomenes, 102, x. 94; 
criticised for concessions to Anti- 
gonus, XI. 104: founds new settle- 
ment at Mantineia, 106 ; defeated 
by the Aetolians at Caphyae, 108; 
becomes estranged from Philip, 
112 f.; poisoned through plot of 
Philip, 118; buried at Sicyon, 
120 

See also X. 54,58, 80,274 
Commentaries of Aratus cited, 
X. 34, 84, 86, 90, XI. 74, 76, 88 

Aratus (2), Aratus' son, wronged by 
Philip, XI. 112 ; poisoned by Phili{), 
122 

Araies river, II. 554; tributary of 
Cyrnus, V. 206 ; boundary between 
Media and Parthia, IX. 25b; 256 

235 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ' LH'ES ' 



Arbac€s, ilede punished br Artaierxes, 
IS.. 156 

Arbela, where Alexander defeated 
Persians, II. 13S, VII. 316; V. 210 

Arcadia, n. 24:4 

Arcadians, acom-earers, IT. 122 ; have 
four months, I. S6S; lost large 
territory to Spartazis led br Soils, 
206; malicious toward Spartans, 
V. 60; raided bv Agesilaiis, S-i; 
opposed bv Pelopidas and Epami- 
nondasat ilantineia, 350; detache-i 
from Spartan coniederacj, 396 ; 
united into one power, 398 ; except 
Mantineia, receired into allegiance 
by Demetrias, IX. 5S, X. 56 ; 
greater part join Achaean League, 
XI. 7S 

Arcesilaus (1), ^jartan, his victcwies, 
n.434 

Arcesilaiis (2), Academic,!. 256, xi. 10 

Arcesilaiis (3), false friend of Agis, X. 40 

Archagetai means " kings," l. 222 

Archedamus (Archedemus), Aetolian, 
mocked Flamininos, X. 390; 
follower of Perseus, Ti. 416 

Archedemus, sent to inrite Plato 
to Syractise, Tl. 36 

Archelaiis (1), colleagne of Charilaiis, 
the Spartan king, I. 21S 

Archelaiis (2), naturalist, possible 
author of elegr addressed to Cimon, 
U. 412, 416 ■" 

Archelaiis (3), led Andgonus' forces 
in Corinth, defeated br Aratus, 
xr. 50 ; captured and dismissed, 
63 

Archelaiis (4), ilithridates' general, 
controls sea, his operations, iv. 35S, 
n. 556 ; lies with feet at Munjchia, 
IT. 372,454: sets out for Chaeroneia 
37S; defeated at Chaeroneia by 
Sulla, 3S2 f . : defeated at Orcht.-- 
menus by Sulla, 392 f ., u. 504 ; 
parleys with Sulla near Delimu, 
IV. 396; meets Sulla at Philippi, 
400 f.; urges LucuUtis to invade 
Pontus,n.494; 49S 

Archelaiis (5), merchant ot Delois, 
arranges meeting between Sulla and 
Archelaiis, Mithridates' general, 
rv. 396 

Archelaiis (6), friend of M. Antony, 
warred on by him, then given royal 
burial. IX. 144 

J0° 



Archelaiis (7^, king of Cappadoda, 
ights under Antony, rx. 276 

Archertoiis, Thernistocles' scr. 
marries ilnesipciclema, his hal:- 
sister, n. 86 f . 

Archery, power of Parthian bows. 
III. sss 

Archestraros (1), choral poet in time 
of Pelopoimesian war, n. 212 ; 
saying re Aldbiades, IV. 42, 254 

Archestratus (2), introduces decree to 
denounce Phocion to Polysperchon. 
VIII.222 

Archias (1), with Leontidas and Philip, 
persuades Phoebidas to seixe Oad- 
meia, v. 350 f. ; with Leontidas, 
made ruler of Thebes, 66 ; slam by 
Pelopidas" followers, 360 f- 

Archias (2), hierophant at Athois, 
sends warr-.ing to Archias, Theban 
tyrant, v. S64 

Archias (3), the exile-hunter, arrests 
Hypereides, Aristonicus, and 
Himeraeus, and sends them to 
Antipater, tries to get Demosthenes, 
vn. 70 f. 

Archie iades, Athenian, nlckname-d 
Laconistes, vni. 166 

Archibius, gives Octavins SOOO talents 
to spare statoes of Qeopatra, ix. 
330 

Archidamia, Spartan woman, urges 
men to drfend city against Pyrrhus, 
IX. 43S 

Archidamia, Agis' grandmother, very 
rich, X. 10, 16; executed by 
Amp hares, 46 

Archi iamidas. Spartan, savings : I. 
266, 263 

Archidamus (IX Zeuxidamns' son, 
left sons Agis and Agesilaiis, v. 2, 
452 ; line-l for marrying little 
woman, 4 ; saves Sparta at time d 
earthquake, 464 ; tries to avoid war 
with Athens, m. 84; invades 
Attica, ^ 

Sayings : lEL 22 ; 318, X. 113 

Archidamus (2), Agesilaiis* son, Agis 
and Eudamidas' father, I. 296, 
V. 112, X. 8; intercedes for Spho- 
drias, v. 70 : conquers Arcadians in 
"tearless battle," 92 ; 96 ; slain with 
his army in Italy, n. 138, X. 8 

Archidamus (3),sacceeded Eudamidas, 
followe-j by Eudamidas, X. 8; 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



defeated by Demetrius near 
Mantineia, 15. 84 

-Vrchidamus (4), Agis' brother, escapes 
after his death, x. 50 ; called from 
Messene, made king, executed, 60 

Archidamas (5), Aetolian, remains 
with Persens in his night, vi. 416 

" Axchilochi," work of Cratinus, 11. 434 

Archilochus, loved by gods for sake 
of Muses, I. 318, in. 4; his tone 
adopted by Cato the Younger in 
iambics, vm. 250 

(Bersk ll. 383), 1, 10 

(Bergk II. 392), m. 80 

(Bersk II. 333). vm. 160 

(Ber?k n. 428 f \ ES. 520 

(Bergk n. 398), XI. 268 

Archimedes, his geometry, mechanics, 
defence of Syracuse, v. 470 f . ; 
asked that cylinder enclosing sphere 
with formula be placed on his 
grave, 480 ; his death, 486 

Archippe, Lysander's daughter, 
Themistocles' wife, n. 86 

Archippus, quoted (Kock I. 688), IV. 4 

Architeles, Athenian, opposes Themis- 
tocles at Artemisium, ll. 20 

Archonides, Syracusan, vi. 88 

Archons, in ancient times chosen 
by lot; ex-archons promoted to 
Areiopagus, III. 26 ; to be chosen 
from all the people, II. 280 ; EX. 26 

See also n. 210, 214, 226, 228, 42S, 
vn. 58 

Archyt&s, with Eudoitis, orginatcd 
art of mechanics, v. 470; Pytha- 
gorean: persuaded to assist in 
bringuig Plato to Sicily, n. 36 ; 
rescues Plato from peril, 40 

Arcissus, ex-harmost of Thebes, 
executed by Spartans, v. 370 

Arctums, his rising cause of storm, 
VI. 52 

Ardea, led by Camillas, its people 
defeat Gauls, n. 150 

Ardettus, place in Athens, I. 62 

Areiopagus, Coimcil of, established 
by Solon. Its duties, I. 454, 464; 
tried PeLsistratus for murder, 494, 
II. 30 ; attacked by Ephialtes, 436 ; 
it« power broken by Ephialtes, 
450, m. 20, 26; to investigate 
Harpalus matter, vii, 62 ; supports 
Phocion, viil. 178; induced by 
Cicero to honoar Cratippus, Vll. 142 



Areios, philosopher, honoured in 
Alexandria by Octavius, rx. 316 f . 

Ares, gave victory over Persians, ll. 
272 ; father of Harmonia, v. 386 

Aretaeus, name of Dion's son accord- 
ing to Timaeus, \T. 68 

Arete, daughter of Dionysius the 
Elder and Aristomache, marries 
Thearides, then Dion, her uncle, 
VI. 12 ; married to Timocrates, 42 ; 
restored to Dion, 108; murdered 
by Hicetas, 120 f ., 340 

Arethusa (1), in Macedonia, had tomb 
of Antony, I. 302 

Arethusa (2), given Monaeses by 
Antony, ix. 220 

Areus, Spartan king, Acrotatus' son, 
fell at Corinth, x. 10, IX. 434; 436; 
444; 446; 452 

Argas, nickname of Demosthenes, 
\^I. 10 

Argileonls, Brasidas' mother, replies 
to Amphipolitans, I. 282 

Arginusae, sea-fight of ; CalUcratidas 
defeated, in. 108, iv. 248 

Argives, misgoverned, drove out 
kings, I. 226; defeated utterly by 
Spartans, IV. 234: left in Amfhic- 
tyonic Alliance through Themis- 
tocles in spite of Spartans, II. 56; 
hated Sparta, urged by Alcibiades 
to look to Athens, iv. 32 ; 292 ; make 
alliance with Athens, lu. 244, iv. 
36 : after Mantineia crush attempt 
of "The Thousand," persuaded by 
Themistocles to attach city com- 
pletely to Athens, 38 ; on left ^ing 
at Coroneia, routed by Agesilalis, 
V. 46 ; hindered at Isthmian games 
by Agesilalis, 56 ; with Cleomenes 
fight against Corinthians, Vl. 268 

Argivus, freedman, buried Galba by 
night, XI. 270 

Argo, commanded by Jason, I. 38 

Argolis, overrun by Cleomenes, X. 58 

Argos, expelled king Gelanor, cap- 
tured by Danalis, IX. 454; 11. 62; 
V. 174; detached from Spartan 
confederacy, 396 ; freed by Deme- 
trius, IX. 58 ; XI. 6 ; EX. 446 ; scene 
of battle, where Pyrrhus is slain, 
450 f . ; under tyrant Aristomachus, 
XI. 56 ; attacked by Aratus, 60 f . ; 
seized by Agias and younger 
Aristomachus, 66 ; joins Achae&n 

337 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



League, 80, 102 ; Achaeans meet 
there to confer with Cleomenes, 

X. 84; joins Cleomeues, 88 f., 

XI. 90; lost to Cleomenes, X. 9G ; 
its land ravaged by him, lOG; 
recovered by Achaean League, 
XI. 102 

Ariadne, falls in love with, carried 
ofiE by Theseus, I. 36, 196 ; deserted 
by Theseus, 66 ; various stories 
about her, 40 ; honoured in festival 
of Oschophoria, 50 

Ariaeus, OjTnis' friend, at Cunaxa, 
XI. 148 

Ariamnes (1), Xerxes' brother, slain 
at Salamis, II. 42 

Ariamnes (2), Arab chieftain, treacher- 
ously gives Crassus bad advice, 

III. 374, 382 

Ariarathes (1), king of Oappadocia, 
to give place to Eumenes, Vlll. 84; 
captured, 88 

Ariarathes (2), Mithridates' son, over- 
running Thrace and Macedonia, 

IV. 358; poisonedbyM., V. 212 
Ariarathes (3), buys Mithridates* 

sword-belt, v. 224 
Ariaspes, Artaxerxes' son, scared into 

committing suicide, XI. 200 
Arimanius, Persian god, II. 76 
Ariminum, V. 442 ; occupied by 

Caesar, v. 272, Vll. 520, viil. 360 
Arimnestus (1), general of Plataeans, 

interprets his dream to Aristides, 

II. 246 
Arimnestus (2), Spartan, slays Mar- 

doaius, II. 270 
Ariobarzanes (1), Mithridates' father, 

IX. 10 
Ariobarzanes (2), reinstated as king 

of Cappadocia by Sulla, iv. 334 f.; 

to receive Cappadocia again from 

Mithridates, 398; 404 
Ariobarzanes (3), king of Cappadocia, 

to be supported by Cicero, vil. 

172 
Ariomanden, Gobryas' son, leader of 

Persian forces at Eurymedon, 

II. 440 
Aiiovistus, defeated by Oaesar, escapes 

acio.s.s Rhine, Vil. 486 f . 
Ariphron, Xanthippus' son, Pericles* 

brother, Alcibiades' guardian, iv. 

2,8 
Aristacnus, Megalopolitan, general of 



Achaeans, sent to prevent Philo- 
poemen being exiled, X. 290; 304 

Aristaeus, his disappearance liie that 
of Romulus, 1. 178 

Aristagoras, town-clerk of Cyzicus, 
11.500 

Aristander of Telmessus, seer with 
Philip, and then with Alexander, 
VII. 226, 260, 294, 296, 316, 322, 
368, 374 

Aritfteas, Argive, invites Pyrrhus to 
Argos, IX. 446 ; admits him, 450 

Aristides (1), Lysimachus' son, his 
family and position, ii. 210 f ., 390f . ; 
his political principles; opposed 
Themistocles,8, 214, 436 ; character, 
8, 216 f., 250, 260, 436; fought 
brilliantly at Marathon, 224; 
ostracized, 16, 32, 230, 248; 
supports Themistocles at Salamis, 
36 f . 234, ; condemns Themistocles' 
plan to break bridge of boats, 238 ; 
leads Athenians at Plataea, 244 f.; 
proposes decree to assembled 
Greeks re war against Persians, 
278; proposes decree to make 
government democratic, 280; con- 
demns Themistocles' plan to burn 
Greek naval station, 56, 282 ; by 
tact and diplomacy steals leader- 
ship from Spartans, 282, 420 ; 
chosen by allies to levy assessment 
upon them, 286 f.; liis death, 294, 

III. 18; leaves family in povertv, 
296, 392. See also II. 68, 418, 

IV. 228 

Sayings: II. 44, 218, 220, 222, 

236, 242, 250, 288 
Aristides (2), Xenophilus' son, ii. 212 
Aristides (3), Locrian, companion of 

Plato, VI. 274 
Aristides (4), author of " Milesiaca," 

III. 418 
Aristion, tyrant at Athens, I. 338, 

II. 530; character and acts; 

besieged by Sulla, iv. 366 ; forced 

to surrender by Curio, 372 ; 

poisoned by Sulla, 400 
Arlstippus (1) of Gyrene, quoted re 

Dionysius, vi. 38; re Plato sind 

Dionysius, 40 
Ariitippus (2) of Argos, has feud with 

Aristeas, IX. 446 
Aristippus, succeeds Aristomachus as 

tyrant of Argos; prosectites 



338 



I 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Achaeans for attack in time of 

peace, XI. 58; 60; fights •with 

Aratus at Chares river, 62 f . ; 

defeated and slain, 64 f . 
Aristoboule, name given by Themis- 

tocles to temple of Ajtemis built 

by him, li. 60 
Aristobulus (1) of Alexandreia, cited 

re Demosthenes, Vll. 56 ; re Alex- 
ander, 260, 268, 272, 284, 356, 432 
Aristobulus (2), king of Jews, taken 

by Pompey, v. 216; led in his 

triumph, 230 ; having caused Jews 

to revolt, defeated and taken with 

his son by Antony, IX. 142 
Aristocleitus, father of Lysander of 

the Heracleidae, IV. 234 
Aristocrates (1), speech against, by 

Demosthenes, vii. 32 
Aristocrates (2), cited re Lvcurgus, 

I. 216, 302 ; re Philopoemen, x. 302 
Aristocrates (3), rhetorician with 

Antony, IX. 294 
Aristocritus, sent to Philip by 

Plxodarus to arrange a marriage, 

Wl. 248 
Aristodemus (1), ancestor of Lycurgus, 

1.206; V.52 
Aristodemus (2) of Miletus, courtier 

of Antigonus and Demetrius, ix. 20, 

38 
Arsltodemus (3), tyrant, defeats and 

slays Acrotatus at Megalopolis, 

X. 10 ; killed through plotting of 

Ecdemus and Megalophanes, 256 
Aristodicus of Tanagra, murders 

Ephialtes, III. 32 
Ariatogeiton (1), his granddaughter 

given dowry by Athenians, II. 298 
Aristogeiton (2), public informer at 

Athens, viii. 166; speech against 

him delivered by Demosthenes 

himself, m. 36; Ylll. 168 
Aristomache, Dion's sister, Dionysius 

the Elder's wife, VI. 6; her children, 

12; 108; drowned by order of 

Hicetas, 122 
Aristomachus (1), exile from Sicyon, 

friend of Aratus, XI. 10 
Aristomachus (2), tyrant of Argos, 

killed by slaves, succeeded by 

Aristippus, XI. 58 
Aristomachus (3), vrith Agias seizes 

Argos, XI. 66; resigns and is made 

gen eral of Achaean League, XI . 80 f . , 



X. 58; tortured at Cenchreae aud 
drowned, XI. 102 

Aristomenes, thrice offered sacrifice 
for 100 Spartans slain, I, 168; said 
by Messenians to have slain 
Theopompus, Spartan king, x. 48 

Ariston (1), helps Peisistratus become 
tyrant, I. 490 

Ariston (2), Corinthian captain, by 
ruse defeats Athenians under 
Menander and Euthydemus, III. £80 

Ariston (3), captain of Paeonians, 
rewarded by Alexander, vii. 338 

Ariston (4) of Chios, cited, li. 354, 
VII. 24, 74 

Ariston (5) of Ceos, philosopher, cited, 
II. 8, 216 

Aristonicus (1) of Marathon, executed 
by Antipater, VII. 70 

Aristonicus (2), son of harpist's 
daughter, used reputed connexion 
with Eumenes to fill all Asia with 
wars and rebellions, X. 384 

Aristonicus (3), joined in Asia by 
Elossius, X. 194 

Aristonicus (4), Mithridates' admiral, 
taken by Lucullus, II. 504 

Aristonous, harper, his encounter 
with Lysander, iv. 282 

Aristophanes (1) : — 

Acharnians, 524 f ., III. 88 
Babylonians (Kock i. 408), ill. 76 
Birds, 638 f.. III. 234 
Farmers (Kock i. 416), ill. 234 
Frogs, 1425. 1431-1432, IV. 40 
Knights, 358, III. 222; 382, IX. 

28; 815,11.54 
Lysistrata, 1137 f ., II. 454 
Wasps, 44 f ., IV. 4 

Aristophanes (2), one of Alexander's 
bodj-guards, Vll. 372 

Aristophon (1), painted Nemea with 
Alcibiades in her arms, IV. 42 

Aristophon (2), archon, vil. 58; VIII. 
160 

Aristotle (1), native of Stageira, 
tutored Alexander, VII. 240; 242; 
introduced Alexander to works of 
Theodectas, 272; thought Callis- 
thenes able speaker, but lacking in 
common sense, 380; related to 
Callisthenes, hated by Alexander, 
384 ; said to have counselled 
Antipater to poison Alexander, 
436 ; had gift of persuasion accord- 

,^39 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



ing to Antipater, ll. 390, IV. 224; 
called river of liquid gold by Oicero, 
VII. 140; abused by Timaeus, ill. 
210; his writings in library of 
Apellicon the Teian; seized by 
Sulla and sent to Rome, IV. 406 

Statements : Theseus gave up 
absolute rule, I. 54 ; Lycurgus and 
Iphitus established Olympic truce, 
204; Why 28 members in Council 
of Elders at Sparta, 220 ; Orannon 
a river and Babyca a bridge, 222 ; 
KpvTn-eCoL one of Lycurgus' institu- 
tions, 288 ; Ephors on coming into 
office declared formal war on 
Helots, 290; Honours paid 
Lycurgus less than deserved, 300 ; 
Solon supported Delphian oracle, 
428; Tables of law at Athens were 
called Kvp/3«i9, 472 ; Ashes of 
Solon scattered on island of Salamis, 
498; Lucius saved Rome from 
Gauls, II. 148; Pythocleides was 
Pericles* music teacher, ill. 10; 
(should be Plato, Alcibiades, 1. 118c) ; 
Pericles defeated by Melissus in 
sea-fight, 76 ; Athenians not brutal 
to Samians, 78; Ephors having 
entered upon office, bid all men to 
shave moustaches and obey laws, 
X. 66 

Constitution of Athens, (25. 4), 
III. 32; (27. 3), II. 432; (27. 4), 
III. 26; (28. 5), III. 212 

Constitution of Bottiaea (Athen- 
ians were not put to death by 
Minos, but made slaves, etc.), I. 30 

Biad of the Casket, edition 
carried by Alexander, vil. 242, 298 

On Nobility of Birth? (Myrto, 
granddaughter of Aristides, wife of 
Socrates?), 11.296 

On the Soul, occasion of its being 
written, VI. 46 

Fragment 56 (Rose), V. 346 ; 97, 
V. 384; 556,1.6 

Politics (II. 6. 8), I. 244 

Problems, (30. 1), iv. 236 
Aristotle (2), logician, with Deinias, 

slays Abantidas, xi. 6 
Aristotle (3), causes revolt against 

Cleomenes in Argos, X. 94, XI. 102 
Aristoienus, musician, says Lycurgus 
died in Crete, I. 302; falsely says 
Myrto, granddaughter of Aristides, 



was wife of Socrates, II. 296; vi. 
294 ; his memoirs tell of Alexander's 
person, VII. 232 

Aristratus, tyrant of Sicyon, painted 
by Melanthus and Apelles, XI. 28 

Aristus, brother of Antiochus of 
Ascalon, friend of M. Brutus, vi. 
128 

Armenia, attacked by Perseus, ll. 
410 ; disturbed by Neopotolemus, 
VIII. 88; ruled by Tigranes, II. 512 ; 
Lesser A. occupied by Lucullus, 
526; 536; invaded by Lucullus, 
548; conquered by Lucullus, 140, 
572,111.370 ; people of.join Tigranes, 
II. 554; nature of ground and 
weather, 576, 590; Lucullus' 
trophies there, 592; added to 
Pompey's sway by Manilian Law, 
V. 190; invaded by Pompey on 
invitation of young Tigranes, 202, 

VII. 106 ; left in charge of Afranius 
by Pompey, v. 204; 208; 216; 
triumphed over by Pompey, 230; 
conquered by Canidius, DC. 214; 
traversed by Antony, 220 

Armilustrium, on Aventine, has grave 

of Tatius, 1. 164 
Army, Roman, its armour and 

weapons improved by Oamillus, 

II. 198 ; its weapons, 558 f . 
Amaces, royal eunuch, sent with 

message from Themistocles to 

Xerxes, ll. 46, 240 
Arpates, Teribazus' son, slays Arsames, 

XI. 202 
Arpinum, Cicero had country-seat 

there, vil. 100 ; IX. 468 
Arrhenides, father of Callicles, vii. 62 
Arrhidaeus, Philip's son, to marry 

Ptxodarus' daughter, Vll. 248; 

drugged by Olympias, 436; orders 

Eumenes to wage war on Antigonus, 

VIII. 116 

Arrius, Q., brings news of Catiline's 

army, vil. 118 
Arron, Tuscan, led Gauls into Italy, 

II. 126 f. 
Arruntius, led Octavius' centre at 

Actium, IX. 288 
Arsaces, Parthian king, sends message 

toCrassus, III.366; V. 314. See also 

" Uyrodes." 
Arsaf'idae, Parthian royal line, III. 

420 



340 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Arsames, illegitimate son of Artaxer- 
xes, slain by Arpates, XI. 200 f . 

Arsania river, battle of, between 
Lucullus and Armenians, II. 574 f . 

Arsian grove, scene of battle between 
Tarquin and Eomans, I. 522 

.Arsicas, name of Artaxerxes II. at 
first, XI. 128 

Arsis river, where Pompey defeats 
Carbo's cavalry, v. 130 

Artabanus, gives audience to Themis- 
tocles, II. 72 

Artabazes (Artabazus), comes to 
Grassus' camp with 6000 horsemen, 
in. 370; seized by Antony because 
deserted in Media by him, EX. 340. 
See also " Artavasdes." 

Artabazus (1), with 40,000, escaped at 
Plataea, il. 272 

Artabazus (2), father of Phamabazus, 
vni. 96; of Barsine, 80, VII. 234 

Artagerses, commander of Cadusians, 
slain at Cunaxa by Cyrus, xi. 146 f ., 
156 

Artasyras, the King's Eye, discovers 
and reports death of Cyrus, xi. 152, 
158 

Artavasdes (Artabazes) king of 
Armenia, punished by Hyrodes, 
III. 376 ; sends message to Crassus, 
380; reconciled to Hyrodes, 420; 
deserts Antony, IX. 224; robbed 
Antony of victory, led in triumph 
at Alexandria, 252 ; wrote tragedies 
orations, histories, ill. 420 

Artaias, king of Armenia, induced 
by Hannibal to build Artaxata 
and make it Armenian capital, ll. 
572 

Artaxata, royal city of Tigranes, 
attacked by Lucullus, II. 572 ; left 
untaken, 578 

Artaxerxes (l),sumamed Longimanu?, 
Xerxes' son, XI. 128; received 
Themistocles, n. 72, 76 f . 

Artaxerxes (2), son of Dareius and 
Parysatis, grandson of Artaxerxes 
I., "xi. 128; in danger from his 
brother Gyrus, 132 f . ; his character, 
134; rebelled against by Cyrus, 
136 f.; warned by Tissaphemes of 
Cyrus' intention, 138; urged by 
Teribazus to fight, 140; battle of 
C^inaxa, 142 f . ; death of Cyrus, 
148 f.; Clearchus and his fellow- 



generals seized and slain, 166 f.; 
A. fails to capture Greeks, who had 
come with Gjtus, 172; attacked 
by Agesilalis, drives Spartans from 
Asia and the sea by bribery, 174 f . ; 
dictates Peace of Antalcidas, 176; 
refuses Spartans money after 
Leuctra, 178 ; puts Tissaphemes to 
death, 180; marries his daughter 
Atossa, 182 ; fails in war against 
Egyptians, and against Cadusians, 
184 f.; proclaims Dareius his suc- 
cessor, 190; makes an enemy of 
Teribazus, 194; is plotted against 
by Teribazus and Dareius, 194 f.; 
has Dareius executed, 198 f.; on 
learning of death of his sons 
Ariaspes and Arsames through his 
son Ochus, he dies, ninety-four 
years old, 200 f. See also Y.ilG 
Sayings : XI. 134, 136 

Artayctus, husband of Xerxes' sister, 
11.38 

Artemidorus (1), guided Lucullus to 
position above ilithridates, ll. 516 

Artemidorus (2), Cnidian philosohper, 
gives Caesar a written warning, 
VII. 594 

Artemis, temple of, built by Themis- 
tocles and named Aristoboule, 
II. 60 ; temple of, named Proseoea, 
24 

Artemis of Ecbatana, called Anaitis, 
XI. 192 

Artemis, Ephesian, temple of, burned, 
VII. 230 

Artemis Eucleia, temple of, had tomb 
of Euchidas, 11.276 

Artemis Orthia, temple of, in Sparta, 

I. 72 ; youths flogged to death at 
her altar, 262 

Artemis, Persia, highly honoured by 

barbarians beyond Euphrates, ll. 

548 
Axtemis of Colophon, at banquet of 

Alexander, \^I. 372 
Artemis of Priapus, II. 510 
Artemisia, fights for Xerxes at 

Salamis, 11.18 f., 42 
Artemisium, location and description, 

II. 22; IV. 2 

Artemisius, Macedonian name of 

month, VII. 2G4 
Artcmon Periphoretus, engineer, told 

of in brief. III. 78 

341 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



/Vrthmiadas, chief helper of Lycurgus, 

1.218 
Artlimius of Zeleia, disfranchised for 

offering gold of Medes to Greeks, 

11.18 
Artisans, list of kinds at Athens, 

III. 38 
Artorius, M., Octavius' friend, VI. 

218 
Arts, compared with senses, ix. 2 
Axaas (1), Lars Porsena's son, urges 

father to make peace with Romans, 

I. 550; rescues Roman maidens, 
552 

Aruns (2), Tarquin's son, and Brutus, 

the consul, slay each other, l. 522 
Arverni, with Carnuntini (Carnutes), 

lead revolt against Caesar, VII . 504 f . 
Arybas, son of Alcetas, and father by 

Troas of Aeacides, IX. 346 
Arymbas, brother of Olyrapias, wife 

of Philip of Macedon, vil. 226 
As, current copper coin in time of 

CamiUus, II. 124 
A,sbolomeni, name of Damon's 

descendants, II. 408 
Ascalis, son of Iphtha, Maurusian, 

defeated by Sertorius, vill. 22 
Ascalon, Antiochus of, see " Antio- 

chus of Ascalon." 
Asclepiades (1), Hipparchus' son, 

reports death of Alexander, VIII. 

194 
Asclepiades (2), answered by Didymus, 

1.404 
A=clepias, temple of, at Epidaurus, 

plundered by pirates, V. 174 
Asculum (1) taken by Strabo, v. 124 
A senium (2) battle of, IX. 412 f. 
Asia (1), separated from Asia by 

isthmus 300 furlongs long, ix. 296; 

set in order by Agesilalis, V. 38; 

cleared of Persians by Cimon, ll. 

438; VII. 264; wrested from Romans 

by Mithridates; 150,000 Romans 

massacred in one day, IV. 358, 404; 

398 ; fined 20,000 talents by Sulla, 

II. 532, rv. 406 ; its state after 2nd 
Mithridatic war; relieved by 
LucuUus, II. 532, VII. 90; 180; 
decreed province of Trebonius, 
VI. 168; being subdued by Par- 
thians under Labienus, IX. 204 

Asia (2), Themistocles' youngest child, 
reared by Phrasicles, II. 88 

342 



Asiatic style of oratory, popular in 
Antony's time, IX. 140 

Asiaticus, Galba's freedman, helped 
Otho, XI. 250 

Asinaria, Syracusan festival to cele- 
brate capture of Nicias, III. 304 

Asinarus river, where Nicias made last 
stand, III. 302 

Asinius, Antony's friend, IX, 156 

Asliiius Pollio, accompanies Caesar 
over the Rubicon, vil, 522 ; sent 
af^ainst Cato in Sicily, VIII. 362 : 
with Caesar at Pharsalus, V. 304; 
with Caesar in Africa, VII. 566 ; 
cited, 552, V. 304 

Asopian plain, I. 424 

Asopis, Sinope's mother, ll. 544 

Asopus river, Persians encamped by 
it before Plataea, ii. 244, 256 

Aspasia (1), Milesian, Axiochus' 
daughter, her relations with Pericles, 
III. 68; tried for impiety, begged 
off by Pericles, 92 

Aspasia (2), Phocaean, Hermotinus' 
daughter. Gyrus' special favourite, 
Artaxerxes' concubine, made 
priestess of Artemis of Ecbatana, 

III. 72, XI. 190 f. 
Aspendus, city in Asia, IV. 76 
Aspetus, name of Achilles in Epeirote 

tongue, IX. 346 

Asphalius, name of Neptune, why 
given, 1. 86. 

Aspis, strong position in Argos, IX. 
450, 452, X. 88 

Assessment, of Hellenes by Aristides, 
II. 286, 386; paid by Athenian 
allies, 438 ; 130,000 on listsat Rome, 
widows and orphans excused, 

I. 534; revised by censors, II. 346 ; 
that of Cato the Elder, 354 

Assian plain, where Archelalis en- 
camped, rv. 380 
Assus river, empties into Cephisus, 

IV. 378 ; crossed by Sulla, 380 
Assyrians, settled in Tigranocerta, 

11.552; III. 382 
Asteria, Salaminian, wooed by Oimon, 

II. 416 

Astcropus, ephor, first to extend 

power of oflBce, X. 70 
Astronomy, Anaxagoras' account of 

heavenly bodies, IV. 262; v. 12; 

more exact science in Plutarch's 

time, n. 274. See also " Meteor." 



I 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Astura, place of Cicero's on sea-coast, 

VII. 202 
Astyochus, admiral opposed to 

AthenianF, rv. 70 f. 
Astypalein, Cleomedes of, see " Cleo- 

medes of Astypaleia." 
.Istyphilus of Posidonia, interprets 

Cimon's dream, ll. 460 
Asylum, God of, I. 114 
Ateius, tribune of plebs, tries to keep 

Crassus from lea\-ing city on 

Parthian expedition, ill. 362 
Ateius, M., first of Sulla's men to 

mount wall of Athens, iv. .368 
Athamania, in Greece, traversed by 

Caesar, V. 286 
Athamanians, plundered by Mace- 
donians, X. 364 
Athanis, cited, VI. 318, 350 
Athena, temple of, at Athens, I. 430; 

patroness of Athens, II. 28, IV. 8 ; 

II. 28, 30; by showing olive-tree, 
won sigainst Poseidon, il. 54; her 
temple at Plataea restored, 276; 
502; statue of her bv Pheidia?, 

III. 40, 44, 88 E. ; Plynteria of, when 
celebrated, IV. 98; 368; ix. 54; her 
precinct at Belbina commands 
entrance into Laconia, X. 56 

Athena of the Brazen House, x. 26, 36 

Athena Hygieia, statue of her set up 
by Pericles, III. 44 

Athena Itonis (Itonia), temple of, 
V. 50, IX. 432 

Athena Optiliiis, given temple by 
Lvcurgas, I. 236 

Athena Syllania, I. 220 

Athenians — Rites, customs, etc.: 
rites in memory of Salamis taken 
by Solon, I. 426 ; bury dead facing 
west, 428; fond of euphemisms, 
442 ; great enemies of wolves, 468 ; 
oath of young warriors, IV. 38; 
Adonia festival, 48; rites on 
March 1st in memory of deluge, 372 
Laws, etc. : laws re Idleness, I. 
280, 450, 464, 494 ; archons at first 
chosen by lot, ill. 26; ostracism, 
II. 234, m. 246 f.; law re citizen- 
ship, 106 f . ; law re divorce, iv. 20 

Tribes named from occupations, 
I. 468: taught Greeks to sow grain 
and kindle fire, II. 434 ; pay tribute 
to Minos, I. 28 ; assembled into one 
city by Theseus, 50 f . ; divided 



into three classes, 54; attacked by 
Megariaus, and lose Nisaea and 
Salamis, 432 ; Hill-men, Plain-men, 
and Shore-men dispute re form of 
government, 434; debts cancelled 
by Solon, 442 ; A. given laws by 
Solon, 448 f.; made subject to 
Peisistratus, 488 f . 

Burn Sardis, fight at Marathon, 
II. 224 f.; fight at Salamis, 40 f., 
236 f . ; tempted by Xerxes to 
cease struggle, 240 ; fight at 
Plataea, 248 f . ; fortify city, 52 f . ; 
win allies from Spartans through 
Aristides, 282 f.; send aid to 
Corcyra against Corinth, III. 82 ; 
besiege Potidaea, 84; attacked by 
Spartans under Archidamus, 94; 
afiaicted by pestilence, 98 ; make 
peace with Spartans through Nicias, 
236; enter on Sicilian expedition, 
250 f., rv. 44 f.; suffor disaster in 
Sicily, III. 302 f . ; Alcibiades begins 
to help Athenians again, iv. 7o; 
defeated by Lysander at Aegos- 
potami, and forced to surrender 
their city, 106 f., 264 f.; accept 
Lvsander's terras, 270; ruled by 
Thirty Tvrants, 274; expel the 
Thirty, 290; grateful to Thebans 
for help, V. 354 

Embroiled with Sparta through 
Pelopidas, 372 ; aroused by Demos- 
thenes to unite with Thebans 
against Philip, VII. 42 ; defeated 
(at Chaeroneia) by Philip, 46 ; 
asked by Alexander to surrender 
Demosthenes and certain others, 
56 ; placate Alexander through 
Phocion, VIII. 182 ; besiege Anti- 
pater in Lamia, VII. 66 ; threatened 
by Antipater's army, viii. 202 ; 
acxiept his terms, 204, 11. 140 ; turn 
against Phocion, VIII. 220; 
governed for Demetrius the Phaler- 
oan for Ca««ander, IX. 18; freed 
by Demetrius Poliorcetes, 20 ; 
highly honour Demetrius, 24 f.; 
freed from Cassander's siege by 
Demetrius, 52 ; revolt from Deme- 
trius, and are besieged by him, 
114; assisted by Aratus in regaining 
freedom, XI. 78; send Carneades 
and Diogenes to Rome to beg 
cancellation of fine of 500 talents, 

343 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



II. 368 ; besieged by Sulla, iv. 360 f . ; 
their city captured, 368 f.; 
especially loved Octavia, IX. 266 

Athenodorus (1) of Imbros, released 
from prison by Alexander at 
Phocion's request, Vlll. 186 

Athenodorus (2), actor, fined by 
Athenians, when Alexander pays 
fine, VII. 308 

Athenodorus (3) Oordylion, Stoic 
philosopher, at Pergamum, won 
over by Gate the Younger, VIII. 
256, 268 

Athenodorus (4), Sandon's son, wrote 
book, addressed to Octavia, I. 
548 

Athenophanes, Athenian, makes 
experiment with naphtha, vil. 328 

Athens, made metropolis by Theseus, 
I. 4, 52 ; had perpetual fire, that 
went out in tyranny of Aristion, 
338; very poor in time of 2nd 
Persian war, 11.242; fortified under 
Themistocles, II. 52 ; beautified by 
Cimon, 446; adorned by Pericles, 

III. 34; enriched with holidays and 
public festivals by Pericles, 198; 
down to time of Caesars greatly 
outshone Rome in great public 
works, temples, etc.. III. 204 ; taken 
by Lysander, who tore down long 
walls, IV. 108, 270; her walls 
rebuilt by money from Pharnabazus, 
V, 62 ; spared by Alexander, VII. 
256; entered by Pyrrhus, IX. 378; 
captured by Sulla, iv. 344, 370; 
visited by Cato the Elder, ll, 336; 
given 50 talents by Pompey, v. 224 ; 
visited by Cicero, vil. 88 ; welcomes 
Brutus, VI. 176 

Athletic training, ill. 174, X. 260, XI. 6 
Athos, mountain, to be made into 

statue of Alexander, VII. 426 
Atilia, Serranus' daughter, Cato's 

wife, divorced for unseemly conduct, 

VIII. 28, 250, 254 
Atilius (M. Atilius Regulus), ll. 386 
Atilius, M., consul with T. Manlius, 

when temple of Janus was closed, 

1.372 
Atilius Vergillo, overthrows Galba's 

statue, XI. 264 
Atillius, friend of Brutus, VI. 212 
AtLso river, bridged by Lutatius 

Catulus, IX. 524; 526 

344 



Atlantic Islands, called Islands of the 

Blest, described, VIII. 20 
Atlantic Ocean, V. 214, VII. 498, VIll. 

20 
Atlantis, the lost, story of, heard from 

Egyptian priests by Solon, who 

tried to put it in poetry, i. 476, 494 ; 

story of, left unfinished by Plato, 

496 
Atlas, reputed father of Pasiphae, X. 

20 
Atossa, daughter of Artaxerxes, 

married by him, XI. 182, 194; 

urges Ochus to remove his rival?, 

200 
Atreus, part of, acted by Aesop, 

VII. 94 
Atridae, II. 424 
Atropatena, ravaged by Ajatony, 

IX. 222 

Atropateni, routed by Lucnllus, 

II. 574 
Attaleia, city in Pamphylia, v. 312 
Attains (1), uncle of Cleopatra, wife 

of Philip, VII. 246; offends 

Pausanias, 250; 382 
Attains (2), king, supports Flamininus' 

appeal to Thebans, dies of stroke, 

X. 338, II. 140, IX. 274 

Attains (3) Philometer, grew poisonous 
plants, IX. 46; made Roman 
people his heir, x. 176 

Attia (Atia), daughter of Caesar's 
sister, mother of young Caesar, 
VII. 196, IX. 206 

" Attic History," by Ister, i. 78 

Attica, mostly unfruitful and worth- 
less ; manufacturing encouraged by 
Solon, I. 464, 468; invaded by 
Mardonius, II. 242 ; often invaded 
by Spartans, I. 74; invaded by 
Archidamus, III. 94; invaded 
by Sphodrias at night, V. 374; 
freed from Cassander, ix. 62 ; 
invaded by Aratus, XI. 54 

Atticus, gets letter from Brutus, 
VI. 190 

Atticus, Julius, praetorian, claims 
to have slain Otho, xi. 262 

Attis, two of the name, one a SjTian, 
the other an Arcadian ; both killed 
by wild boar, vill. 2; story of, 
among Phrygians resembles that 
about Numa and Egeria, I. 316 

Attius, TuUus, see " TuUus Attius." 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Attias Varus, made governor of 
Libya by Pompey. with Sripio 
and Juba after Phar?-alup, Vlll. 372 

\vxiMJiiv Avert?, po-sibly connected 
with " ancile." 

Aufidius, in conspiracy against 
Sertoriu?,vllI.68, 74 

Aufidus, river in Italy, III. 160 

Augur, defined, v." 438, VI. 360; 
(Scero augur in place of yonnper 
Crassu?, VII. 172; Antony with 
help of Curio, IX. 148 ; Ti. Gracchus, 
X. 150 

August, month originally called Sex- 
tilis, I. 370, IX. 534 

Augustus Caesar (Octavius), son of 
Octavius and Attia, made heir and 
adopted son in Caesar's will, \ii. 
196, IX. 162, 206; quarrelling with 
Antony about inheritance, he 
supports Cicero, VI. 174, vii. 194, 
IX. 170 f.; fights at Mutina, VI. 
184, VII. 198; becomes consul, 
forms triumvirate with Antony 
and Lepidus, vi. 186, vii. 200, 600, 
IX. 178 ; indicts Brutus and Cassius 
for murder, VI. 184; marries 
Clodia, Fulvia's daughter, ix. 180; 
with Antony wars on Brutus and 
Cassius in Macedonia, VI. 208 f ., 
VII. 606, IX. 182 f.; after Philippi 
returns ill to Rome, 184; reconciled 
to Antony, divides empire with 
Viim and Lepidus, 202 f . ; makes 
peace with Sextus Pompeius, 206 ; 
renews peace with Antony at 
Tarentum, 214 f.; makes war on 
Pompeius, 216, 262 ; finds cause 
of complaint in Antony, 256, 260 f . ; 
disturbed by Antony's preparations 
and unrest in Italy, 268; reads 
Antony's will, 270 ; has war 
declared, 272 ; crosses Ionian sea 
and occupies Torune in Epeirus, 
278; wins at Actium, 284 f.; after 
receiving surrender of Antony's 
land forces, makes settlement with 
Greeks, 292 f . ; offers to spare 
Cleopatra, recalled to Italy, 304; 
next year takes Pelusium, defeats 
Antony, 306 f . ; learns of Antony's 
death," 314; enters Alexandria, 
316; executes Antyllus, Antony's 
son, 318; interviews Cleopatra, 
320 f. ; orders Cleopatra buried 

VOL. XI. 



with Antony, 330 ; becomes consul 

with Cicero's son as colleague, 

VII, 208; has doors of Janus' 

temple closed, I. 372 

His Memoirs, addressed to 

Agrippa and Maecenas, cited, V. 

520, VI. 184, 218, VII. 214, IX. 182, 

292 

Sayings: VI. 256, Vll. 208, IX. 318 
Aulis, where Agesilaiis is hindered 

in sacrifice, IV. 308, V. 14 f . 
Aurelia, J., Caesar's mother, vii. 

152, 462 
Aurelius, C, effects reconciliation 

of Pompey and Crassus, v. 170, 

III. 350 
Aurelius, Q., slain in Sulla's pro- 

scrintion, iv. 428 
Autocleides, his " Eiegetics " cited, 

III. 292 
AutoleoD, king of Paeonians, IX. 368 
Autolycus (1), founder of Sinope. 

etc., II. 542 1. 
Autolvcus (2), athlete, executed by 

the'Thirty, IV. 274 
Automatia, worshipped by Timoleon, 

VI. 346 
Auximum, Pompey levies troops 

from there, V. 128' 
Aventine hill, I. 154, 1 64, 358, X. 230 
Avillius, later name of Aollius, 1. 130 
Axiochus, Aspasia's father, III. 68 
Axius river, IX. 104 
Axius, suspected father of Crassus' 

son, VII. 144 
"A^oi'e?, wooden tablets on which 

Solon's laws were written, i. 472 



Babyca, in Plutarch's time called 

Cheimarrus ; a bridge according to 

Aristotle, I. 222 ; V. 382 
Babvlon, visited bv Alexander, VII. 

426; VIII. 84; XI.140 
Babylonia, sea of, ll. 554; has fiery 

soil. III. 332 ; submit? to Alexander, 

\ll. 328; invaded by Demetrius, 

IX. 16 
" Bacchae," of Euripidcp, sung before 

Uyrodcs, ill, 420 
Bacchiadae, fled from Corinth to 

Lacedaemon, IV. 234 
Bacchides, eunuch of Mithridates, 

11.524 
Bacchus, see " Dionysu.^." 



M 345 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



"Bacchvlides," Frag. 29 (Jebb, Bacch. 

p. 423), I. 320 
Bachelors, Thales of Miletus one, 

r. 416 ; penalized by Lycurgus, 

248; forced by Oamillus to marry 

widows, II. 96 
Bactria,ni.360,434 
Bawitrian cavalry, attack Macedonians, 

VII. 320 

Baculus, from /SaKrrjpio, is a rod in 

lictor's bundle, 1. 172 
Baebius, M., consul with P. Cornelius 

about 400 years after Nuna, I. 380 
Baetica, named from river Baetis, 

VIII. 20 ; governed by Fufidius, 30 
Baetis river, II. 330; empties into 

Atlantic, VIII. 20; 30 
Bagoas, had house at Susa, VII. 342 
Basroas, favourite of Alexander, VII. 

412 
Baiae, had warm baths, IX. 554 
Balbus, sent by Sulla, attacks 

Telesinus, IV. 418 
Balbus, Cornelius, flatterer of Caesar, 

VII. 582 
Balbus, Postumius, son-in-law of 

Publicola, I. 560 
Balissus, stream crossed by Crassus' 

army, ill. 384 
Balte, nymph, reputed mother of 

Epimenides of Phaestus, I. 432 
Bambyce, earlier name of Hierapolis, 

IX. 220 

Bandius, see " Bantius." 

Bantia, Italian city, V. 514 

Bantius, Lucius, won to Romans 

by Marcellus, v. 458 
Barbius, supports Otho, xi. 258 
Barca (1), saying re Hannibal, ill. 

168 
Barca (2), invites Oato and Munatius 

to supper, VIII. 326 
Bardyaei, slave bodyguard of Marias, 

rx. 584, 590 
BardvUis, marries daughter Bircenna 

to Pyrrhus, ix. 368 
Bargylia, city freed by Lentulus, 

X. 354 

Barsine (1), Artabazus' daughter, 
taken as mistress by Alexander, 
VII. 284, VIII. 80 

Barsine (2), Artabazus' daughter, 
given by Alexander to Eumenes, 

VITI.80 

Basilica (Pauli Aenulii), built by 



(Lucius Aemilius) Faulus, VII. 514, 
XI. 264 
Basilica Porcia, erected in forum 
by Cato the Elder, II. 356; tribunes 
of plebs transacted business there, 

VIII. 246 

Basillus, L., sent by Sulla to seize 

city-gate of Rome, iv. 354 
Bastamae, see " Bistemae." 
Bataces, priest of Great Mother at 

Pessinus, IX. 508 
Batalus, nickname of Demosthenes, 

VII. 10 
Bathycles,left beaker at Delphi, 1. 414 
Baton, of Sinope, cited, X. 34 
Bean, white, its use, ill. 76 
Bedriacum, Otho's soldiers there, 

XI. 300, 306 
Bedricum (Bedriacum), little village 

near Cremona, XI. 294 
Bees, bred in putrefying oxen, X. 140 
Beetles, bred in putrefying oxen, x. 

140 
Bclaeus, furnishes ship for Marius' 

flight, IX. 574 
Belbina, had precinct of Athena, x. 56 
Belgae, V. 246; occupied one third 

of Graul ; utterly defeated by Caesar, 

VII. 490 f. 
Belitaras, said to have given poison 

to Statira, XI. 170 
Bellinus, Roman praetor, taken by 

pirates, V. 176 
Bellona, temple of, IV. 348, 424, VII. 

112 
Beluris, secretary, XI. 180 
BpIus, temple of, at Susa, VII. 274 
Beneventum, Pyi-rhus defeated near 

it by M'. Gurius, IX. 426 
Bequest, Cicero received one of 

90,000 denarii, vii. 100 
Berenice (1), Ptolemy's wife, Anti- 
gone's mother ; courted by Pyrrhus, 

IX. 354 

Berenice (2) of Chios, Mithridates' 

wife, strangled, II. 526 
Berenicis, city on peninsula of 

Epeirus, built by Pyrrhus, ix. 360 
Beroea, taken by Pyrrhus, IX. 110, 

374 ; Pompey's headquarters, v. 280 
Berytus, city of Phoenicia, ix. 254 
Bessus, seizes Dareius, VII. 248; 

executed by Alexander, 252 
Bestia, failed against Jugurtha, ix. 

482 



346 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Bestia (L. Oalpumius), opposes Cicero, 

vn.l38 
Beverage, water used by Cato the 

Elder on campaigns, ii. 306 
Bias, declined golden tripod, 1. 412 
Bibtdns, L. Calpumius (1), husband 
of Porcia, by whom he had two 
sons, VIII. 292 f. ; as consul opposes 
Caesar's measures, 310, v. 236; 
overawed by Caesar's supporters, 
238, VIII. 312 ; remained at home 
for last eight months of his consul- 
ship, V. 240, VIJ. 474; proposes 
Pompey be made sole consul, v. 
628, VUI. 350; made admiral by 
Pompey, 366 ; wages war on 
Parthians, IX. 148 
Bibulus, L. Calpumius (2), Porcia's 
son, tells of incident in his mother's 
life, VI. 152, 176 
Bibulus, Publicius, tribune of plebs, 

denounces Marcellus, v. 510'f. 
Billeting, Sulla billets soldiers on 

people of Asia, iv. 406 
Bi'oi ira/5aAAYj-\oi, of Plutarch, 

mentioned, I. 2 
Bion, cited re Amazons, I. 58 
Bircenna, Bardvllis' daughter, married 

to Pyrrhus, ik. 368 
Bisaltae, Thracian people to whom 

Pyrrhus sent 1000 settlers. III. 34 
Bisanthe, in Thrace, IV. 106 
Bistemae, Gallic people along Danube, 
stirred up by Pyrrhus, Vl. 376 ; 
send 20,000 men to aid Pyrrhus; 
on account of his stinginess they 
return, 382 
Bithynia, IV. 80; surrenders to 
Alcibiades property of Chal- 
cedonians, 86, II. 326; ruled by 
Prusias, X. 378; conquered by 
Mithridates, IV. 358; 398; II. 490; 
invaded by Mithridates, 492 ; 502 ; 
510; vin. 66; held by Glabrio, 
given to Pompey by the Manilian 
law, V. 190; occupied by Phamaces, 
VII. 560; decreed province of 
Cimber, VI. 168 
Bithys, general of Demetrius II., 

defeats Aratus at Phylacia, Xl. 76 
Bito, named bv Solon as happy man, 

I. 480 
Blossius of Cumae, philosopher, 
friend of Antipater of Tarsus, said 
to have incited Ti. Gracchus to 



agrarian reform, X. 162, 186; 
pardoned, joined Aristonicus in 
Asia, committed suicide, 192 

Bocchoris, his judgment in case of 
Thonis, ix. 66 

Bocchus (1), king of Numidia, won 
over by Sulla, surrenders Jugurtha 
to Romans, IV. 328, 332, IX. 484; 
called ally of Roman people, and 
set up trophies on Capitol, iv. 336, 
IX. 552 

Bocchus (2), king of Libya, supports 
Antony, IX. 276 

Boedromia, Athenian celebration, i. 62 

Boedromion, Athenian month, I. 62, 
II. 138, 140, 274, VII. 68 

Boeorix, challenges Marius to set 
place and day for battle, IX. 530 

Boeotarchs, laws re their laying down 
command, V. 396 f.; Vll. 44 

Boeotia, settled by Opheltas and his 
subjects, II. 404; at Ceressus con- 
quered Lattamyas and Thessalians, 
138; formed terminus of medising 
part of Greece, 18; traversed by 
Xerxes, 234; 240; gave divine 
honours to Eucleia, 278; III. 56; 
invaded by Tolmides, 58 ; defeated 
Athens at Coroneia, iii. 58, iv. 2, 
V. 50 ; IV. 292 ; displeased by Peace 
of Nicias, III. 240; allied with 
Sparta, ill, 242, IV. 32 ; defeated 
Athenians.ni. 284; IV. 90 ; favoured 
Athenian refugees, 308; magistrates 
^top sacrifice of Agesilaiis at Aulis, 
IV. 308, V. 16; often invaded by 
Agesilaiis, I. 244, V. 46, 72 ; invaded 
by Cleombrotus, V. 66, 372; had 
territorial dispute with Athenians, 
VIII. 164; defeated by Athenians 
under Leosthenes, 196 ; allied with 
Demetrius, IX. 52 ; restless under 
Demetrius, 96 f . ; defeated at 
Chaeroneia by AetoUans, XI. 34; 
besieged Megara, X. 286; joined 
Romans, 338; scene of fighting 
between Sulla and generals of 
Mithridates, IX. 578; occupied 
by DorylaUs, IV. 390; II. 494 

Boii, northern people, 1. 142 

Bola, Latin city, taken by Volscians 
under Coriolanus, IV. 186 

Bona Dea, who she was; how 
worshipped, Ml. 128, 152, 402 

Bononia, meeting of Octavianns, 

347 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Antony, and Lepidus near It, 

VII. 200 
Borysthenis, Sphaerus of, X. 52 
Bosporus, held by son of Mithridates, 

IV. 358; V. 196; controlled by 
Mithridates, 214 

Bosporus, possible route of Amazons, 

1.60; V. 206 
" Bottiaea, constitution of," by 

Aristotle, I. 30 
Bottiaeans of Thrace, descendants of 

first-born of Cretans, once sent to 

Delphi, I. 30 
Boukatios, first month of Theban year, 

V. 398 

Boulimia, a disease, theory as to its 

cause, VI. 180 
Boys, Roman, how educated, I. 396 
Bovs, Spartan, how educated, I. 254 f ., 

396 
Brachyllas, Theban, X. 336 
Brasidas, son of Argileonis, I. 282 ; 

honoured by Chalcidians, 298; 

slain at Amphipolis, III. 236; IV. 

234; 280 
Brauron, place in Attica where son 

of Ajax resided, I. 428 
Brazen House, see " Athena of," 

and XaA/cioi/cos- 
Brennus, king of Gauls, recognizing 

Q. Ambustus, stops battle, and 

marches against Rome, ll. 132; 

enters Rome by CoUine gate, 146; 

surrounds Capitol with a guard, 

148; agrees to leave country on 

payment of 1000 gold lbs., "164; 

defeated by Camillus, 166 f . ; 

quoted at length, 130; 158; says 

" vae victis," 164 
Bribery, in elections at Rome began 

long after time of Coriolanus, at 

Athens Anytus first to bribe jurors, 

IV. 150; Demosthenes bribed, 

VII. 30; XI. 242 
Pride, Roman, had hair parted with 

spear, 1. 134 
Bridge over Tiber, details concerning, 

1.336 
Briges, Brutus' name for his camp 

servants, VI. 226 
Britanni, Caesar's expedition against 

them, V. 246, VII. 498 
Britomartus, king of Gauls, slain 

bv Claudius Marcellus, I. 138, V. 

450 



Brixillum, Italian town on the To, 

XI. 298 
Bronze-shields, In Perseus' army 

at Pydna, VI. 402 ; IV. 888 
Brundisium, II. 342, IV. 408 ; occupied 

byPompey, V. 278; 284; vii. 164; 

180; 186; IX. 214; station of 

Octavius' fleet, IX. 278 
Bruttians, attacked by Thurians, 

VI. 298; slay disgraced mercenaries 

of Timoleon, 332; in. 182; put to 

the sword by Fabius, 184 
Brut tins Sura, defeats Archelalis 

thrice at Chaeroneia, IV. 360 
Brutus (1), a steward, ancestor of 

M. Brutus according to some, 

VI. 126 
Brutus (2), son of the tyrannicide, 

VI. 154 

Brutus, Junius, leader in secession 
of plebs, one of first tribunes, 
IV. 130 

Brutus, D. Junius (Gallaecus), tri- 
umphed over Lusitanians, X. 194 

Brutus Albinus, D. Junius, friend of 
Caesar, IX. 162 ; joins conspiracy 
to murder Oaesar, vi. 160, vil. 692 f . ; 
596 ; given province of Cisalpine 
Gaul, VI. 168; his death avenged, 
186 

Brutus, L. Junius, assisted by Publi- 
cola, drove out kings, I. 504 f., 

VII. 684; I. 606; his sons plot to 
restore Tarquins, 508 ; has his sons 
executed, 514; slays Aruns in 
battle, and is slain by him, 522 ; 
ancestor of Brutus, the tyrannicide, 
VI. 126, 144; quoted, I. 514 

Brutus, M. Junius (1), praetor, sent to 
forbid Sulla advancing, iv. 360 

Brutus, M. Junius (2), defeated by 
Pompey, v. 128 f.; father of the 
tyrannicide; holds Cisalpine Gaul 
for Lepidus, surrenders to Pompey 
at Mutina, executed by Qeminius, 
152 f. 

Brutus, M. Junius (3), his lineage, 
VI. 126 f.; studied philosophy and 
rhetoric, 2 f., 128 f.; sent to Cyprus 
with Cato, his uncle, 130, VIII. 322 ; 
joins Pompey's party VI. 132 f., v. 
282 ; pardoned by Caesar after 
Pharsalus, VI. 136, VII. 552; put 
in charge of Cisalpine Gaul by 
('acsar, VI. 138; made praetor. 



348 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE aJVES ' 



140, vn. 674; led to conspire 
against Caesar, VI. 144 f . ; lets 
Porcia, his wife, into the secret, 
152 f.; helps murder Caesar, 162, 
m. 188, 598 f., IX. 164; has 
Ajitony spared, VI. 164, IX. 166; 
addresses the people, vi. 166, vn. 
600; withdraws from Rome, 604, 

VI. 172, IX. 170; rebukes Cicero 
for supporting Octavius, 174, vil. 
196, 220; sails for Athens, VI. 
176; convicted of murder of Caesar, 
184; meets Cassius at Smyrna, 
188 ; exacts money of the Lycians, 
192 f.; quarrels with Cassius at 
Sardis, 200 f . ; sees a phantom at 
night, 204, VII. 606; defeats 
Octavius at Philippi, VI. 218 f., 

VII. 606, IX. 182 ; learns of defeat 
and death of Cassius, VI. 224; 
fights again, vi. 234 f.; slays 
himself, 244, vil. 608; statue of 
him at Milan, VI. 256. 

See also v. 154, vil. 190, 586, 

Vin. 410, IX. 168 

Savings and letters : VI. 130, 

146, "148, 174, 176, 178, 204, 206, 

214f., 224,228,242, 244 
Brutus, T. Junius, son of M. J. Brutus 

and Vitellia, plots to restore 

Tarquins, I. 508 f . ; executed by 

his father's order, 514 
Brutus, Ti. Junius, son of M. J. Brutus 

and Vitellia, plots to restore 

Tarquins, I. 508 f . ; executed by his 

father's order, 514 
" Brutus," account of Caesar's murder 

by Empylus, VI. 128 f. 
Bubulcus, Roman surname, I. 532 
Bucephalas, horse tamed by Alex- 
ander, VII. 236, 322, 352, 3'j8 
Bucephalia, city on banks of Hydaspes 

built by Alexander in memory of 

Bucephalas, VII. 398 
Bulla, its meaning and use, I. 152, 

VIII. 38 

Bu.-iiris, sacrificed by Hercules, I. 22 
Butas, Cato the Ynunger's chief agent 

in public matters, Vlll. 404; wrote 

in elegiac verse explanations of 

Roman customs, I. 158 
Bates, Persian general, sets fire to 

Elon in Thrace, killing himself, 

II. 422 
Buthrotum, town in Eplrus, VI. 182 



Byllis, town in Illyrium, vi. 182 
Byzantium, ill. 56, 288; freed of 
Pausanias by the allies, II. 420 f.; 
Athenians capture Persians there, 
430 ; revolts from Athens, retaken 
by Alcibiades, IV. 88 f . ; attacked 
by Philip, saved by Athenians, 
VU. 40, 244, VIII. 174 ; governed by 
Cato, vn. 170, \^II. 318; vii. 142 



Cabeiri, gods in Samothrace, v. 520 
Cabira, II, 512 ; Mithridates makes 

stand there, 514; taken by 

Lucullus, 524 
Cadmeia (1), sister of Neoptolemus, 

IX. 358 
Cadmeia (2), citadel, I. 66 ; seized by 

Phoebidas in time of peace, V. 64 ; 

382; VII. 254 
Cadmus, given cow as guide by Apollo, 

IV. 382 
Cadusians, attacked by Artaxerxes, 

XI. 184 
Caecias, a Spanish wind from north, 

vrri. 44 
Caecilia (1), daughter of Metellus, the 

pontifex maximus, wife of Sulla, 

IV. 342 
Caecilia (2), mother of Lucullus, II. 470 
Caecilius, wished to denounce Verres, 

VII. 98 
Caecilius (Calactinus), made com- 
parison of Demosthenes and Cicero, 

VII. C 
Caecilius MeteUus, see " Metellus, 

Caecilius." 
Caecina, Vitellius* general, occupying 

Alps, XI. 286 ; repulied from 

Placentia, 290; defeated before 

Cremona, 292; defeats Otho's 

men, 300 f. 
Caecus, Roman name, iv. 144 
Caedicius, M., reports hearing super- 
natural voice, II. 126, 108 
Caelius, orator, VII. 174; defended by 

Cicero, 212 
Caeninenses, Sabine people, defeated 

and settled at Rome by Romulus, 

1.136 
Caenum, fortress of Mithridates, V. 2 12 
Caepio (Servilius), engaged to Julia; 

losing her, promised Pompey's 

daughter, v. 238, VII. 474 
Caepio, Q. Servilius (1), defeated by 



349 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Cimbri, n. 140, 660, vni. 6, IX. 504, 
512 

Caepio, Q. Servilius (2), beloved 
brother of Cato the Younger, Vlll. 
236, 238, 244; military tribune in 
Servile war, 252; died at Aeuus 
in Thrace, 258 

Caesar, exchanges words with Sulla, 
IV. 334 

Oaesar, C. Julius (1) in danger from 
Sulla, VII. 442 ; captured by pirates, 
444; studies under Apollonius at 
Rhodes, 446 ; wins popularity as au 
advocate at Rome, 448; elected 
military tribune, 450; went to 
Spain as quaestor under Vetus, a 
praetor, 452; revives party of 
Marius, 454 ; elected pontif ex maxi- 
mus, 456; suspected of being 
implicated in Catiline's conspiracy, 
458 ; divorces Pompeia, 462 f . ; 
receives Spain as province, has to 
borrow from Crassus, 406 f . ; elected 
consul, 472 ; gets many popular 
laws passed in spite of opposition 
of his colleague Bibulus, 472 f . ; 
betroths his daughter Julia to 
Pompey, 474 ; subdues Gaul, 476 f . ; 
meeting Pompey, Crassus and 
others at Luca, arranges to have 
his command in G-aul continued 
for five more years, 494; repels 
German invasion, and invades 
Germany, 496 f.; invades Britain, 
498 ; loses by death his daughter 
Julia, Pompey's wife, 500; sup- 
j)rebs;es revolt of Gaul, 502 f . ; takes 
Alesia, 506 f . 

Becomes estranged from Pompey, 
510; is not allowed to stand for 
consulship in his absence, 512 f . ; 
invades Italy, 520 f . ; Is deserted 
by Labienus, 520 ; enters Rome, 
528; overcomes Af ranius]and Varro, 
Pompey's legates in Spain, 530; 
crosses to Greece, 532 f. ; defeated 
by Pompey, 536 ; defeats Pompey 
at Pharsalus, 546 f . ; reaches 
Alexandria just after Pompey's 
death, 554; wages war in Egypt, 
656 f . ; defeats Pharnaces at Zela, 
660 ; returns to Rome, 562 ; 
defeats Porapeians at Thapsus, 
566 ; celebrates an Egyptian, a 
Pontic, and an African triumph. 



570; defeats Pompey's sons at 
Munda, 572; appointed dictator 
for life, 574; by clemency tries to 
disarm opposition, 574 f.; plants 
colonies of veterans at Carthage 
and Corinth, 676; plans new 
enterprises, 576 f. ; adjusts calendar, 
578; arouses hatred by desire to 
be king, 580 f . ; refuses diadem 
offered by Antony, 584; is con- 
spired agaiQst by Brutus, Cassius, 
and others, 586 f.; assasstuated, 
596; his body burned in forum, 602; 
56 years old at death, 604 

See aho III. 334, 354, 356, 360, 
390, 434, V. 178, 232, 236, 238, 240, 
248, 264, 268, 272, 276 f., 280, 284, 
292, 324, VI. 132, 134, 136, 138 f., 
150, 162, 168, 180, VII. 132 f., 138, 
146, 152, 156, 158, 176, 178 f., 186, 
188, 194, 196, VIII. 288, 296 f., 
310 f., 316, 332, 346, 354, 358 f., 
362, 378, 408, IX. 148, 150 f ., 160 f ., 
170 
His letters mentioned, Vll. 556, 

662 
His speeches and poems, Vll. 

444 
Anti-Oato, VII. 182, 446, 568, 

Vin. 324, 362, 366 
Commentaries, VII. 496 
Unnamed works, v. 280, 296, 524 
Sayings: III. 332, v. 272, vi. 
138, 140, 142, VII. 182, 456, 466, 
468, 476, 486, 522, 530, 534, 538, 
548, 552, 566, 568, 688, 590, 598 

Caesar, 0. Julius (2), his relations 
with Nymphidia, XI. 224; puts 
T. Vinius in prison, 228; son of 
Germanicus, killed, IX. 832. See 
also I. 140, 154 

Caesar, Claudius, punishes Vinius 
mildly for theft, Xl. 228 

Caesar, Lucius (1), kinsman of the 
great Caesar, VIII. 396 

Caesar, Lucius (2), Antony's uncle, 
given up to Octavius, VII. 200, IX. 
178; rescued by his sister, 180 

Caesarion, son of Caesar and Cleo- 
patra, VII. 560, EX. 260, 300; 
executed by Octavius, 320 

Oaieta, Cicero had lands there, VII. 
204 

Caius, foster brother of Mithridates, 
V. 224 



350 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



" Galas," name called out at sacrifice 
to Romulns, I. 184 

Calanus, gymnosophist, meets Alex- 
ander and Onesicritus, VII. 244, 
408 ; has himself burned on funeral 
pyre, 416 

Calaurla (1), has temple of Poseidon, 
V. 174, VII. 70, 76 ; scene of Demos- 
thenes' death, viii, 210 

Calauria (2), place in Sicily, VI. 336 

'* Cale," Indian word of salutation, 
vn. 408 

Calendar, renaming and numbering 
of days of month by Solon, I. 474; 
adjusted by Numa, 306; adjusted 
by Caesar, vn. 578; IT. 274 

Calends, Roman name for 1st day of 
month, XI. 252; of March, very 
nearly same as 1st of Anthesterion, 
IV. 370; VII. 84 

Calenus, took Megara, VI. 142 ; held 
15 cohorts for Caesar at Athens 
and Megara, Vll. 544 

Callaeci, in Spain, conquered by 
Caesar, vil. 468 

CaUaeschrus, father of Critias, IV. 96 

Calliades, Athenian, defeated by 
Chalcidians in Thrace, III. 226 

CalUas (1), the Torchbearer, steals 
gold at Marathon, ii. 226; when 
prosecuted, helped by Aristides, 
his kinsman, li. 290; ambassador 
to Persian king, honoured by 
Athenians, 446 

Callias (2), the Rich, son of Hippo- 
nicus. III. 70 ; said to have married 
Elpinice, ll. 414; said to have 
given Hipparetti to Alcibiades as 
wife, IV. 20 

Callias (3), the Syracusan, said by 
Ctesibius to have given Demos- 
thenes the rhetorical systems of 
Isocrates and Alcidamas, Vll. 12 

Callibius, made harmost at Alliens 
by Lysander, IV. 274 

Callicles, son of Arrhenides, VII. 62 

Callicles, money-lender at Athens, 
VIII. 162 

Calhcrates (1), Spartan, slain at 
Plataea, II. 266 

Callicrates (2), with Ictinus architect 
of Parthenon, III. 40 

Callicrates (3), Syracusan, slain by 
Lamachus, III. 270 

Callicrates (4), descendant of Anti- 



crates, contemporary of Plutarch, 

V. 98 

Callicratidas, succeeds Lysander in 

Asia, rebuffed by Cyrus, iv. 244; 

defeated in sea-fight at Arginusae, 

248; I. 298, XI. 178 
CaUidromtis, hill at Thermopylae, II. 

338 
CaUimachus (1), rivalled Aristides for 

2nd place at Plataea, ll. 386 
CalUmachus (2), prolongs defence of 

Amisus, II. 528; defender of 

Nisibis, taken by Lucullus, 578 
Callimachus (3), of Alexandria, cited, 

III. 246, IV. 444, VII. 378 
Calltmedon, Athenian orator, joins 

party of Antipater, vil. 66; op- 
poses Phocion, VIII. 206; flees 
from Athens, 220; condemned in 
absentia by Athenians, 228 
" Callinicus," a cognomen or epithet, 

IV. 142, IX. 464 

Calliphon, exile, begs Solla to spare 

Athens, IV. 370 
C'aUipides, tragic actor, rebuffed by 

Agesilaiis, v. 58 ; IV. 92 
Calippus, host of Dion in Athens, 

VI. 32; accompanies Dion to 
Sicily, 60, 118; slew Dion, and 
got possession of Syracuse, exe- 
cuted by Leptines and Polvsper- 
chon, III. 260, VI. 114, 286, 462 

Callisthenes (1), Athenian orator, his 
surrender demanded by Alexander, 

VII. 56 

Callisthenes (2), philosopher, relative 
of Aristotle; his experience with 
Alexander, vil. 252 f., iv. 440; 
cited, II. 138, 296, 440, 444, V. 
46, 380, vn. 302, 322 

Callisthenes (3), freedman of Lucul- 
lus, II. 608 

CalUstratus (1), orator, gave Demos- 
thenes first notion of becoming 
orator, vn. 10; 32 

Callistratus (2), Mithridates' private 
secretary, II. 522 

Callistus, Caligula's freedman, Nym- 
phidia's father, xi. 224 

Calpumla, Piso's daughter, J. Caesar's 
wife, V. 238, vn. 474; 590; put 
most of Caesar's treasure in charge 
of Antony, IX. 170 

Calpumii, descended from Calpus, 
I. 376 



351 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE * LIVES ' 



C'alpumius Lanarius, murdered Julius 
Salinator, vill. 18 

Oalpurnius Piso, see " Piso, Calpur- 
nius." 

Calpus, son of Numa, ancestor of 
Oalpurnii, I. 376 

Galviaus, Q-naeus Domitius, consul, 
V. 256; commaaded centre for 
Caesar at Pharsalus, v. 294, VII. 
546; defeated by Phamaces, flees 
from Pontus, 560 

Calvinus, Lucius (should be Gnaeus 
Domitius), v. 294 

Calvisius (Statianus, 0.), companion 
of Octavianus, accuses Antony for 
treatment of Cleopatra, is. 270 

Oalydonia, ravaged by Aratus, xi. 34 

Calydonian boar, slain by Mcleager 
and Theseus, I. 66 

Camarinaeans, join Dion, VI. 58 

Cambyses, said to have lost 50,000 
men in desert sand, vil. 302 

Camels, first seen by Romans at 
battle of Pihvndacus according to 
Sallust, II. 504 

Camcria, people of, attack Eomans, 
are defeated; made colony, I. 166 

Gameriaum, 1000 of its men made 
citizens by Marius for bravery, 
IX. 540 

" Camillus," meaning of word and 
relation to Greek, i. 330, IX, 464 

Camillus, Furius, the offices he held, 
II. 94; defeats Falerians and 
Capenates, 98; appointed dictator, 
defeats Faliscans and Capenates, 
104; takes Veil, 106; celebrates 
splendid triumph, arouses oppo- 
sition, 110; besieges Faleril, 116 f.; 
arouses opposition by opposing law 
for division of city, goes into exile, 
122; is fined 15,000 asses in 
absentia, 124; leading Ardeans, 
defeats band of Gauls, 152; ap- 
pointed dictator to drive out 
Gauls, 156; routs the Gauls with 
slaughter, 166 

Opposes moving citizens to Veil, 
170; appointed dictator for war 
against Aequians, Volscians, and 
Latins, 176; utterly defeats Latins 
and Volscians, 180; captures city 
of Aequians, brings Volscians to 
terms, 182; recaptures Sutrium, 
184; opposed by Marcus Manlius, 



made military tribune, 186; helps 
in conviction of Manlius, 188 ; 
with Lucius Fuiius leads an army 
against Praenestines and Volscians, 
defeats them, 190 f.; cows the 
Tusculans, 192 f.; made dictator 
fifth time to fight Gauls, 198; 
defeats the Gauls, 200 f . ; captures 
Velitrae, 202; dies of plague, 206. 
See also I. 184, III. 124 

His words quoted, II. 106, 118 

Campania, iii. 134; its cities subdued 
by Fabius Maximus, 200; vil. 94; 
146 

Campanians, desert Timocrates and 
return home, VI. 58 

Campi PhiUppi, scene of battle where 
Brutus and Oassius were defeated, 
VI. 210 

Camjius Martins, II. 196, V. 254, VII. 
110 

Camulatus, soldier, deserts Brutus, 

VI. 236 

Camurius, soldier, said to have slain 
Galba, XI. 266 

Canethus, father of Sciron, I. 56 

Caaicius, C, commands part of slaves, 
defeated by Crassus, lll. 346 

Canidius (1), tribune of people, 
proposes that Porapey reconcile 
Ptolemy to people of Alexandria, 
V. 244; Oato's friend, sent to 
Cyprus in advance, vill. 320, 322, 
324; sent by Cato to take charge 
of Ptolemy's treasures, and then 
discarded, vi. 130 

Canidius (2), Antony's general, con- 
quered Armenia, and kings of 
Iberians and Albanians, IX. 214; 
234; 264; leads Antony's land 
forces at Actium, IX. 280, 284; 
ordered by Antony to retire with 
army through Macedonia into Asia, 
290; deserts his army by night, 
292; 300 

Caninius Revilius, consul for one day, 

VII. 576 

Cannae, battle of. III. 146, 160, V. 

450, 500 
Canobic shore, I. 476 
Oanobic mouth of Nile, VII. 298 
Canopus, city in Egypt, IX. 338, X. 

132 
Cantharus, harbour of, near Athens, 

VIII. 208 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Oanuleia, vestal appointed by Noma, 

I. 340 

Canus, famous fluter, XI. 238 

Canusium, refuge of Roman fugi- 
tives from Cannae, V. 456 ; scene 
of battle between Marcellus and 
Hannibal, 506 

Canutius, Greek actor, VI. 172 

Capaneus, character in play of 
Euripides, v. 346 

Capenates, defeated by Camillus, ll. 
98, 104, 130 

Capbiis, Phocian, sent by Sulla to get 
treasures of Delphi, iv. 362 ; leads 
Hortensius and army safely to 
Sulla, 374 

Caphisias (1), Aratus' friend, n. 
12 f. 

Caphiaias (2), famous fluter, IX. 366 

Caphyae, seized by Aratus, X. 58; 
scene of Aratus' defeat by Aeto- 
lians, XI. 108 

Gapito, Fonteius, sent to bring 
Cleopatra to Syria, ix. 216 

Capitol, fortress of early Rome, 
guarded by Tarpeius, betrayed to 
Sabines by Tarpeia, I. 140; 170; 
fortified by Romans against Gauls, 
350,11.142,111.168; 1.536; re- 
ceived from Tarentum colossal 
statue of Heracles, had equestrian 
statue of Fabius Maximus in 
bronze. III. 184; burned in Sulla's 
time, IV. 412 

Capitoline Hill, called Tarpeius for a 
time, I. 144, 328; steepest at 
Carmental gate, II. 156 ; scaled by 
Gauls, but saved by sacred geese, 
160 

Capitolinus (C. Scantilius), colleague 
of Marcellus in aedileship, v. 438 

Capitolinus, Q., made dictator, casts 
Manlius into prison, II. 186 

Cappadocia, subdued by Alexander, 
YII. 272; assigned to Eumenes, 
VIII. 84; governed by Eumenes, 
86; visited by Marius, ix. 548; 
Sulla sent there, IV. 334; conquered 
by Mithridates, 358; 398; II. 486; 
VIII. 66 ; ravaged by Tigranes, 

II. 586 ; robbed and plundered by 
Lucullus, III. 370; added to 
Pompey's sway by ilanilian law, 
V. 190; trumphed over by Pom- 
pey, V. 230, VII. 172; occupied by 



Pharnaces, 560; ruled by Arche- 
laiis, IX. 276 

Cappadocians, ll. 514; some trans- 
planted to Tigranocerta, 652 

" Caprarius," derived from " capra," 
I. 532 

Capratiae Nones, see " Nones Capra- 
ttne." 

Capua, went over to Hannibal, in. 
168; reduced by Fulvius and 
Appius, 200; X. 214; Norbanus 
shut up there by Stilla, iv. 412 

" Carabus," surname of Callimedon, 
VIII. 206 

Caranus, ancestor of Alexander tlie 
Great, VII. 224 

Carbo, Gnaeus Papirius (1), defeated 
by Cimbri and Teutones, ix. 504 

Carbo, Gnaeus Papirius (2), perse- 
cutes Sulla's supporters in latter's 
absence, iv. 396; succeeds Cinna, 
V. 126; unsuccessfully opposes 
Sulla's advance on Rome, viii. 14; 
his cavalry routed by Pompey at 
river Arsis, V. 130; abandons his 
own army and sails off to Libya, 

IV. 418; executed by Pompev, 

V. 136 ; consul thrice, 138; VI. 190 ; 
his remark re Sulla, IV. 414 

"Career," name of a Roman prison, 

VI. 450 

Cardia, home of Eumenes as a boy, 
VIII. 178 

Caria, received colony brought by 
loxus and Ornytus, I. 18; has 
panthers, VII. 174; money to pay 
fleet levied from it by Aicibiades, 
rv. 102; touched by Aratus, xi. 
26 

Carians, called cocks by Persians, 
XI. 148 

Carinas, general of Carbo's faction, 
advances against Pompey, V. 128 

Carmania, traversed by Alexander in 
7 days, VII. 412 

Carmenta, who or what she was, 

I. 156 

Carmental gate, where Capitoline is 

steepest, ll. 156 
Carmentalia, feast for mothers; why 

so called, I. 156 
Carneades, founder of New Academy, 

II. 606, VII. 88; sent to Rome as 
ambassador, attracts Roman youth 
by his eloquence, ll. 368 

353 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Carneius, Syracusan mouth, same as 
Athenian Metageitnion, ill. 304 

Carnuntini (Caruutes) with Arverni 
lead revolt against Caesar, Vll. 504 

Oarrhae, near scene of Crassus' de- 
feat, III. 394, 402-408 

Carthage, ill. 62, iv. 44; danger to 
Syracuse, VI. 14; nearly taken by 
Agathocles, IX. 388; III. 190; de- 
stroyed by Scipio the Younger, 
n. 380, 596, V. 484, VI. 414, X. 246; 
colony founded there by C. Grac- 
chus, 218; II. 578; V. 140; restored 
as colony by Caesar, vil. 576 

Carthage, New, refuge of Sertorius, 
VIII. 18 

Carthaginians, III. 250, VI. 280; 
come to Sicily with large armament, 
286 f., 302; admitted to Syracuse 
by fficetas, 302 ; assemble great 
force to invade Sicily, 316; de- 
feated by Timoleon at river Crime- 
sus, n. 138, VI. 320-322, 324, 
330 ; II. 140 ; made peace with 
Timoleon, VI. 340 ; refused peace by 
Pyrrhus unless thev abandoned 
Sicily, IX. 420, 422 ; a'ttack Pyrrhus 
in the strait, 424; at war with 
Masinissa, ll. 380 ; ill. 162 ; driven 
from Spain by Scipio, 190 

Carvilius, Spurius, first in Bome 
to divorce wife, l. 198, 394 

Caryatides, dancing, on ring of 
Clearchus, xi. 168 

Carystus, city in Euboea, VI. 178 

Casca, P., one of Caesar's murderers, 
VI. 156, 162, VII. 59G ; with Brutus 
at Philippi, VI. 228 

Casilinum, city and district on border 
of Campania, III. 134 

Casinum, town in Latium, III. 134 

Caspian sea, Albanians lived by it, 
II. 654; III. 428; receives river 
Cyrnus, V. 206 f.; VII. 352 

Cassander, brother of Pleistarchus 
and Phila, IX. 7Gf.; father of 
Philip, 86; husband of Thessa- 
lonice, father of Antipater and 
Alexander, 360 

Oassander, Antipater's son offends 
Alexander, VII. 428 f. ; appointed 
chiliarch by Antipater before dying ; 
becomuig rebellious, sends Nicanor 
to replace Menyllus in Athens, 
VIII. 210; put Demades and his 



son to death, 214, vil. 78 ; quarrels 

with Polysperchon after death of 
Alexander, VIII. 114, 216; enemy 
of Aeacides, offers 200 talents for 
infant Pyrrhus, IX. 350; 18; 22; 

VII. 32; IX. 40; driven out of 
Attica by Demetri'os, 52 ; 90 

Cassandra, Priam's daughter, X. 20 

Oassandreia, VII. 56; thither fled 
Demetrius after loss of Macedonia, 
IX. 112 

Cassius, 0. Longinus (1), governor of 
Cisalpine Gaul, defeated by Spar- 
tacus. III. 340 

Oassius, 0. Longinus (2), of school of 
Epicurus, VI. 206; husband of 
Junia, Brutus' sister, rival of Brutus 
for office of city praetor, 140, VII. 
574, 586 f . ; with Crassus on 
Parthian expedition, ill. 370, 374, 
380, 384, 402, 406, 408, VI. 140; 
plans Caesar's murder, 126, 136, 
140, 142 f ,, 156 ; murders Caesar, 
V. 154, VI. 160, VTI. 188, 596, IX. 
164; 168, VI. 168; prosecuted by 
M. Agrippa for murder of Caesar 
and condemned, 184; meets Brutus 
at Smyrna, 186; takes Rhodes, 
192; 198; quarrels with Brutus 
at Sardis, 200, 210; 212; defeated 
at Philippi, slays himself, 224, VII. 
604, IX. 182 f. 

Quoted : VI. 144, 146, 192, 206, 
214, 224 

Cassius, Q. Longinus, with Antony 
flees to Caesar, ix. 1 50 

Cassius Scaeva, soldier of Caesar's 
at battle of Dyrrhachium, vil. 480 

Castor, hymn played to him as 
Lacedaemonians marched to battle, 
I. 274; like Pollux in sculpture, 
and yet different, x. 146. See also 
"Dioscuri" and " Tyndaridae." 

Castulo, city of the Celtiberians, 

VIII. 6 

Castus, commands part of slaves, 
defeated by Crassus, III. 346 

Catana, in Sicily, ill. 162, 264, 266, 
IV. 52, V. 520, VI. 122, 290, 304, 
342 

Cataonia, district in Cappadocia, IX. 
120 

Catiline, Lucius, his character and 
acts, defeated for consulship, vil, 
106 f ., IV. 430 ; his conspiracy. 



354 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



VII. 456 f ., VIII. 286 f . ; Crassus and 
Caesar inculpated by Cicero, III. 
352 ; defeated and slain by Anto- 
nius, VII. 136. See also VI. 134 f., 
VII. 116, 152 

" Cato," a 3rd Roman name, IX. 
464 

" Cato," work written by Cicero, 
VII. 446, 563 

Cato, grandfather of Cato the Elder, 
II. 302 

Cato, M. Porcius (1), father of Cato 
the Elder, ll. 302 

Cato, M. Porcius (2), the Elder, 
lineage, appearance, character, II. 
302 f . ; served under Fabius Maxi- 
mus at capture of Tarentum, 308; 
enters public life at Rome, 310; 
goes to Africa as Scipio's quaestor, 
objects to his extravagance, 310 f . ; 
his manner of life, 312 f . ; his 
oratory, 320 f.; elected consul 
with Valerius Flaccus, wins suc- 
cesses in Hither Spain, 330 f . ; 
celebrates triumph, 334; serves 
under M'. Acilius against Antiochus 
the Great, 334; busy in prosecu- 
tions, 342 f . ; his activity as censor, 
346 f. ; erected Basilica Porcia 
356 ; a good family man, 360 f. 
his treatment of his slaves, 314 f. 
364 f.; goes into business, 366 f. 
opposes Greek learning, 368 f. 
marries again late in life, 374 
composed speeches, histories, and 
a book on farming, 378 ; brought 
about destruction of Carthage, 
380 f . ; died, leaving son Salonius, 
384 

See also VIII. 236, 246, X. 372 f . 
His writings cited : II. 302, 
304, 308, 314, 318, 330, 342, 352, 
358, 360, 364, 366, 370; book of 
recipes, 372, 376; speeches, his- 
tories, work on fanning, 378 

Savings: II. 306, IV. 132; II. 
322-328; 332; 344; 358; 374; 376; 
382; 384; V. 340 

Cato, M. Porcius (3), Licinianus, son 
of Cato the Elder, fought brilliantly 
at Pvdna, married Tertia, daughter 
of Aemilius Paulus, II. 362 f., 374, 
VI. 3C6, 410; died, II. 374, 376 

Cato, M. Porcius (4), Salonius (Salo- 
nlanus), son of Cato the Elder and 



Salonia, II. 376; father of Marcus, 
died in praetorship, 384 

Cato, M. Porcius (5), grandson of 
Cato the Elder, II. 384 

Cato, M. Porcius (6), son of Salonius, 
became consul, grandfather of Cato 
the philosopher, n. 384 

Cato, M. Porcius (7), the Younger, 
his lineage and character as a bov, 
VIII. 236-244; studies Stoic philo- 
sophy with Antipater the Tyrian, 
244 ; his first speech in the forum, 
246; his manner of life, 248 f.; 
marries Atilia, daughter of Ser- 
ranus, 250; takes part in Servile 
war, 252 ; goes to Macedonia as 
military tribune, 254; winsAtheno- 
dorus the Stoic, 256 ; makes tour 
of Asia, 260 f.; serves as quaestor, 
268-278; opposes Clodius, 278; 
prosecutes Murena for bribery, 
284; advocates death penalty for 
Catilinarian conspirators, 286 f . ; 
unfortunate with women of his 
household, 290 f. ; opposes Metellus 
and Pompey, 296 f . ; rejects mar- 
riage alUance with Pompey, 306 f . ; 
opposes Pompey and Caesar, 310 f . ; 
is sent to Cyprus and court of 
Ptolemy, 318 f.; returns success- 
ful, 326 f. 

Opposes Cicero's proposal to 
make invalid acts of Clodius as 
tribune, 330; supports Lucius 
Domitius for consul against Pompey 
and Crassus, 332 ; fails to be elected 
praetor, 336 ; opposes Crassus and 
Pompey, 338; is elected praetor, 
340 ; approves of Pompey being 
made sole consul, 350 ; fails to be 
elected consul, 356 ; proposes that 
Caesar be surrendered to the 
Germans, 358; joins Pompey at 
Dyrrhachium, is sent to Asia, 364 ; 
arouses Pompey's soldiers by his 
speech, 368 ; joins Sextus Pompeius 
in Libya, 370; meets Juba, 372; 
strengthens Utica for defence, 376; 
receives news of Thapsus, 378 ; 
helps fufritives leave Utica, 394; 
refuses to ask mercy of Caesar, 
396 ; commits suicide, 406 

See also II. 384, 606, 608, III. 
334, 354, 358, 426, 430, 434, V. 
218, 228, 236, 238, 240, 250, 256, 

355 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



264, 272, 274, 282, 288, VI. 128, 
130, 134, VII. 132 f., 138, 168, 170, 
176, 180, 212, 458, 460, 472, 474, 
496, 512, 640, 562, 568, VIII. 150 f., 
IX. 150 

Sayings : II. 600, VIII. 246, 254, 
262, 264, 290, 308, 318, 324, 342, 
346, 354, 358, 360, 392, 394, 396, 
398, 400 f. 

Cato, M. Porcius (8), son of Cato the 
Younger, pardoned by Caesar, slain 
at Philippi, VIII. 408 f ., VI. 236 f . 

Catulus, Q. Lutatius (1), consul with 
Marius in latter's 4th consulship, 
IX. 500 f . ; gives important tasks 
to Sulla, IV. 332 ; forced to retreat 
by Cimbri, ix. 522 f.; jomed by 
Marius, 526; led centre at Vercel- 
lae, 530; wrote of Vercellae, 534 f. ; 
triumphs with Marius, 538; com- 
mits suicide, 590 

Catulus, Q. Lutatius (2), elected 
consul with Lepidus, rv. 434, V. 
150 f.; won war against Lepidus 
according to Lucullus, 196; conse- 
crated 2nd temple of Jupiter 
Capitoiinus, I. 540; V. 156; op- 
poses Gabinian law, 178; opposes 
Manilian law, 192; when censor 
reproved by Cato, VIII. 270; vii. 
132; 456; attacks Caesar's proposal 
re Catilinarian conspirators, 458; 
ancestor of S. Galba, XI. 210; 
quoted, VII. 156, 454. See also III. 
354 

" Catulus," illustrious Roman name, 
VII. 82 

" Catus," means wise and prudent, 

II. 302 

Caucasus mountains, II. 512, v. 204, 

208 
Caulonia, city in Italy, ill. 182, vi. 

56 
Caunians, how some escaped pirates, 

III. 308; in army of Axtaierxes 
when Cyrus was slain, xi. 150, 154, 
158 

Caunus, city in Caria, ix. 124 
Cebalinus, reveals plot of Linmus to 

Alexander, VII. 364 
Cecrops, I. 196 

Celaenae, in I'hrygia, VIII. 102, IX. 16 
" Celer," whv surname of a Metellus, 

I. 118, IV. "142 
Oeler, companion of Romulus, slew 



Remus according to one account, 

I. 116 

Celer, Q. Caecilius Metellus, how he 
got surname " Celer," I. 118, iv. 
142; put in charge of outside 
affairs by Cicero during trouble 
with Catiline, VII. 118; husband of 
Clodia, 154 

Celeres, origin of name, I. 116; 
attendants of Romulus, 170; dis- 
banded by Numa, 328 

Oelsus, Clodius, of Antioch, friend 
of Nymphidius, XI. 232 

Celsus, Marius, faithful to Galba, 
spared by Otho, xi. 268; 276; in 
command of part of Otho's forces, 
288 ; outgenerals Caecina at battle 
of Cremona, 292, 294, 298, 304 f., 
306 f. 

Celtiberians, neighbours of Gauls, 

II. 126; receive 200 talents to 
become Cato the Elder's allies, 
II. 330; warred on by Scipio 
Africanus, IX. 468; those in 
Castulo defeated by Sertorius, VIII. 
8 

Celtorians, neighbours of Giiuls, II. 
126 

Cenchreae, harbour-town of Corinth, 
where Thebans defeat Athenians, 
V. 398; captured by Demetrius, 
IX. 54, XI. 52; 64; 102 

Censor, his powers and duties, II. 
346, VI. 454; Camillus censor, II. 
96; Cato the Elder and Valerius 
Flaccus, 310, 350; Crassus and 
Lutatius Catulus, III. 352; Cen- 
sorinus twice, IV. 118; Gellius and 
Lentulus, V. 168; Aemilius Paulus 
and Marcius Philippus, VI. 454; 
Lutatius Catulus, VIII. 270; Ti. 
Gracchus the Elder, X. 144; 
Flamininus and M. Claudius Mer- 
cellns, 372; Cato the Elder, 374 

Censorinus (1), twice censor, intro- 
duced law forbidding this, IV. 
118 

Censorinus (2), 0. Marcius, brings 
suit against Sulla for bribery, IV. 
336 

Censorinus (3), accompanies Crassus 
agaiiist Parthians, HI. 390, 396 

Censorinus (4), L. Marcius, left In 
charge of Greece by Antony, IX. 
186 



356 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE * LIVES ' 



census, at Athens, I. 450, in. 108 ; at 

Rome, VI. 454, VII. 570 
Centaurs, begotten of cloud by 

Iiion, X. 2 ; at war with Lapithae, 

I. 66f., 190 
Ceos, island, II. 8; has small part 

called lulis, VII. 2 ; sends settlers 

to Grela, VI, 344 
Cephalo, friend of Aratus, XI. 118 f. 
Cephalus, summoned from Corinth 

by Timoleon to establish civil 

polity of Syracuse, vi. 320 
Cephisodorus, friend of Pelopidas, 

slain by Leontidas, V. 368 
Cephisodotus, sculptor, related to 

Phocion, VIII. 188 
Cephisus river, receives river Assus, 

IV. 378, 382, 392, vn. 44, 244 
Ceramicus, II. 416, IV. 368, 370, 

VIII. 224. 
Ceraunian mountains, viii. 210 
Cerberus, Aldoneus' dog, killed Peiri- 

thoUs, I. 72 ; delivered to Heracles 

by Cora, in. 210 
Cercina, island off Africa, VI. 52, ix. 

578 
Cercyon, Arcadian, slain by Theseus, 

I. 22, 66 

Cereatae, see " Cirrhaeton." 
Geres, I. 162; festival of, iii. 170 
Ceressus, where Thebans defeated 
Lattamvas and Thessalians, ll. 
138 
Cethegus, Cornelius (1), deposed from 

priesthood, v. 446 
Cethegus, Cornelius (2), companion 
of younger Marius, IX. 674; in 
control of Rome, induced to help 
Lucullus get province of Cilicia, 

II. 486 f . ; takes part in conspiracy 
of Catiline, Ml. 120, 124, 126, 458, 
vui. 286; executed, Vll. 134 f., 
158 

Chabrias, Athenian, father of Ctesip- 
pus, VII. 36; his character; won 
sea-fight off Naxos, Ii. 138, viil. 
156-160; commands fleet under 
Tachos the Egyptian, V. 104 

Chaeron (1), son of Thuro, founded 
Chaeroneia, iv. 382 

Chaeron (2), of Megalopolis, sent to 
Delphi bv Philip of Macedon, Vll. 
228 

Chaerondas, archouship of, Vli. 58 

Chaeroneia, founded by Chaeron, iv. 



382 ; settled by people from 
Thessaly led by Peripolitas, IL 
404; I. 64; Plutarch's native town, 
VII. 44; Philip defeats Greeks 
there, II. 138, V. 384, vil. 46 f., 
244; Aetolians defeat Boeotians, 
XI. 34; Bruttius Sura repulses 
Archelaus, IV. 360 ; 378; 382; Sulla 
defeats Mithridates' generals, II. 
480, 504, IV. 382 f.; II. 406 

Chaeroneians, fight for Sulla at battle 
of Chaeroneia, IV. 384 

Chalcaspides, in Mithridates' army, 
IV. 378. See also " Bronze-shields." 

Chalcedon, attacked by Alcibiades, 
IV. 84 f . ; handed over to Athens 
by Pharnabazus, 88; II. 492, 496; 
Cotta besieged there, 494 

Chalcidians, I. 298; their Hippobotae 
banished by Pericles, III. 66 ; 
defeat Calliades and Xenophon, 
Athenian generals in Thrace, 226; 
X. 366 f. 

Chalcidice, VII. 20 

Chalcis, city in Euboea, iv. 388, 390, 
302, 354, X. 354, 366 f. 

Chalcodon, Elphenor's father, i. 80; 
chapel of, in Athens, 62 

Ohaldaeans, II. 610; subdued by 
Lucullus, 526; IX. 582; XI. 256 

XoA>ctot>co?, temple of Athena at 
Sparta, I. 218, X. 26, 36 

ChaLkous, an Athenian thief, Vll. 28 

Chameleon, cannot turn white, IV. 62 

Chaonians, under command of 
Ptolemy, IX. 440 

Characitani, Spanish people, defeated 
by Sertorius, viii. 42 f. 

Chares (1), Athenian, V. 344, VIT. 
214, VIII. 154 ; fails at Hellespont, 
174; defeated Persians, XI. 34 

Chares (2), of Mitvlen6, cited, Wl. 
280, 294, 356, 380, 384, 418, Vlll. 
184 

Chares river, scene of battle between 
Aratus and Aristippus, XI. 62 

Charicles (1), mentioned by comic 
poet Telecleides, ill. 220 

Charicles (2), son-in-law of Phocion, 
intimate with Harpalus, brought to 
trial, VIII. 192 f.; 220; condemned 
to death in absentia by Athenians, 
228 

Chariclo, wife of Sciron, mother of 
Pelcus and Telainon, I. 20 

357 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Charidemus, vill. 4; proposed for 
general at Athens after Chaeroneia, 
178, 182, VII. 56 

Charilalis, posthumous son of Poly- 
dectes, brother of Lycurgus, I. 
210 f., X. 250, 1. 218; concurred in 
measures of Lycurgus, X. 70; 
quoted, I. 266 

Charillus, see " Charilalis." 

Charimenes, seer, joins plot to kill 
Aristomachus, tyrant of Argos, 
XI. 56 

Oharuius, proposes decree against 
Megarians, III. 86 

Oharmion, waitinar-woman of Cleo- 
patra, IX. 274, 326 f . 

Charmus, boy lover of Peisistratus, 

I. 406 

Charon (1), Theban, conspirator with 

Pelopidas, V, 354, 360 f., 366; 

elected boeotarch, 370 ; led Theban 

cavalry at Plataea, 400 
Charon (2), of Lampsacus, cited, II. 

72 
Charonitae, what they were, IX. 170 
Charops, son of Machatas, X. 330 
Cheileos, Arcadian, helps Themisto- 

cles, II. 18 
Cheimarrus, see " Babyca." 
" Cheirons," see " Oratinus." 
Chelidonian isles, II. 440 ; western 

limit for Persian navy after Eury- 

medon, 444 
Chersonese, Thracian, conquered by 

Cimon and turned over to Athens, 

II. 446 ; received 1000 settlers from 
Pericles, III. 34, 58, Vlll. 174; 
ravaged by Demetrius, X. 74; li. 
482 

Chersonese, Syrian, Demetrius ban- 
ished there, IX. 128, 132 
Chians, offer leadership to ArLstides, 

II. 284, 440, IV. 26; revolt from 

Athens, 66 
Ohilo, slave and school-teacher of 

Cato the Elder, ii. 360 
Chilonis (1), daughter of Leotychides, 

wife of Cleonymus, IX. 434, 438 
Cliilonis (2), daughter of Leonidas, 

wife of Clcorabrotus, X. 36 f . 
Chios, Chabrias died there, Vlll. 156; 

II. 478 
Chlidon, Theban, V. 358 
Choeac, month in Egyptian calendar, 

I. 122 



Choerilus, poet in retinue of Lysander, 

IV. 280 f. 
Cholargus, deme of Pericles, III. 6; 

of Xenocles, 40; of Hipparchus, 

250 
Choregus, Themistocles won as c. 

with Phrynichus as poet, ll. 16 ; 

Aristides victorious as, 212 ; kings 

of Cyprus act as, vil. 308 
Chorus, dithyrambic, vil. 308 
" Chreocopidae," name given Solon's 

friends for sharp practice, I. 446 
Chrysa, place at Athens, I. 62 
Chrysantes, character in Xenophon 

(Cyrop. IV. 1, 3), v. 528 
Chrysermus, father of a certain 

Ptolemy, X. 130 
Chrysippus, cited, XT. 2 
Chrysis, mistress of Demetrius, IX. 54 
Chrysogonus (1), Pythian victor, 

IV. 92 

Chrysogonus (2), freedman of Sulla, 
accuses Roscius of murder, vil. 
86 f. 

Chthonian Earth, temple of, at 
Hermione, plundered by pirates, 

V. 174 

Cicer, Latin for chick-pea, vil. 82 
Cicero, how first bearer of name got 

it, VII. 82 
Cicero, M. TuUius (1), his race and 
name, VII. 82 ; studied until Sulla 
became master, 86 ; defended 
Roscius, heard Antiochus of Asca- 
lon, 88 f . ; studied oratory with 
Xenocles, Dionysius, Apoilonius; 
philosophy with Poseidonius, 90 f . ; 
weak in delivery at first, 92 ; 
quaestor in Sicily, 82, 94; prose- 
cuted Verres, 98 f . ; his wife and 
property, 100; courted by the 
great, elected praetor, 102 ; defends 
Manlius, 104 

Elected consul to oppose Cati- 
line, 106; wins Antonius' support 
by giving him province of Mace- 
donia, secures defeat of bill to 
appoint decemvirs, 110 f.; secures 
defeat of Catiline for consul, 114 f . ; 
given by senate unlimited power 
to preserve state, 118, III. 354 f . ; 
his life threatened by Marcius and 
Cethegus, he denounces Catiline 
in senate, and latter leaves city, 
VII. 120 ; has to deal with Lentulus 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



and other plotters in city, 122 f . ; 
reveals to senate evidence against 
Lentulus and others, 126 f . ; hears 
Silvanus, Caesar, Cato and others, 
speak in senate regarding punish- 
ment of conspirators, 130 f ., 456 f ., 
vm. 290 ; has Lentulus and Cethe- 
gus executed, vil. 134, ix. 140; 
called father of his country, becomes 
vainglorious, II. 596, vn. 138 f . 

Hated by Clodius and others, 
150 f . ; driven into exile, 156 f ., 
II. 608, V. 234, 240, viil. 318; 
with help of Pompey is recalled, 
vn. 168, V. 244; in attempting to 
annul acts of Clodius as tribune, is 
opposed by Cato, vii. 168, vm. 
330; defends Milo for killing 
Clodius, VII. 170; elected augur, 
given Cilicia as province, 172 ; 
on return attempte to reconcile 
Pompey and Caesar, 174, 518, 
V. 270; joins Pompey in Greece, 
VII. 176, V. 282; offered command 
of Pompey's fleet after Pharsalus, 
refuses, vn. 180, vill. 370 ; received 
kindly by Caesar, VII. 182 ; retires 
to study philosophy and write; 
proposes honours for Caesar, 184, 
574; plans writing history of 
Eome, divorces Terentia, 186; 
not informed of plot to murder 
Caesar, 188, Vl. 148 

After murder of Caesar, proposes 
amnesty in senate, vn. 190; fears 
Antony, 192; helps Octavius get 
support of senate and people, 194, 
IX. 172; rebuked by Brutus for 
supporting Octavius, vi. 174, vn. 
196; has Antony driven out of 
city, and Octavius given power 
of praetor, 198, IX. 174; betrayed 
by Octavius and proscribed, vi. 
ISC, VII. 200, IX. 178; slain, 180, 
vn. 206 

See also V. 274, VI. 172, 184, 
VII. 82, 448, VIII. 310, 314, IX. 158 
Letters cited : 

Ad Att. (n. 1. 8), VIII. 150; 
(VII. 11), V. 280 ; (VIII. 7. 2), 
vn. 176 

Ad Fam. (ll. 10. 2 f. and 11. 
2), VII. 174 

To Gorgias, VII. 142 

To nerodes, VII. 142 



To Pelops of Byxantium, vn. 

142 
Unidentified letters, V. 226, 

VII. 140, 184 
Other works cited : — 

Acad. Prior. li. (LucuUus), II. 

606; (II. 38. 119), vn. 140 
Brutus (31. 121), vn. 140 
Cato, vn. 446, 568 
De Constdatu Suo, III. 352, 

VII. 460 

De Divinatione (I. 26. 56), X. 

198;(I. 46. 103), VI. 380 
De Senectute (12. 42), II. 352, 

X. 374 
In CatU. (I. 5. 10), Vll. 120 
In Pisonem (29. 72 f.), vn. 

214 
Philipp., vn. 206; (II. 22. 55), 

IX. 150, 158 
Philosophical dialogues, vn. 

184, 210 
Pontius Glancus, Vll. 84 
Pro Caelio (12. 28), vil. 212 
ProMilone, VII.172 
Pro Murena, VII. 170, 212, 

VIII. 284 

Pro Plancio, VII. 94 f . 
Savings : II. 602, VII. 98 f., 104, 
134, 140, 144 f., 156, 178 f., 450, 
580, VIII. 248 

Cicero, M. Tullius (2), son of the 
orator, joins Brutus' forces, W. 
178, VII. 198; defeats C. Antonius, 
VI. 182; chosen colleague in consul- 
ship by Octavianus, vn. 208 

Cicero, Q. Tullius, brother of the 
orator, VII. 130, 166; attacked by 
Gauls, rescued by Caesar, 502; 
with his son proscribed and exe- 
cuted, 202 

Cilicia, II. 84, IV. 252; allotted to 
Pleistarchus, Cassander's brother, 
IX. 76 ; occupied by Demetrius, 78 ; 
invaded by Seleucus, 120 ; governed 
by Octa^^us, who dies and is suc- 
ceeded by Lucullus, ll. 486 f., 544; 
taken from Tigranes by Lucullus, 
V. 202; 182; given Pompey by 
Manilian law, 190, 230; governed 
by Cicero, \U. 172; ix. 218; 
276 

Cilicians, join Sertorius, Vlll. 18, 22 

Cilician ships, defeated by Cimon, 
II. 462 



359 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Oilles, Ptolemy's general, defeated 

by Demetrius, ix. 14 
Cimber, Tillius, petitions Caesar, 

VII. 596 

Cimbri, invade Italy, and destroy 
Oaepio's armv, ll. 140, 560, 

VIII. 6, IX. 488; 496; 502; force 
Catulus to retreat, 626 ; defeated 
by Marius at Verccllae, 530, II. 
596, VII. 454 

Cimmerians, said to be sfime as 
Cimbri, IX. 490 

Cimon (1), grandfather of the famous 
Cimon, dubbed Coalemus, II. 412 

Cimon (2), compared with LucuUus, 
II. 410; his family and character, 
41 2 f . ; his appearance ; serves 
with distinction against Persians, 
418 f., 282; takes command of 
allies, captures Eion from Persians, 
422 ; seized Scyros, found Theseus' 
bones, 426 f., I. 84: very generous 
to citizens, ll. 432 f . ; incorruptible, 
popular with allies, 436 f . ; cleared 
Asia of Persian arms from Ionia 
to Pamphylia, 438 f.; defeats 
Persians at Eurymedon, 440 f . ; 
makes Persia accept humiliating 
peace, 444 

Beautifies Athens, 446; ac- 
quitted on charge of being bribed 
by Alexander, King of Macedonia, 
448, III. 30; popular with Sparta, 
II. 452, 56 ; ostracized for helping 
Sparta, 456, III. 26; recalled, 28, 
II. 458; sails against Egypt and 
Cyprus, 460 f . ; dies besieging 
Citium, 464, III. 32 

See also 11. 14, 66, 84, 244, 292, 
316, III. 14, 18, 26, 82, 198, 204, 
VII. 32. 

Sayings : II. 436, 452, 456 

Cimonian funeral monuments, II. 
466 

Cineas (1), father of Thallus, Vlll. 
172 

Cineas (2), Thessalian, pupil of 
Demosthenes; urges Pyrrhus not 
to go to aid of Tarentum, IX. 384; 
sent to Tarentum with 3000 
soldiers, 388, 392 ; sent by Pyrrhus 
on embassy to Home, 402; 406; 
408; sent on second embassy to 
Pvome, 412 ; sent ahead to Sicily, 
418 



Cingonius Varro, see " Varro, Cin- 

gonius." 
Cinna, L. Cornelius (1), father of 

Cornelia, once supreme at Rome, 

VII. 122, 442; bribes L. Terentius 
to slay Pompey, V. 122, 124; 
permitted by Sulla to be elected 
consul, rv, 356; supports Marius, 

VIII. 10; defeated by Octavius in 
the forum, 12, IX. 578; joined by 
Marius, 580; enters Rome with 
bodyguard, 584 ; drives Crassus to 
Spain, III. 322 ; assassinated 
Octavius, IV. 364; 396; IX. 586; 
has Bardyaei slain, 590, VI. 190; 
slain by centurion, V. 126, VIII. 
12 f.. III. 326 

Cinna, L. Cornelius (2), cowed when 

he starts to denounce Caesar, vi. 

166, 170, VII. 602; gives Brutus 

500 horsemen, VI. 180 
Cinna, poet, friend of Caesar, killed 

in mistake by mob, Vl. 170 ,vii. 602 
Circe, mother of Romanus by Odys- 
seus, I. 92 
Circeii, Roman colony, surrenders to 

Coriolanus, IV. 184, IX. 562 
Circeium, promontory of Latium, VII. 

202, 578 
Circus Maiimus, has altar of god 

Census hid underground, I. 128, 

154 
Circus Flaminius, II. 592, v. 510, X. 

322 
Cirrha, I. 302 ; outraged oracle of 

Delphi, 428 
Cirrhaeton(Cereatae?), village in terri- 
tory of Arpinum, IX. 468 
Cissus, announces absconding of 

Harpalus to Alexander, Vll. 346 
Cissusa, spring where infant Dionysus 

bathed, IV. 312 
Cithaeron, mountain, had cave of 

Sphragitic nymphs, II. 246, 248, 

252, IV. 310, VII. 66 
Cithaeronian Hera, II. 246 
Citiaeans, VII. 322 
Citium, besieged by Cimon who died 

there, II. 464, 466, X. 52 
Cius, revenue of, offered Phoclon by 

Alexander, VIII. 186 
Clarius, river in Cyprus, I. 476 
Claros, sanctuary of, V. 174 
Cla^tidinm, battle of, in which 

Marcellus routs Gaesatae, V. 448 



360 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Claudia, daughter of Appius Claadius, 
wife of Ti. Gracchus, X. 150 

Clandian family, descended from 
Appius Clausus, a Sabine, I. 558 

" Claudius," surname from physical 
characteriatic, IV. 144 

Claudius, Appius, see " Appius 
Claudius." 

Claudius, M., father of M. Claudius 
Marcellus, v. 436 

Claudius Caesar (Ti. Claudius Dnisus 
Nero Germanicus), son of Drusus 
and Antonia, became emperor, 
married Agrippina and adopted Ikt- 
son L. Domitius, giving him name 
Nero Germanicus, IX. 332, xi. 228, 
252 

Claudius Marcellus, see " Marcellus, 
Claudius." 

Clausus, Appius, see " Appius 
Clausus." 

Clazomenae, III. 254, IV. 80 

Cleaenetus, Cleomedon's son, dis- 
graced himself, IX. 56 

Cleander, of Mantineia, reared Philo- 
poemen, X. 256 

Cleandridas, father of Gylippus, III. 
66 ; bribed by Pericles, 64 

Cleanthes (1), cited, IV. 14 

Cleanthes (2), freedman and physician 
of Cato the Younger, Vlll. 404 

Clearchus (1), Macedonian, sent on 
embassy to Thebes, Wl. 42 

Clearchus (2), ordered by Spartans 
to help Cyrus, XI. 138;" fought at 
Cunaia, 142 f.; seized and exe- 
cuted by Artaxerxes, 166 f. 

Cleidemus, cited, I. 38, 62, ii. 30, 272 

Cleinias (1), friend of Solon, i. 444 

Clelnias (2), father of Alcibiades, 
fought at Artemisium, slain at 
Coroneia, IV. 2, 60 

Clelnias (3), chief magistrate of 
SicTon, father of Aratus, slain by 
Abantidas, Xl. 4 

Oleisthcnes, grandfather of Agarlste, 
expelled Peisistratidae, estaolished 
constitution, ll. 214, 450, III. 6 

Cleitarchus, cited, II. 72, Vll. 356 

Cleitomachus, teacher of Philo the 
Academic, \ll. 86, 90 

Cleitor, woman of, wife of Cimon, 
II. 450 

Cleitorians, outwitted by Soils, I. 
208 



Cleitus (1), saves Alexander's life at 
battle of Granicus, Vll. 266; 
murdered by Alexander, 258, 368- 
374 

Cleitus (2), brings Phocion and his 
party to Athens for trial, viii. 
224 

Cleitus (3), Brutus' servant, refuses 
to slay him, vi. 242 

Clemencv, temple of, decreed, Vll. 
574 

Cleobis, named by Solon as happy 
man, I. 480 

Cleocritus, Corinthian, at battle of 
Salamis, II. 236; 274 

Cleodaeus, son of Hyllus, father of 
Lanassa, IX. 346 

Oleomantis, Lacedaemonian, sooth- 
sayer with Alexander, VII. 368 

Cleombrotus (1), younger brother of 
Agesipolis, succeeds to throne of 
Sparta, x. 8; sent into Boeotia 
with army, V. 66, 370 ; sent again, 
78 ; defeated and slain at Leuctra, 
78, 394, IV. 452, X. 48 

Cleombrotus (2), son-in-law of Leo- 
nidas, made king of Sparta, x. 26 ; 
with Agis replaces ephors, 28; 
pardoned by Leonidas, 36-40 

Cleomedes, of Astypaleia, disappeared 
like Romulus, I. 180 

Cleomedon, father of Cleaenetus, IX. 
56 

Cleomenes (1), one of 5 Spartan 
arbitrators, I. 428 

Cleomenes (2), son of Cleombrotus, 
king of Sparta after his brother 
Agesipolis, had 2 sons, Acrotatus 
and Cleonymus, X. 8 f . 

Cleomenes (3), son of Leonidas, 
marries Agiatls, widow of Agis, 
X. 50; studies philosophy with 
Sphaerus of Borysthenis, succeeds 
Leonidas as king, 52 ; decides to 
change order of things, 54; sent 
by ephors to occupy precinct of 
Athena at Belbina, 5G ; defeats 
Aratus near Mt. Lycaeum, 58, XI. 
82 ; defeats Aratus and Lydiades 
at Megalopolis, 82 f ., X. 60 f . ; has 
ephors slain, 66, xi. 86; restores 
constitution of Lycurgus, X. 68 f . 

Devastates land of Megalopolis, 
74 : his manner of life, 76 f . ; takes 
Mantineia, defeats Achaeans at 



361 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Dyme, 78 f., 23. 90; demands 
leadership of Achaeans, X. 80 f . ; 
repeats demand at 2nd conference, 
is insulted by Aratus, 84 f ., SI. 
90; takes Argos, x. 88, 53. 90; 
joined by Cleonae, Phlius and other 
cities, X. 90 ; gets Corinth, 90, XI. 
92 f . ; repeats demand for leader- 
ship of Achaeans, promises Aratus 
yearly pension of 12 talents, 96, 

X. 92 ; checks Antigonus, 92 ; 
loses Corinth and Argos, 96, xi. 
102; takes Megalopolis, X. 102, 
264; defeated by Antigonus at 
Sellasia, goes to Egypt, 112-122, 

XI. 106; put in detention, X. 130; 
breaks out of prison, 134; slays 
himself; had been king of Sparta 
16 years, 136 

His words quoted : X. 56, 72, 
78, 104, 116, 120, 128, 134 

Cleoraenes (4), Athenian orator, IV. 
270 

Cleon (1), attacks Pericles, III. 96, 
102 ; opposed by Niciap, 212 ; his 
methods, 214, 222, X. 148; his 
connection with Pylos affair, ill. 
230 f., 234; slain at Amphipolis, 
236; aped later by Stratocles, IX. 
26; quoted, in. 232 

Cleon (2) of Ilalicarnassus, his speech 
on changing the constitution of 
Sparta memorized by Lysander, 
IV. 302, 318, V. 54 

Cleon (3) of Sicyon, murdered, XI. 4 

Cleonae, taken by Corinth, IT. 456; 
scene of Hypcreides* execution, 
VII. 70, VIII. 210; brought into 
Achaean League by Aratus, Xl. 
64 ; goes over to Cleomenes, X. 90 

Clconaeans, with Argires fight Corin- 
thians, II. 268 

Cleonice, of Byzantium, slain by 
Pausanias, II. 420 

Cleoniries, Ptolemy's general, offered 
bribe by Demetrius to free Sicyon 
and Corinth, ix. 34 

Cleonymus (1), son of Sphodrias, 
intercedes for his father, v. 70; 
slain at Leuctra, 80 

Cleonymus (2), the Agiad, father of 
Leonidas, did not become king of 
Sparta, X. 8 f . ; scared from Thebes 
by DemetriuH, IX. 96 ; invites 
Pyrrhus to attack Sparta, 404 f. 

362 



Cleopater, Achaean commander of 
the Acrocorinthus, Xl. 92 

Cleopatra (1), niece of Attains, married 
to Philip, VII. 246, 250, 296 ; rebels 
against Antipater and takes Mace- 
donia to rule, 414 

Cleopatra (2), by letter invited Leon- 
natus to claim Macedonia, VIII. 86, 
102 

Cleopatra (3), daughter of Mithridates, 
wife of Tigranes, II. 540 

Cleopatra (4), banished by Potheinus, 
recalled by Caesar, whom she 
captivates, VII. 556 f ., IX. 160 ; 
summoned to Cilicia by Antony, 
captivates him, 190 f.; called to 
Syria by Antony, given Phoenicia, 
Coele Syria, Cyiprus, large part of 
Cilicia, balsam-producing part of 
Judaea, part of Arabia Nabataea 
sloping toward outer sea, 216 f . ; 
had two children by Antony, 
Alexander and Cleopatra, 218; 
sent back to Egypt by Antony, 
220; draws Antony back to 
Alexandria, 258; declared Queen 
of Egypt, Cyprus, Libya, and Coele 
Syria by Antony, to share her 
throne with Caesarion, 260; pre- 
vails upon Antony to let her 
accompany him to war, 264; 
honoured by Athenians, 268 ; drives 
Titius and Plancus to Octavius, 
268 ; given the libraries of Por- 
pamum by Antony, 270; estranges 
Gemitiius, M. Silanus, and Dellius, 
friends of Antony, 272 

Induces Antony to wage war on 
sea, 270, 280; with 60 ships flees 
for Peloponnesus, followed by 
Antony, 288; sent ahead into 
Egj'pt from Paraetonium, 294; 
tries to escape with ships into Ked 
Sea, 29G ; holds revel with Antony, 
tests different poisons, 300; asks 
of Octavius Egypt for her children, 
302 ; promised reasonable treat- 
ment if she casts out Antony, 304; 
allows Antony to execute wife and 
children of Seleucus, has tomb 
erected near temple of Isis, 306 ; 
hauls dying Antony into her tomb, 
taken by Proculeius, 312 f.; holds 
parley with Octavius, 320 f.; com- 
mits suicide and is buried beside 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Antony in royal state, 324: 39 
when she died, had been queen 
22 years, shared her power with 
Antony more than 14, 330 

Savings: 202, 272, 278, 322, 
324 f. 

Cleopatra (5), daughter of Antony 
and Cleopatra, given in marriage 
by Octavia to King Juba, rx. 218, 
330 

Cleophanes, with Phocion in battle 
near Tamynae, vm. 172 

Cleophantus, son of Themistocles and 
Axchippe, ll. 86 

Cleoptolemus, his daughter married 
to Antiochus, X. 366 

Cleora, wife of Agesilails, T. 52 

Clepsydra, IX. 212 

Clientes, means dependants; their 
relation to patrons, I. 126 

Clitarchus, see " Cleitarchus." 

Clodia (1), sister of Cloditis, wife of 
Metellus Celer, and called Qaadran- 
taria, Vli. 154 

Clodia (2), sister of Clodius, ll, 582 ; 
divorced from Lucullus, 594 

Clodia (3), daughter of Fulvia, to be 
married to Octavius, IX. 180 

Clodius (1), praetor, defeated by 
Spartacus, III. 338 

Clodius (2), his " An Examination 
of Chronology " cited, I, 30G 

Clodius (3), soldier of Lepidus, IX. 
176 

Clodius, deserter in Brutus* camp, Ti. 
234 

Clodius, Appius, te€ " P. Clodiu- 
Pulcher." 

Clodius Celsus, see " Oelsus, Clodius."' 

Clodius Macer, governor of Africa, 
does not join Galba, xi. 216, 230; 
slain by Trebonius at the order of 
Galba, 236 

Clodius Pulcher, P., brother-in-law 
of Lucullus, serves under him in 
Asia, II. 534; demands Mithridatcs 
from Tigranes, and is refused, 536 ; 
secretlv incites the soldiers against 
him, 582; IX. 140; helped Cicero 
in Catiline affair, VII. 152 ; com- 
mits sacrilege against Bona Dea, is 
brought to trial, is witnessed sigainst 
by Cicero, is acquitted, 150 f., 
462 f . ; elected tribune, drives 
Cicero into banishment, 150, 15C f., 



162, 168, 476, V. 234, 240, VIII. 
316; burns down Cicero's villa?, 
attacks Pompey, sends Cato on 
mission to Cyprus, v. 240 f., 
vn. 166, VIII. 318; attacks Cato 
after his return from Cyprus, 
vni. 344; brings charge against 
Cicero for destroying records of 
tribunes, vii. 168: slain by Milo, 
170; his funeral, VI. 170. See also 
vm. 278, 310 

CloeUa, Roman maiden, her adven- 
ture, I. 552 

Cloelia (2), 3rd wife of Sulla, divorced, 
IV. 344 

Cloelius, general of Carbo's faction, 
advances against Pompey, v. 128 

Clothes, see " Dress." 

Clubs, political, encouraged by Ly- 
sanderin Asia, IV. 244; 266; 290 

Clunia, city in Spain, XI. 218 

Clusium, besieged by Gauls, gets help 
of Rome, I. 348, II. 128 

Cluvius Rufus, cited, XI. 280 

Cnacion, later called Genus, river at 
Sparta, l. 222, V. 382 

Cnidus, II. 440; near it Phamabazus 
and Conon defeat Pcisander in 
naval battle, V. 46, XI. 176; 11.478: 
given freedom by Caesar, vil. 554 

" Coalemus," nickname of Cimon's 
grandfather, II. 412 

Coans, fish up golden tripod, to be 
given to wisest man, I. 412 ; join 
Lucullus, II. 478 

Cocceius, Otho's nephew, XT. 312 

Coele Syria, Riven Cleopatra by 
Antony, IX. 210 

Ooelius, led left wing for Antony at 
Actium, IX. 284 

Coenus, ordered by Alexander to 
attack Porus' right wing, Vll. 396 

Coinase, Solon made mina have 100 
instead of 73 drachmas, I. 444 ; 
purchasing power of drachma in 
Solon's time, 466 ; prices in Solon's 
time compared with those of 
Plutarch's time, 468; IV. 276; 
Lycurgus replaces gold and silver 
currency by iron, T. 228 f., II. 390, 
IV. 276, 284; price of sheep and 
oxen in early Roman Republic, 
I. 530, 532 ; value of Greek and 
Roman coins compared, II. 124, 
III. 130, IV. 326 ; Persian coin has 



363 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



figure of archer on it, v. 40, n. 

174 
Colchis, I. 66, 11. 614, V. 190, 202 ; 

invaded by Pompey, 206 ; 230 

Colias, cape where Athenian women 
sacrificed to Demeter, I. 422 

Collatinus, Tarquinius, see " Tar- 
quinius Collatinus." 

Colline gate, where unchaste "Vestals 
were burled alive, I. 342 ; gave 
Brennns entrance to Kome, ll. 
146 

CoUytus, Attic deme, VII. 28 

Oolonis, village, threatened by 
Messenians, X. 308 

Colony, to Caria by loius and 
Ornytus, I. 18; of Athenians to 
the Chersonese, to Naxos, AnJros, 
Thrace, Thurii,iil. 34, 58 ; to Sinope, 
62; to Hestiaea, 66; to Syracuse 
from Asia and Corinth, VI. 316 ; to 
Agrigentum and Qela from Velia 
and Ceos, 344; to Velitrae by 
Eomans, IV. 144; to Tarentum 
and Capua proposed by C. Grac- 
chus, X. 214; to Carthage by 
0. Gracchus, 220, 226 

Colophonians, freed from Epigonus 
by Lucullus, II. 478 

CoUytus, in Athens, vii. 28 

Corneas, archon at Athens, I. 496 

Comet, after Caesar's murder, VII. 
604 

Oomedy, Greek, from it conclude 
Greek doors opened outwards, I. 
554; II. 596 

Comic poets, III. 8, 44, 50, IV. 24, 
28 

Oominius, consul, invests Corioli, IV. 
132; 140 

Cominius, Pontius, carries message 
through Gauls to Capit )1, II. 154 f . 

Comitium surrounded by circular 
trench, I. 118; derived from coire, 
150 

Commagene, V. 230, IX. 276 

Commentaries, of Aratus, XI. 6, 74, 
76, 88 ; of J. Caesar, vil. 496 

Communism, of age of Cronos, II. 
436 

Commissioners, ten, sent to organize 
Pontus, II. 588; X. 348 

Concord, temple of, vowed by 
Oamillus, ii. 204; built by consul 
Opimius, X. 238; VIl. 126 



Confederacy of Delos, treasury moved 

to Athens, III. 34 
Connidas, tutor of Theseus, 1. 10 
Conon (1), friend of Solon, I. 444 
Conon (2), father of Timotheus, IV. 
338; escapes from Aegospotami to 
Evagoras in Cyprus, iv. 108; 260; 
XI. 176; with Pharnabazus defeats 
Peisander ofE Cnidus, v. 46, xi. 
176 f.; ravages coast of Laconia, 

V. 62 

Conopion, burned body of Phocion, 
viii. 230 

Considius, aged senator, VII. 476 

Consta, P., summoned as witness by 
Cicero, VII. 148 

Consualia, Boman festival, held 
August 18th, I. 134 

Consuls : M'. AciUus, X. 364 ; M. 
Aemilius and L. Seitus (1st 
plebeian), 11. 206; Antony, VII. 
190, 584, IX. 170; Antony and 
Caesar, vi. 164; M. Atilius and 
T. Manlius, X. 364; Brutus and 
Collatinus, 1st consuls, I. 604; 
Caesar, ill. 354, VII. 562 ; 3rd time 
with Lepidus, IX. 160; 4th time, 
VII. 570; 5th time with Antony, 

IX. 162 ; Caesar and Bibulus, v. 
236, VII. 472 ; Caesar and Servilius 
Isauricus, 532 ; Camillus, not once, 
IT. 94; Carbo, thrice, v. 138; 
Cato Major and Valerius Flaccus, 
II. 310, 330; Catulus and Marius, 
IV. 332; Cicero and C. Antonius, 
VII. 108, IX. 156; Cuma, IV. 356; 
Cominius, IV. 132; Cotta, IX. 470; 
Crassus and 0. Scipio, III. 192 ; 
L. Domitius, vni. 30 ; Gn. Domitius 
and Messala, Y. 256; Fabius 
Maximus, 6 times. III. 174, 188, 

VI. 366; Fabius, son of Fabius 
Maximus, III. 186; 0. Fabricius 
and Q. Aemilius, IX. 410; C. 
Fannius, X. 214; Flaccus, II. 582, 
IV. 390; Fulvius Flaccus, X. 238; 
C. Flaminius, III. 122 ; Flaminius 
and Furius, V. 442 ; T. Flamtninus, 

X. 296; T. Flamininus and Sextus 
Aelius, X. 324; Fulvius and 
Appius, III. 200; Gabinius and 
Piso, VII. 160; S. Galba, Xl. 210; 
Gellius and Lentulus, III. 340; Ti. 
Gracchus, twice, X. 144; Hirtius 
and Pansa, VI. 452, VII. 190, 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



IX. 174; M. Horatius, 5th man 
elected, I. 534; Hostilius, vi. 
376; Laevinus, EX. 392 ; Leniulus, 
V. 270, VU. 166, 518, IX. 150; M. 
Lepidos, IV. 434, V. 150; LucuUus 
and M. Cotta, II. 484, V. 162; 
Lucretius, 4th time, I, 534; C. 
Mancinus, X. 152; Manius, X. 
304; Marcellus, V. 464, X. 324; 
3rd time, V. 466; 4th time, 496; 
6th time, 512 ; Marcellus, 5 times, 
m. 174, V. 436, 442, X. 372; Mar- 
cellus and Gnaeus Cornelius, V. 
446; C. Marcellu?, V. 268, VII. 
514, IX. 148; Marius, IX. 482, 
486; 1st time, IV. 328; 2nd and 
3rd times, 330, IX. 492, 498; 4th 
time with Lutatius Catulus, 500 
5th time, 522; 6th time, 542 
7th time, 590; younger Marius 

VIII. 14; Maximus, VII. 576 
Cornelius Merula with Octavius 

IX. 578; Caecilius Metellus, EX 
476; L. Murena and Silanus 
mi. 284; Norbanus, IV. 410 
Octavius and Cinna, VIII. 10, IX 
578; Octavius Caesar, VI. 184 
with Cicero's son, vil. 208; Opi 
mius, X. 226; Orestes, 198 
Paulus, V. 268, vn. 514; Aemilius 
Paulus, twice, VI. 366 ; Aemilius 
Paulus, son of preceding, 366; 
2nd time, 378; Philippus, Viu. 
330; Piso, V. 182; Piso and 
Gabinius, 240, VII. 474, VEU. 316; 
Pompeius, EV. 350; Pompey and 
Crassus, III. 350, V. 166, 250, VIII. 
334; Pompey, sole consul, v. 
258, VII. 512," VIII. 350; Valerius 
Publicolu, I. 518; 2nd time with 
T. Lucretius, 542; 3rd time, 546; 
4th time, 556 ; L. Quintius (Flami- 
ninus), ll. 350; Ganinius Revilius, 
VU. 676; Rufinus, IV. 324 ; Mucius 
Scaevola, x. 162 ; Cornelius Scipio 
(Airlcanus Major), III. 190; Scipio 
(Africanus Minor), EX. 492 ; Scipio 
(Asiaticus), IV. 414, V. 130 ; Metellus 
Scipio with Pompey, 262; Scipio 
Nasica and 0. Marcius, 444; Ti. 
Sempronius, 444, II. 334; Silanus 
and Murena, VII. 116; Spinther, 
V. 244; Sulla and Q. Porapelos, 
IV. 342 ; M. Valerius and Postumius 
Tubertus, 1. 554 ; Valerius Corvinus, 



many times, DC. 542 ; Terentius 

Varro and Aemilius Paulus, III. 

15Sf. 
" Consuls " means counsellors, i. 128 
Consulship, arrogant power? taken 

away by Publicola, I. 568; III. 

186; why candidates wear toga 

without tunic, iv. 148; given to 

Marius absent, IX. 492 
Consus, god of counsel; his altar in 

Circus Maximus, I. 128 
Contributions, II. 482, 532, III. 36, 

IV. 22 

Copillus, chief of Tectosages, cap- 
tured by Sulla, IV. 330 

Coponius, commander of garrison at 
Carrhae, III. 404 

Cora, daughter of Aldoneus and 
Phersephone, I. 72 

Cora, temple of, near Hysiae at foot 
of Cithaeron, li. 248 ; goddess of 
Sjracuse, delivered Cerberus into 
Heracles' hands. III. 210; goddess 
of Eleusis, EV. 60 

Coracesium, promontory in Cilicia, 

V. 184 

Corcyne, nurse, accompanied Ariadne 
toNaios, I. 42 

Corcyra, ii. 64; aided by Athens, 
III. 82, 84; in league against 
Philip, VII. 40, VI. 278; captured 
by Agathocles, EX. 368 ; garrisoned 
by Demetrius, 372; VI. 448; Vlll. 
370 

Corduba, VII. 482 

Cordylion, surname of Athenodorus 
the Stoic, VIII. 256 

Coreia, festival of Persephone, VI. 
118 

Corfinium, surrenders to Caesar, Vll. 
526 

Corfmius, refurnished Pompey's house, 
VII. 562. See also " Cornificius." 

Corinth, I. 56, 412, II. 16, 274, 64, 
456; at war with Corcyra, III. 82, 
84; its territory raided by Nicias, 
228 ; displeased bv Peace of Nicias, 
240, IV. 48, 292 ; " battle of, V. 40, 
44; captured by Agesilaiis and 
Teleutias, 56; In league against 
Philip, VEI. 40; sends Timoleon to 
Sicily, VI. 266; 268; 270; 276; 
sends Timoleonreinforcements, 298 ; 
304; 308; 312; sends colonists to 
Syracase, 314; 332; freed by 



365 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES* 



Demetrius, IX. 58; X. 10; xi. 20 
joins Achaean League, 52; 56 
joins Oleomenes, x. 90, XI. 94 
garrisoned by Antigonus, 96 ; pro 
claimed free by Flamininus, X. 
350, 358; brought over to Rome 
by Cato the Elder, II. 336 ; taken 
by Mummius, lU. 430, IX. 464, X. 
31G ; restored by Caesar, VII. 
576 

Coriolanus, 0. Marcius, his family 
and character, IV. 118 f.; fought 
against Tarquin when a boy, 122 ; 
takes Corioli, 132 f.; helps the 
consul rout the Volscians, 136 f. ; 
is named Coriolanus, 140; opposes 
the plebs, runs for consul, not 
elected, 148 f. ; opposes distributiog 
com gratis, 154 f.; is denounced 
by the tribunes, 156 f.; condenmed 
by the tribunes to be cast from 
Tarpeian rock, is rescued, 160 f . ; 
is tried before the people and 
condemned to perpetual banish- 
ment, 166 f . 

Goes to the Volscians, 170; is 
appointed general with Tullus for 
war on Rome, raids Roman land, 
182 f . ; takes Circeii, ravages land 
of Latins, takes Bola, 186 ; be- 
sieges Lavinium, marches against 
Rome, 188; gives terms of peace 
to Roman embassy, 190; with- 
draws and attacks allies of Rome, 
192 ; returns to attack Rome, 194; 
spares Rome and withdraws at the 
intercession of his mother, 208; 
hated by Tullus and asked to give 
an account of his administration, 
214; slain by a party of Volscians, 
216 

His words given : 136, 140, 166, 
172 f., 208 

Corioli, captured from the Volscians, 
IV. 132 

Cornelia (1), daughter of Scipio, wife 
of Ti. Q-racchus the Elder, refused 
hand of Ptolemy; mother of the 
Gracchi, X. 146 f., 152; 162; 206; 
said to have helped C. Gracchus in 
his seditious measures, 226; her 
life after death of C Gracchus, 
240; EX. 556 

Cornelia (2), daughter of Metellus 
Scipio, married Publius, son of 



Crassus, then Pompey ; her accom- 
plishments, V. 260, 286; learns of 
disaster at Pharsalus, flees with 
her husband, 310; sees Pompey 
murdered, receives remains of 
Pompey, buries them at Alban 
villa, 320 f . 

Cornelia (3), daughter of Cinna, wife 
of Caesar, vil. 442, 450; had 
daughter by Caesar who married 
Pompey, 452 

Cornellii, three fated to become 
monarchs at Rome, VII. 122, ix. 
464 

Cornelius, leader of party of Sulla's 
men, spares Caesar for 2 talents, 
Vll. 444 

Cornelius, C, acquaintance of Livy, 
augurs Caesar's victory at Phar- 
salus, vii. 554 

Cornelius, Gnaeus, appointed col- 
league in consulship by Marcellus, 
V. 446, 448 

Cornelius, P., with M. Baebius con- 
sul about 400 years after Numa, 
I. 380 

Cornelius Cethegus, see " Cethegus, 
Cornelius." 

Cornelius Cossus, won spolia opima 
from Tolumnius the Tuscan, l. 138, 

V. 454 

Cornelius Laco, prefect of praetorian 

guard under Galba, Xl. 230; slain 

by Otho's soldiers, 268 
Cornelius Merula, consul with 

Octavius, replacing Cijma, IX. 578 
Cornelius Nepos, cited, II. 608, V. 

520, X. 194 
Cornel-tree, the sacred, story of, 

I. 154 
Comificius, L., prosecutor of Brutus, 

VI. 184 

Cornificius, Q., has 2 legions for 
Caesar, VII. 544 

Cornuius, rescued from Marias by 
slaves, IX. 686 

Coroebus, began sanctuary of mys- 
teries at Eleusis, ill. 40 

Coroneia, battle of, Athenians under 
Tolmides defeated by Boeotians, 
III. 58, IV. 2; battle of, between 
Agesilalis and Thebans, V. 40, 
46 

Oorrhagus (Corrhaeus), Stratonice's 
father, ix. 6 



366 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Corrhagus, son of Demetrius and 

Eurydice, IX. 134 
Corsica, sea about it cleared of 

pirates by Pompey, V. 182 
Corvinus, Valerius, 6 times consul 

like Marius, IX. 542 
Conmetes, slain by Theseus, I. 188. 

See also " Periphetes." 
Cos, people of, join Lucullus, II. 

474 
Cosa, in Etruria, colonized by Rome, 

X. 324 
Cosconius, slain by Caesar's mutinous 

soldiers, vii. 560 
Cosis, brother of Albanian king, slain 

by Pompey, v. 2u8 
Cossaeans, slaughtered by Alexander, 

VII. 424 
Cossinius, praetor, slain, and his 

camp captured by Spartacus, ill. 

Cossus, Cornelius, see " Cornelius 

Cossus." 
Cossus, Licinius, sent to consult 

oracle of Delpid re AJban lake, II. 

102 
Cost, of clothing, II. 314 ; of fish, 322 ; 

of public works, 356 
" Cothurnus," nickname of There- 

menes, ill. 212 
Cotta, defeated by Sertorius in sea- 
fight, Mil. 30 
Ootta, Caesar's legate, destroyed with 

army by Gauls, vii. 500 
Cotta, L. (1), opposes ilarius, II. 

470 
Cotta, L. (2), censor, very fond of 

wine, Vll. 150 
Cotta, il., consul with Lucullus, II. 

484; sent with ships to guard 

PropontLs and Bithynia, 490 ; de- 
feated by ilithridates, is besieged 

in Chalcedon, 494 
Cotylon, Varius, intimate of Antony, 

left with 6 legions to guard Gaul, 

IX. 178 
Cotys, king of Paphlagonians, makes 

alliance with Agesilalis, V. 28 
Council of Elders, established by 

Lycurgus, I. 218 
Council of 500, at Athens, II. 458 
Courts of justice, transferred again 

to knights by Pompey, v. 168 
Crane, dance instituted by Theseus, 

still kept up by Delians, I. 44 



Craneion, suburb of Corinth, VII. 
258 

Crannon, battle of, Greeks defeated 
by Antipater, II. 138, vil. 68, Vlll. 
200 

Crassianus, 0. (CrastiDUs or Cras- 
sinius), centurion of Caesar, slain 
at Pharsalus, v. 300, VII. 548 

Crassus (1), Scipio's colleague in 
consulship, urged by Fabius Maxi- 
mus to thwart Scipio ; was pontifex 
maximus. III. 192 

Crassus (2), brother of Licinia, x. 
232 

Crassus (3), husband of Scribonia, 
father of Piso, executed by Nero, 
XI. 254 

Crassus (4), son of the triumvir, 
resembled Axius, vii. 144 

Crassus, M., his family. III. 314; his 
avarice and wealth, 316 f.; gener- 
ous, eloquent, kindly, 320 ; escaped 
when Cinna and Marius prevailed, 
322 ; joins Sulla and raises force, 
326 f.; rival of Pompey, 328; 
victorious when Sulla is defeated, 
320, IV. 416, 420 f.; lent Caesar 
large sum, III. 332 f ., vn. 468 ; 
chosen to conduct war against 
Spartacus, III. 340; disciplines 
troops when his legate Mumming 
is defeated, 342; defeats parts of 
Spartacus' force, 344, 346, V. 164, 
196 ; defeats Spartacus again, ill. 
348 

Elected consul with Pompey, 
quarrels with him, 350, V. 168, 
vxii. 334; inactive as censor, 
accused by Cicero of being in 
Catiltnarian conspiracy, iii. 352, 
VII. 116, 158; reconciled to Cicero, 
168, III. 354; forms triumvirate 
with Pompey and Caesar, 354 f ., 
VII. 470; has understanding with 
Caesar and Pompey at Luca, III. 
356, VII. 494, VIII. 332; through 
violence is elected consul with 
Pompey, gets province of Syria, 
III. 360, VIII. 334; crosses to the 
east, takes Zenodotia, ill. 364; 
receives embassy from Hyrodes, 
368 ; encouraged by Artabazes, 
king of Armenia, 370; duped by 
Ariaranes, 374; opposed by Surena, 
370 f.; gets discouraging message 



3^7 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



from Artabazes, 380; defeated by 
Parthians, 382 f.; leaves Carrhae 
by night, 408; forced to go with 
the Parthians, 412; is slain, 416, 
V. 254, VII. 510 

See also II. 592, 596, 606, V. 226, 
VII. 102, 144, 146 

Quoted : III. 318, 330, 352, V. 170, 
364, 368, 374, 398, 412 

Crassus, P. (1), pontifex maximus, 
helps Ti. Gracchus draw up his 
agrarian law, X. 162 ; father-in- 
law of 0. Gracchus, elected land 
commissioner in place of Ti. 
Gracchus, 194 

Crassus, P. (2), son of M. Crassus, 
admirer of Cicero, in. 354, v. 260, 
VII. 168; came from Caesar in 
Gaul with 1000 troopers for his 
father, III. 366, 384; slain at 
Carrhae, 390, 400, V. 310, VII. 
172 

Crastinus, see " Crassianus." 

Craterus (1), husband of Phila, ix. 
32; Wll. 344; wounded by Perdic- 
cas, 346; quarrels with Hephaes- 
tion, 360, 362, 382, sent back to 
Macedonia by Alexander, Vlll. 
186; defeats Greeks at Crannon, 
and crosses to Asia to overthrow 
Perdiccas, VII. 68, VIII. 90, 200; 

VII. 70 ; VIII. 92 ; sends Antipater 
into Cilicia, advances against 
Eumenes, is defeated and dies, 

VIII. 94 f., IX. 32 

Craterus, the Macedonian, collected 
various decrees, II. 444; cited, 
294 

Crates, philosopher, induces Deme- 
trius to raise siege of Athens, IX. 
116 

Cratesicleia, mother of Cleomenes, 
assists him, marries Aristonous, X. 
60 ; goes as hostage to Egypt, 98 ; 
executed by Ptolemy, x. 136 

Cratesipolis, wife of Alexander, son 
of Polysperchon, visits Demetrius, 

IX. 22 

Cratinus, comic poet, cited : — 

Archilochi (Kock I. 11), ll. 434 
Cheirons (Kock I. 86), III. 8, 70 
Nemesis (Kock I. 49), m. 8 ; (94), 
1.472; (100), III. 42 
Cratippus, v. 310; received Roman 
citizenship from Caesar at Cicero's 

368 



request, Vll. 142 ; his lectures 

attended by Brutus, VI. 176 
Craugis, Philopoemen's father, x. 266 
Cremation, alive, Vll. 416 f. 
Cremona, battle of, Caecina worsted 

by Otho's men, XI. 292 
Creobylus, see " c3robylus." 
Creon (1), father of Menoeceus, V. 

390 
Creon (2), character in tragedy, vil. 

72 
Creophylus, posterity of, in Ionia 

preserved poems of Homer, I. 214 
Cretan, civilization, simple and severe, 

I. 214; government, mixture of 
democracy and royalty, VI. 112 ; 
javelin, X. 444 

Cretans, once sent offering of first- 
born to Delphi, some of Athenian 
descent, etc., I. 30; submit to 
Philip, son of Antigonus, XI. 110; 
serve with Aemilius Paulus, VI. 
392, 416 ; won over by LucuUus, 

II. 474 

Crete, visited by Lycurgus, I. 212; 

worst nest of pirates after Cilicia, 

cleared of them by Metellus, v. 

188; decreed province of Brutus, 

VI. 168; X. 288 f. 
" Creticus," surname of Antonius, 

father of M. Antony, ix. 138 
Crimesus river, in Sicily, VI. 322; 

battle of, 324 f . 
Crispinus (1), consul with Marcellus, 

slain by Hannibal in ambush, v. 

516 
Crkpinus (2), Poppaea's husband, xi. 

216 ; slain by Otho's soldiers, 280 
Critias, son of Callaeschrus, moved 

decree for recall of Alcibiades, iv. 

96; one of Thirty Tyrants, ll. 

434; cited, I. 230, II. 434, 454 

(Bergk II. 279 f.), iv. 96 
Crito, borrowed 70 minas from 

Socrates, II. 214 
Critolaidas, one of 5 arbiters in dis- 
pute between Athenians and Megar- 

ians, I. 428 
Critolalis, cited, III. 20 
Crobylus (1), cited, vil. 40 
Crobylus (2), beautiful boy, VII. 286 
Croesus, sent bcwl to Delphi, i. 414; 

had interview with Solon, 478 ; 

defeated and spared by Cyrus, 

484 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE * LIVES ' 



Crommyonlan sow, called PhaesL, 

slain by Theseus, i. 18 
Cronos, age of, ll, 286, 436 
Croton, I, 178; given portion of 

spoil from Arbela by Alexander, 

VII. 328 
Crustumerium, its people defeated 

and moTed to Rome by Romulus, 

I. 138 
Ctesias, physician with Artaxerxes 

n., XI. 128 ; describes death of Cynia 

at Gunaxa, 148 f . ; rewarded by 

Artaxerxes, 156 ; tells anecdote 

about Clearchus and himself, 166 £. ; 

sent to help Conon, 176 

Cited: 140, 146, 148 f., 154 f., 

170 
Ctesibius, cited by Hermippus, VII. 12 
Ctesiphon, brought to trial in matter 

of the crown, vil. 58 
Ctesippus, son of Chabrias, vii. 36; 

helped by Phocion, vni. 153 
Ctesium, city in Scyros, II. 426 
Culeo, Tereniius, forces Flamininus 

and Marcellus, the censors to receive 

into citizenship all offered if of free 

parents, X. 372 
CuUeo, vainly urges Pompey to 

divorce Julia, v. 242 
Cumae, Blossius of, x. 160 
Cunaxa, 500 furlongs from Babvlon; 

battle of, XI. 142 f. 
Cures, of the Sabines, native city of 

Numa Pompilius; from it " Qui- 

rites " derived, I. 314 
"Cures, a new," term applied to 

Epimenides or Crete, I. 432 
Curiae, named after 30 seized Sabine 

maidens, l. 1.^0, 152 
Curio (1), Sulla's legate, besieges 

Aristion in the acropolis and forces 

him to surrender, I v. 372 
Curio (2), Cato's friend, VIII. 266; 

aedilc with Favonius, 348, IX. 140 
Ciu-io (3), rescues Caesar in Catilin- 

arian trouble, vil. 4G0 ; bought by 

Caesar, acts for him in Rome, 

V. 268, VII. 514 f., IX. 140, 148; 

driven from senate by Leutulus, 

VII. 518 
Curius, Al'., II. 324, 386, 394; hero 

of 3 triumphs, drove Pyrrhus from 

Italy, 306; defeated P\rrhu.s at 

Beneventum, IX. 426; quoted, II. 

306 



Curtius, Sabine, caught in bog hence- 
forth called " lacus Curtius," I. 
144 

Custom, of boiling all sorts of poise 
together on 7th of Pyanepsion, 
I. 46 ; Spartans brought bodies of 
kings home for burial, V. 112 

Cyanean isles, western limit for 
Persian navy, li. 444 

Cybemesia, celebrated in honour of 
of NausithoUs and Phaeax, I. 34 

Cybisthus, son of Solon's sister, 
adopted by him, i. 418 

Cychreus, father-in-law of Sciron, I. 
20; hero sacrificed to by Solon, 
424 

Cyclades, being subjugated by Arche 
"lalis, IV. 358 

Cvclops, cave of, II. 326 ; blinded, XI. 
'208 

Cycnus, slain by Hercules, I. 22 

Cydnus river, in Asia, VII. 274, IX. 
192 

Cyinda, see " Quinda." 

Cyllarabis (Cylarabis, Cyllarabium), 
gvnmasium iust outside of Argos, 
IX. 452, X. 86, 110 

Cylon, his murder caused pollution 
'and strife, 1.430; Athenians ordered 
by Spartans to drive out this 
pollution. III. 94 

Cvme, where Themistocles landed in 
"Asia, II. 68; va. 586 

Cynageirus, rivalled Aristides for 
2nd place at Plataea, II. 388 

Cyuisca, Agesilalis' sister, enters 
chariot at Olympian contests, v. 52 

Cynosarges, gymnasium of Hercules 
outside Athens, frequented by 
aliens, II. 2 

Cynoscephalae, Amazons' graves there, 
1.64; Pelopidas defeats Alexander 
of Pherae there and is himself slaia, 
V. 422 ; Flamininus defeats Philip 
of Macedon there, vi. 372, x. 340 

Cynossema, promontory of Salamis, 
origin of name, II. 30 f ., 318 

Cypris, I. 478 

Cvprus, has grove of Ariadne Aphro- 
'dite, I. 42; visited by Solon, 476; 
11.84; 442; 460; scene of Cimou's 
death, 462 f., III. 32; 74; surrenders 
to Alexander, VII. 292; 308; IX. 12; 
won from Ptolemy by Demetrius, 
IX. 34 f.; II. 478; administered by 



369 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES* 



Oato, V. 240, 316, Vll. 170, vill. 346 ; 
given to Cleopatra, IX. 218 

Cji^selus, Periander's father, 33. 8 

Gyrene, set in order by Ecdemus and 
Megalophanes, x. 256; ruled by 
son of Demetrius and Ptolemais, 
IX. 134; given fixed constitution 
by LucuUus, II. 474; received 
Cato, closed gates to Labienus, 
vnr. 370 f.; western terminus of 
Antony's empire, IX. 276 

Cymus river, its source, tributary, 
and mouth, V. 206 

Cyrrhestica, in Asia, IX. 122, 212 

"Cyrus," Persian word for sun, xi. 
128 

Cyrus the Elder, named from sun, 
XI. 128; 130; defeated and spared 
Solon, I. 484; his tomb visited by 
Alexander VII. 416, IX. 152 

CjTus the Younger, son of Dareius 
and Parysatis.xi. 128; 190, ill. 72; 
receives Lysander at Sardis, rv. 
240; 246; asks Sparta to send 
Lysander again, 248; promises 
Lysander anything he wants, 252; 
280; remained satrap of Lydia 
and commander of the king's forces 
in maritime provinces on death of 
Dareius, xi. 130; accused of plot 
against life of Artaxerxes, pardoned 
by latter, 132; makes secret 
preparations, 132 f.; gets aid of 
Spartans, marches agatast the 
king, is slain at Cunaxa, 136 f., 
IV. 452; quoted, XI. 142 

Cvthera, captured by Nicias, III. 
228; 430; V. 86; X. 118 

Cvtheris, actress, favourite of Antony, 
'ix. 158 

Cyzicus, sends embassy to Sparta 
supported by Pharnabazus, iv. 66 ; 
taken by Athenians, 82; besieged 
by Mithridates, relieved by Lucul- 
lus, II. 498, 504; VI. 186 



Dactyli, Idaesm, played tricks like 

those of Picus and Faunus, I. 

360 
Daedalus, son of Merope, pursued 

by Minos, fled to Athens, protected 

by Theseus, I. 38 
Daesius, month in which Macedonian 

kings were wont to take the field, 



VII. 264; 432; Sicyonian month, 
same as Anthesterion, XI. 122 

Da'imachus, Plataean, cited re Solon, 
I. 572 ; his treatise " On Religion " 
cited, IV. 262 

Dalmatia, armies there faithful to 
Otho, XI. 284 

Damagoras, commands Bhodian gal- 
ley, II. 482 

Damascus, VII. 280 

Damastes (1), surnamed Procrostes, 
slain by Theseus, I. 22 

Damastes (2), cited, ll. 138 

Damippus, Spartan, captured by 
Marcellus, V. 482 

Damochares, plots against Agls, X. 
40 ; helps execute him, 44 

Damocleides, prominent Theban, 
takes part in expulsion of Spartans 
at Thebes, V. 356 ; with Pelopidas 
Slavs Leontidas and Hypates, V. 
366 

Damocrates (1), Plataean hero, ii. 
246 

Damocrates (2), Spartan exile, quoted, 
X. 56 

Damon (1), Pericles' music teacher, 
ostracized, II. 214, ill. 10, 226 

Damon (2), Macedonian soldier of 
Alexander, Vll. 286 

Damon (3), Peripolitas, of Chaeroneia, 
story of his life, II. 404 f . ; his 
descendants called Asbolomeni, 408 

Damonides, of deme Oa, advises 
Pericles, ill. 26 

Damophantus, leader of Eleian 
cavalry, slain by Philopoemen, x. 
272 

Damoteles, betrays Cleomenes at 
Sellasia, x. 114 

Damurias river, where Timoleon 
defeated Hicetas, VI. 336 

Danaiis, captured Argos, IX. 454 

Dandamis, gymnosopliist, meets One- 
sicritus, VII. 408; 244 

Dandarians, barbarian people dwell- 
ing about Lake Maeotis, ll. 518 

Danube river, Bisternae settled along 
it, VI. 376 ; scene of battle between 
Alexander and Syrmus, king of 
Triballi, vil. 252 ; regions along it 
subdued by Tiberius Sempronius, 
II. 334 

Daochus, Thessalian, sent by Philip 
ou embassy to Thebes, VII. 42 



370 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Daphne, daughter of Amyclas, the 

same as Pasiphae according to 

Phylarchus, X. 20 
Daplme, grove near Antioch, II. 534 
Dardanians, defeated by Perseus, 

VI. 376 
Dardanus, in Troad, meeting-place 

of Mithridates and Sulla, iv. 402 
Dardanus (1), founded Troy, II. 144 
Dardanus (2), shield-bearer of Brutus, 

VI. 242 

Dareius (1), sent Datis to subdue 
Hellenes, II. 10, 224 

Dareius (2), father of Artaxerxes, 
Cyrus, Ostanes, and Oxathres by 
Parysatis, XI. 128 

Dareius (3), his generals defeated at 
the river Granicus, vu. 262 f . ; 
encouraged by Alexander's long 
delay in Cilicia, 274; defeated by 
Alexander, 278; makes proposal 
to Alexander, 310 : marches against 
him with a million men, 314; 
escapes from rout of Arbela, 324; 
V. 40; seized by Bessus, dies in 
presence of Polystratus, 348 ; body 
sent to his mother, 350 ; quoted, 
310 f., 350 f. 

Dareius (4), oldest son of Artazerxes 
n., proclaimed successor to the 
throne, xi. 188 f.; plots death of 
Artaxerxes, is detected and put to 
death, 196 f, 

Daric, Persian coin, iv. 240 

Darius, see " Dareius." 

Dascylitis, lake near Cyzicus, ll. 500 

Dassaretis, in lUyria, x. 330 

Datis, sent by Darius to subdue 
Hellenes, II. 224 

Daunians, plunder Pyrrhus' baggage 
at Asculum, EX. 416 

Day, white. III. 78 

Debts, cancelled in Athens by Solon, 
I. 442, 570; debtor class cham- 
pioned by M. Manilas, II. ISG; 

VII. 418; IV. 348; 11.532; VII. 452 ; 
470; 556; IX. 140 

Decadarchies, instituted in Asia bv 

Lysander, IV. 242, 266, 268 
Deceleia, fortified on advice of 

Alcibiades, IV. 62 ; 98 ; 252 
Dechas, death chamber of prison at 

Sparta, X. 44 
Decimation, what it is, IX. 226; III. 

342 



Decrees, II. 18, 204, 244, 280, 444, 

458, HI. 28, 68, 84, 88, 210, 252, 

IV. 42, 96, 254, 270, 318, V. 354, 

VI. 10, Yll. 48, 68, 146, 168, VIII. 

222, 230, IX. 32 
Deianeira, III. 70 
Deidameia (1), married Peirithoiis, I. 

68 
Deidameia (2), daughter of Aeacides, 

sister of Pvrrhus, wife of Deme- 
trius, IX. 58, 348, 354; mother of 

Alexander, 134; 72; dies, 78, 302 
Deidius, brings in head of elder of 

Pompey's sons, VII. 572 
Deimachus, father of Autolycus, II. 

544 
Deinarchiis (1), Corinthian, denounced 

Demades to Cassander, Vll. 7^ ; 

put to death by Polysperchon, 

VUI. 222 
Dcinarchus (2), served under Timo- 

leon in Sicily, Vl. 312, 320 
Deinias, with Aristotle the logician, 

slays Abantidas, XI. 6; cited, 

66 
Deinocrates, Messenian, induces Mes- 

sene to revolt from Achaean league, 

captures Philopoemen, X. 306, 370 ; 

executes Philopoemen, commits 

suicide, 314 
Deinomache, daughter of Megacles, 

mother of Alcibiades, IV. 2 
Deinon, cited, VII. 332, XI. 128, 140, 

146 f., 154, 170, 172, 178 
Deioneus, son of Eurytus the Oechal- 

ian, I. 18 
Deipnophoroi, women who took part 

in procession of Oschophoria; why 

so called, I. 50 
Deirades, Athenian deme, IV. 70 
Deiotarus, Galatian, guest-friend of 

Cato's father, welcomes Cato, who 

refuses his gifts and leaves soon, 

VIII. 260 f.; meets Crassus, ill. 

364; flees with Pompey, v. 308; 

deserts to Octavius, ix. 280 
AeKajSoioj/ (ten oxen), origin of term 

as referring to money, I. 54 
Delium, has temple of Apollo, IV. 

396 ; battle of, Athenians defeated, 

18, 316,111.226 
Dellius, sent by Antony to bring 

Cleopatra to him in Cilicia, ix. 

190 f.; 272 
Delos, island, athletic contests insti- 

37i 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES* 



tuted there by Theseus, I. 44; 
Confederacy of, II. 290; III. 216 

Delos, mountain near temple of 
Apollo Tegyraeus, V. 378 

Delphi, visited by Lycurg^s, i. 216; 
has perpetual fire, that went out 
3 times, 338; where 7 wise men 
once met, 412 ; had polden tripod 
and bowl sent by Croesus, 414; 
its records cited, 430, 472; had 
treasury of Acanthians, iv. 234; 
280; II. 114; seized by men led 
by Philomelus and Onomarchus 

VI. 334; 428 

Delphi, oracle of, I. 52 ; told Theseus 
to found city where he found 
himself full of sorrow, 60, 82; 
180; 216; 220; 294; 318; 424; 428; 
438; II. 28; 102; 246; VII. 260; XI. 
120 

Delphians, freed from Phocians by 
Spartans, II. 456 ; dispossessed of 
sanctuary at Delphi by Spartans, 
restored by Athenians, III. 62 

Delphinium, contains enclosure where 
house of Aegeus stood, I. 24, 34 

Demades, his character and ability, 

VII. 20, 24, 30, VIII. 144; moves 
that Athenians take part in con- 
gress proposed by Philip, vill. 
180; induces Alexander to forgo 
demand for surrender of Demos- 
thenes and others, vil. 56 ; moves 
sentence of death on Demosthenes, 
70, VIII. 202; executed by Oas- 
sander, 212, VII. 78 

Sayings : Draco's laws written 
In blood, I. 450, VII. 28, 30, VIII. 
144, 194, X. 110, XI. 208 

Demaenetus, popular leader at Syra- 
cuse, attacks Timoleon, vi. 348 

Deraaratus (1), father of Tarquin, 
I. 138, 536 

Demaratus (2), Spartan, wishes to 
wear tiara upright like Persian 
kings, II. 80; XI. 130 

Demaratus (3), Corinthian, rebukes 
Philip, VII. 246, 336; dies after 
seeing Alexander on throne of 
Dareius, 384; cited, V. 38 

Demaratus (4), Rhodian, his release 
secured by Phocion from Alexander, 

VIII. 186 
Demaratus, saying, I. 268 
Demaretus, with Delnarchus brought 

372 



Timoleon's 2nd reinforcement from 
Corinth, led part of troops against 
Hicetas, VI. 312, 320; commands 
cavalry at battle of river Orimesus, 
326 

Demariste, Timoleon's mother, VI. 
266, 272 

Demeas, son of Demades, executed by 
Cassander, viii. 214 

Demeter, sacrifice to, at Sparta 
12th day after death of kinsman, i. 
286, 422; goddess of Eleusis, iv. 
60, II. 246 ; temple of, near Hysiae 
at foot of Cithaeron, 248 

" Demetria," new name of festival 
Dionysia, ix. 28 

Demetrias, city settled by Demetrius 
from small villages about lolcus, 
IX. 134; Plamininus ordered to 
keep it garrisoned, X. 348; had 
great store of arms for Partliian 
war, VI. 180 

" Demetrias," new name of Sicyon, 
IX. 58 

Demetrias, new tribe at Athens In 
honour of Demetrius, ix. 26 

" Demetrias," new name for " Old 
and New," last day of month, ix. 
28 

" Demetrion," new name of month 
Mounychion, ix. 28 

Demetrius (1), herald of Syracuse, 
VI. 354 

Demetrius (2), surnamed Pheido, in 
retinue of Alexander, Vll. 382 

Demetrius (3), brother of Antigonus, 
by some said to be the father of 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, ix. 6 

Demetrius (4), Poliorcetes, character 
and lineage, IX. 6 f ., Vlll. 134; 
when 22 defeated by Ptolemy at 
Gaza, IX. 12; defeats Gilles, 
Ptolemy's general, 14 ; raids Naba- 
taean Arabs, invades Babylonia, 
16; frees Athens of Demetrius 
Pharlereus, 18 f.; frees Megara, 
22 ; takes Munychia and razes 
fortress, restores to Athens ancient 
form of government, 24 f . ; marries 
Eurydic6, had married Phila, 32 f. ; 
defeats Menelalis and Ptolemy at 
Cyprus, 34 f . ; saluted as king with 
his father, 40 

Fond of building ships and 
engines of war, 46; takes Rhodes, 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



48 f . ; rescues Athens from Cas- 
sander, 52 f. ; drives his enemies 
out of the Peloponnesus, pro- 
claimed Commander-in-Chief of the 
Greeks, 58 ; defeated with his 
father at Ipsus by rival kings, 
68 f ., 380 ; is warned off by Athens, 
72 ; ravages Chersonesus, 74 : 
marries his daughter Stratonic6 to 
Seleucus, takes possession of Cilicia, 
78 ; drives Lachares from Athens, 
80 f.; defeats Sparta twice, 84; 
has Alexander slain and becomes 
king of Macedonia, 88 f ., 360 f . ; 
gets Thessaly, occupies Boeotia, 
96 ; conquers AetoUa and ravages 
Epelrus, 100, 364; very ill at 
Pella, drives Pyrrhus out of 
Macedonia, 106, 370; is attacked 
by Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysi- 
niachus, deserted by his army 
loses Macedonia and flees to 
Cassandreia, 110 f., 374 f. 

Sails for Asia to wrest Caria and 
Lydia from Lysimachus, marries 
Ptolemals, 116, 378; withdraws 
to Taurus mountains, 120 ; is 
successful against Seleucus, but 
falls sick and is deserted by most 
of his men, 122 ; surrenders to 
Seleucus, 126 ; is carried a prisoner 
to the Syrian Chersonese; died in 
his 55th vear, 132 ; the children 
he left, 134 

See also VII. 32, K. 354, 372 

Demetrius (5), the Phalerean, brother 
of Himeraeus, vil. 70 ; had pension 
given to 2 descendants of Aristides, 
11.296; ruled Athens for Cassander, 
expelled by Demetrius and given 
safe conduct to Thebes, IX. 18 f.; 
condemned to death in absentia by 
the Athenians, viii. 226 

Cited: I. 276, 466 (his "Socra- 
tes"), n. 210, 212, 214, 226, 296, 
VII. 22, 24, 26, 34 

Demetrius (6), the Thin, son of 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, IX. 134 

Demetrius (7), son of Demetrius 
Poliorcetes and Ptolemals, ruled 
Cyrene, IX. 134 

Demetrius (8), son of Antigonus 
Gonatas, marries Nicaea to help 
liis father get the Acrocorinthus, 
XI. 36; his general Bithys defeats 



AratuB, 76; after short rule died, 
leaving a son Philip in his boyhood, 
VI. 372 
Demetrius (9), son of Philip, sent to 
Pvome as hostage, X. 346 ; executed 
by his father on false charge 
brought by his brother Perseus, 

VI. 374 

Demetrius (10), of Pharos, Xl. 114 
Demetrius (11), the Magnesian, cited, 

VII. 36, 68, 70 

Demetrius (12), the Peripatetic, with 

Cato at Utica, vm.396, 402 
Demetrius (13), freedman of Pompev. 

V. 120, 216, 264 

Demetrius (14), attendant of Cassius, 

VI. 226 

Demo, sumamed Mania, mistress of 

Demetrius, IX. 54, 64 
Demochares (1), of Leuconoe, relative 

of Demosthenes, cited, Vii. 74; 

bon mot re Stratocles, exiled for it, 

IX. 56 
Demochares (2), of Soli, called 

Demetrius " Fable," IX. 64 
Democles, beautiful Athenian youth, 

IX. 56 
Democracy, favoured by maritime 

empire, ll. 54; gains control at 

Athens, 450 
Democrates, lover of Alcibiades, IV. 8 
Democritus, as to what we ought to 

pray for, Vl. 260 
Arj/aoi, play of Eupolis, III. 8 
Demoleou, accompanied Autolvcus, 

II. 544 
Demon, cited, I. 36, 50 
Demon of Paeonia, vii. 56: cousin 

of Demosthenes, brings in decree 

recalling him from erile, 68 
Demonax, messenger of Archelalis 

to people of Cyzicus, ll. 498 
Demophilus, accuser of Phocion, slain 

by his son, Vlll. 232 
Demophon (Deraophoon), son of 

Theseus, and Antiope, I. 64; had 

son Munychus from Laodic6, 78 ; 

founded citv in Cyprus near river 

Clarius, 476 
Demopolis, sou of Themistocles, ll. 88 
Demosthenes (1), Athenian general, 

defeated in Aetolia, III. 226; forti- 
fied Pylos, 230; 278; arrives in 

Sicily with large force, makes night 

attack on Epipolae and is defeated, 

373 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



284, 286 ; with his force captured 
by Syracusans, 300; executed by 
orders of Syracusans, 306 ; IV. 2 

Demosthenes (2), father of the orator, 
called the Cutler owing to his 
business, VII. 8, 48 

Demosthenes (3), his parents and 
race, vii. 8; left by his father at 
age of 7 with estate of 15 talents, 
wronged by his guardians, 8; 
inspired by Callistratus to become 
an orator, 10 f . ; brings suit against 
his guardians, 14; encouraged by 
Eunomus and Satyrus, 16 ; trains 
diligently in private, 16 f . ; did not 
speak off-hand, 20 ; copied Pericles 
in some things, 22 ; overcame 
indistinctness and lisping by re- 
citing speeches with pebbles in his 
mouth, 26 ; humorous in extempore 
rejoinders, 28 

After outbreak of Phocian war 
entered public life with credit, 
28 f . ; was not a time server, but 
capable of being bribed, 34; 
prosecuted Antiphon and Theoris 
and had them executed, 36 ; wrote 
speeches for others, 36 ; persistent 
opponent of Philip, 38; incited 
Athenians to drive Macedonians 
out of Euboea, and to other acts 
against Philip, 40; after Philip 
took Elateia and occupied Phocis, 
D. advised the people to cling to 
Thebes, 42 ; arouses the allies to 
fight Philip, but was not brave at 
battle of Chaeroneia, 46 f . 

Rejoices publicly on death of 
Philip, 52 ; gets the Greeks to form 
a league once more, and raises 
opposition to Alexander, 54; after 
destruction of Thebes his surrender 
is demanded by Alexander, but he 
is pardoned at intercession of 
Demades, 56 f., VIII. 182 ; supports 
Agis the Spartan in his uprising, 
VII. 58; successfully defends Ctesi- 
phon against Aeschines, 58 ; accepts 
bribe from Harpalus, 60; is con- 
demned to pay fine of 50 talents 
and imprisoned, escapes to Aegina, 
64; on death of Alexander, sup- 
ports rising against Antipater, 66; 
recalled from exile, 68 ; after defeat 
of Greeks at Crannon, escapes from 

374 



Athens, 70, VIII. 202 ; his surrender 
demanded by Antipater, 204 ; con- 
demned to death on motion of 
Demades, Vll. 70; dies by taking 
poison in temple of Poseidon at 
Calauria, 70 f., VIII. 210 ; is honoured 
after death by the Athenians, vil. 
76 ; Plutarch's " Life of Demos- 
thenes " drawn from what written 
or oral sources he could find, 6, 
78, I. 64 

See also II. 308, VII, 56, 92, 142, 
VIlI. 156, 160, 164, 178, IX. 384 

Savings: Vli. 20; 24, Vlil. 156; 
VII. 26; 28; 38; 56; 64; 68; 
72 f. 
Orations mentioned or cited : — 
Against Androtion, vil. 36 
Against Aristocrates, 32, 36 
Against Aristogeiton, 36 
Against Meidias, 28, iv. 24 
Against Timocrates, vii. 36 
Concerning Halonnesus, 24 
For the Immunities, 32, 36 
For Phormion, 36 
On the Crown (171 f.), 8; 

(132 f.), 34; 32; 38 
On the False Embassy, 38 
Philippics, 32 
" Demosthenes, Roman," term ap- 
plied to Cato the Elder, li. 312 
Dem»stratus, moved that generals 
on Sicilian expedition have full 
powers, III. 252, IV. 46 
Denarius, its value, why so called, 

II. 124 
Densus, Sempronius, only centurion 

to defend Galba, XI. 264 
Dercetaens, one of Antony's body 

guard, IX. 314 
Dercyllidas, Spartan general, being a 
bachelor, snubbed by young man, 
I. 248; waged war on Persians, Xi. 
174 
Dercyllus, Athenian general, attempts 

to arrest Nicanor, VIII. 218 
" De Sencctute," by Cicero, II. 352, 

X. 374 
Deucalion (1), with Pyrrha said by 
some to have established sanctuary 
at Dodona and dwelt among 
Molossians, IX. 346 
Deucalion (2), son of Minos, de- 
manded surrender of Daedalus: 
slain by Theseus, I. 38 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Dezithea, mother of Eomulus by- 
Aeneas, I. 92 

Dexolis, slew Megacles, companion of 
Pyrrhus, IX. 398 

" Diadematus," surname of one of 
the Metelli; why given, rv. 142 

Diagoras, Olympian victor, v. 428 

Dialectics, Latin terms for it pro- 
vided by Cicero, vil. 184 

Diamperes, gate of Argos, IX. 450 

Diana, temple of, at Rome, X. 234 

Dicaearchia, opposing factions in it 
reconciled by Sulla, and code of 
laws prescribed, rv. 440 

Dicaearchus, I. 44, 74, V. 52 

Dicomes, king of Getae, promised to 
help Antony, ix. 280 

Dictator, what he was, how ap- 
pointed, etvmologv of the name, 

II. 134, 170", lU. 126, V. 504; for- 
bidden by ancient law to use horse 
in the field, ill. 12G; IX. 156 

Dictators : Fabius Euteo, 2nd dic- 
tator with M. Junius, III. 146; 
Caesar, vn. 130, 532, IX. 156; 
2nd time, VII. 562; Camillus, II. 
104 ; 2nd time, 158, 170 ; 3rd time, 
180; 4th time, 194; 5th time, 94, 
198; Quintus Capitolinus, 186; 
Fabius Maximus, III. 126 f. ; Quin- 
tus Fulvius, V. 504; M. Junius, 

III. 146; Minucius, V. 446; Sulla, 

IV. 430; Postumius Tubertus, II. 
96 

Dictlos, praetor, sends Sertorius as 

military tribune to Spain, vni. 6 
Didyma, plundered by pirates, V. 174 
Didymus, grammarian, made reply 

to Asclepiades re Solon's tables of 

law, I. 404 
"Dies ^Uliensis," named from disaster 

at river Allia, II. 136, 140 
Dies nefasti, some examples of, II. 

136, 560 
Dieutychidas, cited, I. 206 
Dindymene, mother of the gods, 

warns Themistocles, II. 82 
Dinon, see " Deinon." 
Diocleides, informer against Alci- 

biades, I v. 54 
Diocles (1), ruler of Megarians, lost 

Eleusis to Theseu?, I. 20 
Diocles (2), son of Themistocles, 

adopted by his grandfather 

Lysander, ii. 88 



Diocles (3), Sjrian, helps Aratus 
capture the Acrocorinthus, XI. 
40 f. 

Diocles (4), of Peparethus, source for 
Fabius Pictor, gives most generally 
accepted story of Romulus and 
founding of Rome, I. 96 ; first 
to publish ** Founding of Rome," 
112 

Diodorus (1), the Topographer, cited, 

I. 84; "On Tombs," II. 88; 450 
Diodorus (2), son of Sophai, Libyan 

king, had army of Olbianians and 

Mycenaeans, Vlll. 24 
Diogeiton, Theban leader against 

Alexander of Pherae ^ter death 

of Pelopidas, V. 430 
Diogenes (1), of Siaope, has verbal 

encounter with Dionysius the 

Younger, VI. 296; his reply to 

Alexander, vil. 258; had Onesi- 

critus as a follower, 408 
Diogenes (2), guardian of Peiraeus, 

XI. 76 ; bribed to give up Peiraeus, 

Munychia, Salamis, and Suniura 

to Athenians, 78 
Diogenes (3), Stoic, sent by Athens as 

ambassador to Rome, II. 368 
Diogenes (4), step- son of ArchelaUs, 

fell at Orchomenus, IV. 394 
Diogenes, adopted Lycurgus' design 

for a civil polity, I. 300; cited, 

III. 148 
Diomedes (1), son of Emathion, sent 

Romus from Troy, I. 92 
Diomedes (2), friend of Alcibiades, 

shabbily treated by him, iv. 26 
Dion, disciple of Plato, VI. 2, 8 f., 

II. 212; brother of Aristomache, 
loved and trusted by Dionysius 
the Elder, vi. 6f.; impresses 
Diony^;iu3 the Younger, 12 f.; 
envied by the other courtiers, 14 f.; 
attempts to interest Dionysius in 
liberal studies, 18 f.; joius in 
inviting Plato to Sicily, 22 ; op- 
posed by Philistus and others, 
24 f.; expelled from Syracuse, 30; 
studies with Plato in the Academy 
at Athens, 32 ; made citizen of 
Sparta, 34 ; has his income stopped 
by Dionysius, 36 ; his estate con- 
fiscated by Dionysius, 40 ; becomes 
altogf tlier hostile to him, 42 

Plans war, 44; not deterred by 

375 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



eclipse of moon sails with expe- 
dition against Dionysius, 48 f ., 
in. 290; reaches Pach3mus, head- 
land of Sicily, VI. 52; lands and 
is entertained at Minoa, 54 ; joined 
by men of Agrigentum and Gela, 
66; joined by Camarinaeans, 58; 
enters Syracuse, and issues pro- 
clamation, takes Epipolae and 
walls off the acropolis, 60 f . ; 
negotiates with Dionysius, 62 f . ; 
repulses attack from the citadel, 
64 f.; is suspected by Syracusans, 
68 f.; opposed by Heracleides, 
70 f . ; in vain slandered by Sosis, 
72 f . ; receives offer of surrender 
from Dionysius, 78 

Opposed by Hippo and Hera- 
cleides, 80; retires from Syracuse 
to Leontini, 84; is summoned 
from Leontini to rescue Syracuse, 
88; drives troops of Apollocrates 
back into the acropolis, 94 f . ; 
pardons Heracleides and Theo- 
dotes, 98; opposes redistribution 
of land and houses, 102 ; is defeated 
by Pharax at Neapolis, 102 ; 
hurries back to Syracuse and fore- 
stalls Heracleides and Gaesylus, 
104; receives surrender of acro- 
polis from Apollocrates, 106 ; takes 
back his wife Arete, 108; lives 
simply but through haughtiness 
becomes unpopular, is opposed by 
Heracleides once more, 110 f.; 
allows Heracleides to be murdered, 
112, 312 ; is plotted against and 
murdered by Calippus, 114 f., 262, 
III. 260 

See also II. 212, vi. 248, 460 
Quoted • VI. 12, 36, 90 

Dionassa, 2nd wife of Eunomus, 
mother of Lycurgus, I. 206 

Dionysia, festival, called Dcmetria 
in honour of Demetriup, ix. 28 

Dionysius (1), the Elder, very sus- 
picious, kept his son shut up, vi. 
18; composed lyric poems and 
tragedies, 296; account of women 
he married and early troubles, 6; 
pardoned frankness of his sister 
Theste, 44; banished Philistus, 
24; executed children of Aristides 
the Locrian, 274; aided by the 
Ppartans, V. 420; honours and 



trusts Dion, hears Plato and is 
angered, Vl. 6 f . ; sends Plato 
away, requests Pol lis to kill or sell 
him, 10; his children and death, 
12; liis funeral, V. 428 
See also I. 458, IV. 236 
Quoted : VI. 10, 12, 16 

Dionysius (2), the Younger, son of 
Doris, VI. 6; married Sophrosyne, 
12; offered help against Carthage 
by Dion, 14 ; kept secluded by his 
father, 18 ; urged by Dion to invite 
Plato to Sicily, 20; invites Plato 
to Sicily, recalls Philistus from 
exile, 22 ; becoming suspicious, 
sends Dion to Italy ; finally sends 
Plato away, 30; ally of Sparta 
against Thebes, 34: jealous of 
Dion, confiscates his property; 
induces Plato to come to Sicily 
again, then dismisses him, 3G; 
absent when Dion's expedition 
arrives, returns to Syracuse, negoti- 
ates with Dion and the Syracusans, 
then suddenly attacks, 54 f. ; is 
driven back to the acropolis, 64; 
sends letter to Dion, 68 ; offers to 
surrender conditionally ; being re- 
fused, sails away, leaving citadel 
in charge of his son, 80, 262, 340, 
III. 290; in 10th year of his exile 
drives out Nisaeus, and becomes 
t3Tant of Syracuse once more, VI. 
262 ; defeated by Hicetas and shut 
np in acropolis, 280 ; surrenders to 
Timoleon; spends rest of his life 
in Corinth, 290 

Quoted : 26, 40, 294 f. 

Dionysius (3), Colophonian, his pic- 
tures seem forced and laboured, 
VI. 346 

Dionysius (4), sent from Corinth to 
establish civil polity of Syracuse, 
VI. 320 

Dionysius (5), Messenian, executed by 
Alexander, VII. 428 

Dionysius (6), Syrian, brother of 
Diodes and Erginus, xi. 44 

Dionysius (7), Chalcus, his poems 
extant; founded Thurii, in. 224 

Dionysius (8), Magnesian, taught 
Cicero oratory, vii. 90 

Dionysius (9), of Halicarnassus, cited, 
I. 138; ("Antiq. Rom," 8. 2), iv. 
220; IX. 400; 414 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Dionysius, pattern deity of Deme- 
trius, EX. 8 ; cited, xi. 208 

Dionysodorus, of Troezen, cited, 
XI. 2 

Dionysus, married one of the two 
Ariadnes, and begot Staphylus, 
I. 42 ; with Ariadne honoured in 
festival of Oschophoria, 50, II. 114; 
378 ; 408 ; 410 ; 462 ; III. 216 ; benefi- 
cent deeds of, iv. 308 ; mortal who 
became immortal, v. 378 ; called 
Euius and Thriambus by Greeks, 
496 ; orgies of, practised by Mace- 
donian women, m. 226, 258; had 
Gvnaeceia as one of his mothers, 
46'2 ; his figure in " Battle of the 
Giants " at Athens blown down, 
K. 274 

Dionysus Carnivorous, receives sacri- 
fice of 3 Persian youths before 
Salamis, II. 40, 238, v. 392 

" Dionysus, New," term Antony 
applied to himself, IX. 274 

Diophanes (1), general of Achaean 
League, invades Laconia, X. 300; 
kept out of Sparta by Philopoemen, 
390; 368 

Diophanes (2), rhetorician, exile from 
Iditylene, said to have urged Tl. 
Gracchus to attempt agrarian re- 
form, X. 160 ; executed after death 
of Ti. Gracchus, 192 

Diophantus, of deme A mphitrop6, 
said to have prosecuted Aristides 
for taking bribe, ll. 294 

Diopeithes (1), introduced bill for 
iinpeachment of those not believing 
in gods, III. 92 

Diopeithes (2), cites oracle against 
claims of Agesilalis to throne, iv. 
294, V. 6 

Diopeithes (3), Athenian general, VII. 
214, VIII. 160 

Dioscorides, writer of treatise on 
Spartan civic polity, dted, l. 236, 
V. 98 

Dioscuri (Tyndaridae, Castor and 
Pollux) demanded their sister Helen 
of Theseus, I. 70 ; stormed Aphidnae, 
then received Into Athens, 74; 
initiated into Eleusinian mysteries ; 
adopted by Aphidnus, honoured 
as gods and called Anakes, 76, 352 ; 
appeared on Lysander's ship, iv. 
260; golden stars of, set np at 

VOL. XI, 



Delphi by Lysander, disappear be- 
fore Leuctra, 280; sacrificed to by 
Alexander, Vll. 368 ; called princes 
of Sparta, X. 358; seen in Rome 
after defeat of Tarquins, VI. 420 ; 
seen in forum after battle of Lake 
Regillus; Ides of July conse- 
crated to them, IV. 124 ; temple of, 
in Samothrace, VI. 418; in forum 
at Eome by fountain, iv. 124, 350, 

VIII. 298; "decorated by CaeciUus 
Metellus, v. 120 

Diphilus (1), priest of Saviour-gods 
at Athens, IX. 114 

Diphilus (2), (Kock II. 576), UI. 208 

Diphridas, ephor of Sparta, orders 
AgesUaiis to invade Boeotia im- 
mediately, V. 44 

Diploma, what it was, XI. 222, 280 

Dipylum, originally called Thriasian 
gates, III. 86, iv. 370 

Disaster, natural, ancient deluge, 
IV. 372 ; at Alban lake, II. 98 

Diseases : gout, its symptoms, IV. 
408; ulceration of bowels and 
beins: eaten by worms, afflicted 
Sulla and others, 438 ; boulimia, 
theories as to cause of, vi. 180; 
cataract, endured by Timoleon, 
350; quinsy, VII. 62; epileptic fits, 
of Caesar, 482 ; pleurisy of Marius, 

IX. 592 

Dithyrambic chorus, vil. 308 

Dium, city where Alexander met 

Demetrius, ix, 86 
Divorce, Hipparete applies for one 
from Alcibiades, IV. 20 ; decrees of 
Romulus concerning, I. 160; none 
at Rome for 230 vears, 198; of 
Cloelia by Sulla, IV. 344 ; of Clodia 
and Servilia by LucuUus, II. 594; 
of AntLstia by Pompey, V. 134; of 
Mucia by Pompey, 226 ; of Papiria 
by Aemilius Paulus, VI. 366 
Docimus, strives for chief command 

under Eumenes, VIII. 102 
Dodona, sanctuary there, said to 
have been established by Deucalion 
and Pyrrha, IX. 346 ; IV. 304; VIII. 
208 
Dodonaean Zeus, oracle of, II. 76 
Doe, white, of Sertorius, Vlll. 28, 54 
Dog, of Xanthippus, had tomb ai 

Salamis, II. 30, 460 
Dolabella (1), Gn. Cornelias, Sulla's 



N 



377 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



legate, IV. 414, 420; had naval 
command, which Sulla tried to 
take away from him, 448; im- 
peached by Caesar, acquitted, vil. 
448 

Dolabella (2), P. Cornelius, disgraces 
Caesar by his madness, vil. 562 ; 
introduces law for abolition of 
debts, opposed by Antony, IX. 
156 f., 160; objected to by Antony 
as colleague in consulship, 162 ; vi. 
130; accused of plotting against 
Caesar, 140, VII. 588, IX. 164; 
went to Syria without Cicero, VII. 
190; VI. 180 

Dolabella (3), P. Cornelius, acts for 
Caesar Augustus, ix. 324 

Dolabella (4), favoured for emperor 
by some, XI. 254; sent away by 
Otho to Aquiuum, 286 

Doliola, name given place in temple 
of Quirinus where jars of Vestals 
were buried, ll. 144 

Dolo, what it is, X. 168 

Dolopians, inhospitable and savage, 
refused to give up bones of Theseus, 
1. 82; driven from Scvros by 
Cimon, who sent bones of Theseus 
to Athens, II. 428; harried by 
Macedonians, X. 364 

Domitian, changed names September 
and October to Germanious and 
Domitianus, I. 370; built 4th 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, 
540 f.; learns of the defeat of the 
rebel Antonius, VI. 420 f . 

Domitius, see " Ahenobarbus " and 
" Calvinus." 

Doors, of house of M. Valerius alone 
opened outwards. Greek doors all 
did, I. 554 

Dorians, in Asia, ill. 56 

Doris, raided by Xerxes, II. 26 

Doris, Locrian, wife of Dionysius 
the Elder, VI. 6; had 3 children, 
12 

Dorylalls, general of Mithridates, 
lands at Chalci?, occupies Boeotia, 
is worsted in skirmish with Sulla 
near Tilphossium, iv. 390; slain 
in mutiny, II. 522. 

• Doson," surname given Antigonus 
In mockery, IV. 142, VI. 372 

Dowry, Terentia brought Cicero 
100,000 denarii, vil. 100 



"Drachma," original meaning of, 

IV. 278; II. 510 

Draco, laws of, repealed by Solon 
except one relating to homicide, 
I. 448 ; said lesser crimes deserved 
death, and for greater ones no 
heavier penalty could be found, 
450; 454 

Dracontides, moves a bill that 
Pericles deposit his accounts of 
public moneys with the prytanes, 
etc.. III. 92 

Dramatic artists, assembled at Samos 
by Sulla, IX. 266 

Dramatic tetralogy, had farcical 
appendage. III. 14 

Dreams, II. 460, 500, 502, 506, 542, 
544, III. 8, 44, 350, IV. 112, 176, 
288, 352, 414, 440, V. 14, 170, 198, 
292, 306, 390, 392, VI. 4, 116, 17u, 
206, 218, 234, 276, VII. 72, 84, 194, 
226, 292, 368, 544, 590, 602, VIII. 
94, IX. 10, 68, 172, 374, 442, X. 
64, 198 

Dress, II. 618, 536, IV. 236, 376, IX. 
98, 262 

Dromichaetes, treated Lysimachus, 
his captive, humanely, IX. 132 

Dromocleides, Sphettian, IX. 32 ; 
proposes that Piraeus and Munychia 
be handed over to Demetrius, 84 

Drusus (1) Livius, criticizes C. Grac- 
chus, X. 148; tribune, tries to 
weaken O.Gracchus, 214; 220 

Drusus (2) livius, uncle on mother's 
side, reared Oato the Younger, his 
brother Oaepio, sister Porcia, half- 
sister Servilia, vni. 236, 238 

Drusus (3), son of Livia, step-son of 
Octavius, married to Antonia, 
progenitor of Qermanicus and 
Claudius, IX. 332 

Dryad, VII. 462 

Duris, Samian, descendant of Alci- 
biades, IV. 92; credibility as 
historian attacked by Plutarch, 
III. 78 

Cited: III. 78, IV. 92, 280, v. 
6, VII. 46, 56, 260, 356, VIII. 78, 
152, 184 

Dvme, city of Achaean League, XI. 
24; Achaeaus defeated there by 
Cleomenes, X. 80 ; XI. 108; given to 
pirates as residence by Pompey, 

V. 186 



378 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Dyrrhachium, IV. 408; VII. 164; V. 
278; Caesar driven from it by 
Pompey, Vll. 4S0; 180 



Earthquake, at Sparta, i. 292, II. 

452, IV. 66; at Athens, III. 244; 

during battle of lake Thxasymene, 

124; vn. 164 
Ecbatana, in Media, V. 38, 416, VII. 

34, 424, rr. 192 
Ecdelus, Arcadian of Megalopolis, 

friend of Aratu?, XI. 10, 16 
Ecdemu?, Megalopolitan, made tutor 

of Philopoemen ; his career, X. 256 
Echecrates, prophet-priest of oracle 

of temple of Apollo Tegyraeus, V. 

378 
Echecratides, sophist, liberated by 

Alexander on request of Phocion, 

vni. 186 
" Echedemia," early name of 

Academy ; named after Echedemus, 

I. 74 
Echedemus, in army of Dioscuri, 

gave name Echedemia to what 

was afterwards called Academv, 

I. 76 
Echidna, fabled serpent. III. 418 
Eclipses, I. 120, m. 288 f., 290, 292, 

V. 46, 420, VI. 40, 48, 56, 400, VII. 

316 
Ecnomum, in Sicily, vi. 56 
Economy, domestic, taught by Cato 

the Eider, ii. 390 
Ecphanes, father of Mandrocleidas, 

X. 14 
Ecprepes, ephor, cut out 2 of 9 lute- 
strings of Pluynis, the musician, 

X. 24 
Ecregma, in Egypt, IX. 142 
Edessa, in Macedonia, IX. 106, 370; 

where Lysimachus attacked Pyr- 

rhus, 380 
" Editia," possibly at base of " phi- 

ditia," I. 236 
Edonian women, about Mt. Haemus, 

VII. 228 
Education, Spartan, I. 244 f., 396, 

V 2; Athenian, IV. 8, 16; II. 118; 

Roman, I. 396; Cato the Elder's 

education of his son, ii. 360 ; 

Aemilius Paulus' education of his 

children, VI. 370; of Spanish boys 

by Sertorius, vill. 38; III. 318 



Egeria, goddess, consorted with Numa 
Pompilius, I. 316, 332; 350; 360 

Egestaean?, descendants of Trojans, 
aided by Athenians, III. 210; 250 

Egypt, revolts against Persia with 
Athenian aid, II. 84; 460 f.; iii. 
62 ; XI. 184 ; II. 474 f.; VII. 180 

Egyptians, think Lycurgus visited 
them and copied some features of 
his constitution from them, I. 214; 
318; IX. 142 

" Eight," as first cube and double 
first square, represents power of 
Poseidon, l. 86 

Eion, city on banks of Strymon, 
taken from Persians by Cimon and 
the land given Athenians, II. 422 f . 

Eirens, young men at Sparta, 20 
years old, 2 years out of class of 
boys; their duties, I. 258 

Eiresione, what it is, I. 46 

'E/caro/i.jSoioi', (100 oxen), origin of 
term as referring to money, i. 54 

Elaea, its revenue offered Phocion 
by Alexander, VIII. 186; ll. 484 

Elaeus, in Chersonese, IV. 254 

Elatea, plains of, IV. 374 

Elateia, surprised by Philip, VII. 42 ; 
VIII. 222 

Elatus, first ephor, in reign of Theo- 
pompus, I. 224 

Elea (Velia), on coast of Italy, VI. 
176, 456 

Eleans (Eleians), secede from Lacedae- 
monians, and make alliance with 
Athens, III. 244, IV. 36; X. 56; 
helped by Cleomenes, 58; have 
Langon restored to them by 
Cleomenes, 80 

" Electra," of Euripides (v. 167 f.), 
cited, IV. 272 

" Elegies," of Critias (Bergk ll. 
279 f.), cited, IV. 96 

Eleius, twin son of Cimon and woman 
of Arcadia, II. 450, III. 82 

Elephants, VII. 296 ; used by Pyrrhus 
in Italy, IX. 414, 428; used by 
Hannibal and routed, V. 508 

Elephenor, son of Chalcodon, accom- 
panied by sons of Theseus to Iliam, 
I. 80 f. 

Eleusis, taken bv Theseus from the 
Megarians, I. "20, 68, 70, II. 42, 
246; sanctuary of mysteries at; 
by whom built, ill. 40, 86 ; mysteries 

379 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



of, profaned by Alcibiades, it is 
charged, IV. 48; festal rites of, 
described; celebrated by Alci- 
biades, 98; V. 374; captured by 
Demetrius, K. 80 

Eleutherae, I. 68 

Eleutheria, celebrated at Plataea 
every 4th year, ll. 278 

Elimiae, battle of ; Hostilius repulsed 
by Perseus, VI. 376 

Elis, detached from Spartan con- 
federacy by Thebes, v. 396 

Elpinic^, Cimon's sister, her tomb, 
II. 412; scandal about her, 414, 
450; gets Pericles not to press 
charge of treason against Cimon, 
448, III. 30 ; quoted, 80 

Elymaeans, kings of, send ambas- 
sadors to Pompey, V. 208 

Elysian Field, of which Homer sang, 
believed to be the Atlantic Islands, 
VTII. 22 

Emathion, father of Diomedes, I. 92 

Embalming, Agesilaiis' body enclosed 
in melted wax instead of honey, 
V. 112; 222 

Embassies: HI. 216, 242, 244, 250, 

IV. 34, 66, 144, 180, 194, 238, 248, 

V. 416, VI. 386, VII. 38, 40, 42, 56, 
IX. 406 

Embezzlement, ll. 220, III. 90 
Empedocles, on effect of love and 

hate, IX. 12 
Empylus, rhetorician and housemate 
of M, Brutus ; wrote account of 
Caesar's murder called " Brutus," 

VI. 130 

Enarsphorus, son of Hippocoon, 
sought to carry off Helen when still 
a child, I. 72 

Endeis, daughter of Sciron and 
Chariclo, mother of Peleus and 
Telamon, I. 20 

Endymion, story of, among Arcadians, 
resembles that about Numa and 
Kgeria, I. 316 

Engyium, city of Sicily, brief descrip- 
tion and history of, V. 488 

Enna, city of Sicily, V. 438 

Enyalius, temple of, on Salamis, 
erected by Solon, i. 426 

Epaminondas, his family, poverty, 
character, generalship, ii. 212, V. 
346 f., VI. 344 f., VIII. 150; saves 
life of Pelopidas at Mantineia, y. 

380 



350 ; suffered by Spartans to remain 
in Thebes when other popular 
leaders were outlawed, 352 ; urges 
Theban youth to vie with Spartans 
in wrestling, 356 ; comes to aid of 
Theban exiles with armed follow- 
ing, 368 ; introduces Pelopidas and 
his companions to Theban assembly, 
370; decides to fight Oleombrotus, 
388; his tactics at Leuctra, 394; 
as boeotarch with Pelopidas invades 
Peloponnesus, defeats Athenians 
while returning, brought to trial 
for prolonging command, acquitted, 
396; opposed politically by Mene- 
cleidas, 400; with allies ravages 
Laconia, and challenges Agesilaiis 
to battle, 84; busy in Pelopon- 
nesus, 404 ; sent to Thessaly, rescues 
Pelopidas and Ismenias, 414; 
builds Messene, repulsed by Agesi- 
laiis before Sparta, slain at Manti- 
neia, 94, IV. 452 ; buried at public 
expense. III. 190* V. 78. 

See also II, 324, 394, IV. 228, X. 
260, 292, XI. 42 

Quoted : I. 242, IV. 126, V. 76, 
348, 492 

Epaphroditus, freedman of Octavias 
Oaesar, IX. 316 

" Epaphroditus," oflScial title adopted 
by Sulla in writing to Greeks, IV. 
434 

Eperatus, general of Achaeans, XI. 
110 

Ephesians, honour Alcibiades, IV. 26 ; 
defeat Athenians under Thrasyllus 
84 ; made prosperous by Lysandcr ; 
headquarters of Persian generals, 
238; IX. 270 

Ephesus, naval battle near It won by 
Lysander over Athenians under 
Antiochus, IV. 104, 242; X. 382; 
II. 542; 550; assembly point for 
Antony's navy, IX. 264 

Ephetai, Draco addresses himself to 
them in cases of homicide, I. 454 

Ephialtes (1), in trying to dethrone 
Council of Areiopagus, opposed by 
Cimon, II. 436; 444; acting for 
Pericles, broke power of Council of 
Areiopagus, 450, III. 20; 26; ll. 
454 ; his character, career, manner 
of death, 30 f. 

Ephialtes (2), Athenian leader whose 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



surrender was demanded by Alex- 
ander, VII. 56 
Ephialtes, put in fetters by Alexander 

for announcing the absconding of 

Harpalus, Vll. 346 
Ephors, established as curb upon 

oligarchy at Sparta 100 years after 

Lycurgus in reign of Theopompus, I. 

224; 290; 296; bribed bv Themis- 

tocles, II. 52, 244, 420; hold office 

for year only, v. 8, 10 ; how their 

power increased, X. 70 
Ephorus, cited, II. 72, 138, 440, 442, 

in. 78, IV. 94, 304, 318, V. 380, 

VI. 76, 78, 270 
Epicharmus, comic poet of school of 

Pythagoras, I. 334; cited, 334, 

542 
Epicles, of Hermione, harpist, II. 14 
Epicrates (1), of deme Achamae, ll. 

66 
Epicrates (2), shield-bearer of Tima- 

goras, V. 418 
Epicurus (1), ■ one of Phocion's 

accusers, Vlil. 232 
Epicurus (2 ), ii. 612, VI. 206, Vll. 596 ; 

during siege of Athens maintained 

lives of associates by distributing 

beans, ix. 82, 408 
Epicydes, son of Euphemides, popular 

leader bought off bv Themistocles, 

11.16 
Epicydidas, br ngs message to Ages- 

ilaus, V. 38 
Epidamnus, vi. 180. 
Epidaurus, besieged by Pericles, ill. 

102; joined Achaean league, XI. 

54; taken over by Cleomenes, X. 

90, 94 ; sacred treasures, of, used by 

Sulla, rv. 362 ; temple of Asclepias 

there, v. 174 
Epigethes, prominent citizen ol 

Pellen6, XI. 72 
Epigonus, tyrant of Colophon, arrested 

by Lucullus, II. 478 
Epilycus, Tisander's father. III. 104 
Epimenides, of Phaestus, considered 

by some one of 7 wise men, i. 432 
Epipolae, part of city of Syracuse, lU. 

266, 284, VI. 58, 62 
Epirus, I. 72, ll. 64, IX, 346 ; Pyrrhus 

put on its throne by Glaucias, 352, 

356; devoted to Pyrrhus, 358; 

plundered by Demetrius, 100, 430, 

X. 328 ; overrun by Romans, X. 332 ; 



pillaged by troops of Aemilius 

Paulus, VI. 432 
Epitadeus, ephor, introduced law 

permitting man to give or will his 

estate to whomsoever he wished, 

X. 12 
Epitaph, of Abrotonon, mother of 

Themistocles, II. 2 ; 276 ; of Timon, 

IX. 298f. 
Epitimus, Pharsalian, iii. 104 
" Epitragia," why a surname of 

Aphrodite, I. 36 
Epixyes, satrap of Upper Phrygia, 

plots to kill Themistocles, II. 82 
Epoptae, IV. 60. 
" Epoptic," term applied to secret 

philosophical teachings, vii. 240 
Erasistratus (1), father of Phaeax, 

lY. 28 
Erasistratus (2), son of Phaeax, cited, 

V. 40 

Erasistratus (3), physician at court of 

Seleucus, EX. 92 
Eratosthenes, cited, I. 204; (On 

Wealth) II, 74; Vil. 22, 74, 228, 314 
Erechtheus, ancestor of The.-eus on 

father's side, I. 6 ; father of Merer 6, 

grandfather of Daedalus, 38, 72 
Eresos, Phanias of, i. 496 
Eretria, Plutarch expelled from it by 

Phocion, VIII. 172 
Ergadeis, one of 4 original tribes of 

Attica; why so called, I. 468 
Erginus, Syrian, helped Aratus take 

Acrocorinthus, helped in attempt 

on Peiraeus, XI. 40, 76 
Ergoteles, waits to seize Themistocles 

when he lands in Asia, II. 68 
Erianthus, Theban, iv. 272 
Ericius, served under Sulla, iv. 378, 

384 
Erigius, friend of Alexander in his 

youth, banished by Philip, vii. 248 
Erinyes, shrine of, at Athens, l. 43u 
Eros, Anthony's slave, refuses to kill 

him, IX. 310 
Erycina, in Sicily, ix. 574 
Eryx, taken by Pyrrhus, K. 418 
Esquiline hill, a city-gate of Home 

upon it, IV. 354 
Estate, of Demosthenes, father of the 

orator, vu. 8 ; of Aemilius Paulus, 

VI. 458 

Eteocles, Spartan, re Lysander, iv. 
284 



381 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Etesian winds, VI. 48 

" Ethics," book by Theophrastus, 

in. 110 
Etruria, pacified by Marcellus, v. 

512 ; its cities give C. Scipio money 

for war in Africa, m. 192 ; vn. 106 
Etymocles, friend of Agesilaiis, V. 70 
Eva, its meaning, v. 494 
Euboea, governed by tyrant Tyn- 

nondas, I. 438 ; siezed by Athens, 

III. 20, 56 ; reinvaded and subdued 
by Pericles, 66, 200; occupied by 
Archelaiis, VI. 358 ; brought under 
sway of tjrrants by Philip, freed by 
Athens, Vll. 40 

Euboeans, fearing abandonment, send 

Pelagon with large sums of money 

to Themistocles, II. 20; ill. 64; 

proclaimed free by Plamininus at 

Isthmian games, X. 350 
Eubulus, Athenian, orator merely, 

VIII. 160 
Euchidas, fetched fire from Delphi to 

Plataea in one day, 1000 furlongs, 

11. 276 
Eucleia, who she was, ll. 278 
Eucleidas (1), Spartan at court of 

Artaxerxes II., XI. 134f . 
Eucleidas (2), brother of Oleomenes, 

chosen as colleague in kingship by 

him, X. 74, 248; commanded a 

wing at SeUasia, 114 ; defeated and 

slain, 116, 268 
Eucleides (1), new alphabet used after 

his archonship, ll. 212 
Eucleides (2), sent by Timoleon to 

receive surrender of acropolis from 

Dionysius, Vl. 290 
Euctus, Perseus' treasurer, slain by 

him, VI. 416 
" Eudaemon," surname of 2nd Battos 

IV. 142 

Eudamidas (1), younger son of Archi- 

damus, succeeded his brother Agis 

to throne of Sparta, x. 8 
Eudamidas (2), succeeded Archi- 

damus, succeeded by Agis as king 

of Sparta, X. 8 
Eudamus, master of elephants under 

Eumenes, Vlll. 128 
Eudemus (1), Cyprian, urges Dion to 

free Sicily. On death of Eudemus 

Aristotle wrote dialogue " On the 

Soul," VI. 46 
Eudemus (2), of Pergamum, brought 

382 



will of Attalus Philomctor to Rome, 
X. 176 

Eudoxus, with Archytas, originates 
mechanics and uses it in geometrical 
problems, V. 470 

" Euergetes," surname, its origin, iv. 
142 

" Euius," name for Dionysus, v. 496 

Euius, flute-player of Alexander, Vlll. 
80 

Eulaeus, Perseus' treasurer, slain by 
him, VI. 416 

Eumelus, father of Xenagoras, VI. 
394 

Eumenes (1), of Oardia, his family; 
advanced by Philip, then by 
Alexander, Vin. 78 ; often quarrels 
with Alexander and Hephaestion, 
80 f. ; given satrapy of Oappadocia, 
Paphlagonia, and southern coast of 
Euxineasfar asTrapezus, 84 ; helped 
by Perdiccas to master his satrapy, 
sent by Perdiccas to pacify Armenia, 
88 ; appointed, * commander of 
forces in Armenia and Oappadocia, 
defeats Neoptolemus, 90; rejects 
overtures of Antipater and Craterus, 
92 ; defeats and slays them, 96 f . ; 
winters at Oelaenae, 102 ; defeated 
through treachery by Antigonus at 
Orcynii, 104 ; takes refuge in Nora, 
108 

Besieged by Antigonus in Nora, 
110 f.; takes oath of fealty to 
Antigonus with alteration, then 
flees, 114 f.; receives letters from 
Macedonia ordering him to wage 
war on Antigonus, 116; prevents 
Antigonus with loss from crossing 
the river Pasitigris, 120; though 
sick deters Antigonus from attack- 
ing, 122; though warned of plot 
against his life, still fights Anti- 
gonus with partial success, 126 f.; 
taken prisoner by the Silver- 
shields, his own men, and given to 
Antigonus, 130 f., who finally has 
him executed, 136; 4. 
Quoted, 102, 108, 132, 134 

Eumenes (2), received at Rome with 
extravagant honours by senate, II. 
324; X. 384 

Eumenes, IX. 274 

Eumenides, shrine of, in Athens, i. 
62 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Eomolpidae, Athenian family, iv. 60, 

96 
Eumolpns, IV. 368 
Euneos, Athenian, brother of Thoas 

and Solols, with former made 

president and law-giver of Pytho- 

polis by Theseus, I. 58 f. 
Eunomus (1), genealogy, relation to 

Lycurgus, I. 206 
Eunomus (2), Thriasian, apbraids 

Demosthenes, Vll. 16 
Eunus, runaway slave who headed 

Servile war in Sicily eaten of worms, 

lY. 440 
Euphemides, Athenian, father of 

Epicydes, II. 16 
Euphorion, father of Solon according 

to Philocles, 1.404 
Euphranor, engineer, exile from 

Svracuse, made ladders for Aratus, 

XJ. 12 
Euphrantides, seer, advises sacrific- 
ing 3 sons of Sandaucc, ll, 38, 

238 
Euphrates, crossed by Clodius, ll. 

534, 546, 548, 590,; crossed by 

Crassus, III. 364, 372 
Euphronius, teacher of Antony and 

Cleopatra'schildren, sent by them on 

embassy to Caesar Octavius, IX. 

302 
Eupolemns, son of Hicetas, captured 

and executed, VI. 338 
Eupolia (1), daughter of Melesippidas 

wife of Archidamus, mother of 

Agesilaiis V. 2 
Eupolia (2), daughter of Agesilaiis, V. 

Eupolis, cited : — 

Cities (Kock I. 315), II. 450 
Demes (Kock I. 280), ill. 8; 
(281), IV. 28; (282), m. 
70 
Maricas (Kock I. 308), HI. 220 
Euripides, died and buried at Arethusa 
in Macedonia; his tomb struck 
by lightning, I. 302 ; knowledge 
of his poetry saved some Athenian 
prisoners at Syracuse, ill. 308; 
Alexander of Pherae greatly affected 
by " Trojan Women," v. 414 ; some 
of his plays sent to Alexander, 
vn. 242 ; " Bacchae " being given 
before Hyrodes when head of 
Crassns is brought in, iii. 420 



Plays cited : — 

Andromach6(587f.),I.392; (683), 

VII. 372 
Bacchae (4f.), IX. 114; (8), I. 
404; (260), VII. 378; (310 f.), 
X. 168; (1170-72), III. 420; 
(1179), 422 
Electra (167), IV. 272 
Epinikion (Bergk II. 266), IV.. 26 
Epitaph (Bergk II. 265), III. 268 
See also IV. 4, VII. 2 
Erechtheus Nauck (474), III. 238 
Hercules Furens (173 f.), viil.362 
Iphigeneia at Aulis (445 f .), ill. 

224 
Licymnius (Nauck 507), v. 492 
Medeia (216), VI. 338; (334), 240 
Orestes (129), rv. 64 
Phoenissae (68), IX. 370; (396), 
34; (517 f.), 386; (524 f.). III. 
434; (532 f.), IV. 332 
Suppliants (653 f .), I. 66 ; (863), 

V. 346; (1213), 68 
Trojan Women (766), V. 38 
Unidentified (Nauck 473), ii. 
414; (474), m. 238; (652), Vll. 
378; (671), V. 308; (679), HI, 
168, V. 528, rx. 336; (680), I. 
28, 464 
Eurctas river, supplied rushes for 
pallet-beds of Spartan boys, 1. 258 ; 
V. 50 ; crossed by Thebans under 
Epaminondas, V. 88, 396; 382 
Eurybiades, Spartan, humoured and 
bribed by Themistocles at Artemis- 
ium, II. 20 ; wishes to abandon 
Salamis, 234; worsted in wordy 
encounter with Themistocles, 32 ; 
given 1st prize for valour by 
Spartans, 48 
Eurycleidas, messenger of Oleomenes, 

X. 64 
Eurycleides, with Micion prevents 
Athenians from helping Aratus, XI. 
94 
Eurycles (1), his proposal as to treat- 
ment of the captive Athenians 
adopted by Syracusans, in. 304 
Eurycles (2), Laconian, son of 
Lachares, pursues Antony's ship 
at Actium, IX. 288 
Eurydice (1), sister of Phila, wife of 
Ptolemy, gives daughter Ptolemais 
in marriage to Demetrius, IX. 110 
Eurydic6 (2), widow of Opheltas, 



383 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



descendant of ancient Miltiades, 

married by Demetrius, IX. 32 ; 

mother of Corrhagus, 134 
Eurylochus, of Aegae, soldier of 

Alexander, Vll. 346 
Eurymedon, battles of, ll. 440 
Eurymedon, brings Nicias money from 

Athens, III. 278 
Eurypon, Spartan king, gave name to 

royal line because popular. I. 208 
Eurjrpontids, a house of the Hera- 

cleidae, royal line at Sparta, I. 208, 

IV. 300, 318, V. 328 ; Agis one, X. 8 
Euryptolemus, father of Isodic^, 

II. 416 ; son of Megacles, 452 ; 
kinsman of Pericles, III. 18; of 
Alcibiades, IV. 94 

Eurysaces, son of Ajax, with his 
brother Philaeus became Athenian 
citizen and made over Salamis to 
Athens, I. 426; founder of Alci- 
biades' family, IV. 2 

Euterp#, Carian, wife of Neocles and 
mother of Themistocles according 
to Phanlas, II. 2 

Euthippus, of Anaphlystus, friend of 
Cimon, slain at Tanagra, II. 458 

Euthydemus, colleague of Nicias, III. 
278; with Menander defeated by 
Syracusans, 280 

Euthymus, Leucadian, defeated by 
Gisco, VI. 334; Hicetas' master of 
horse, captured and executed, 338 

Euthynus, Thespian according to 
Callisthenes, warns Agesilalis, V. 96. 

Eutychus, his name of good omen to 
Octavian, IX. 284 

Euxine sea, expedition to, by Pericles, 

III. 60; northern limit of Eumenes' 
territory, vill. 84 ; ll. 482 ; boundary 
of territory of Iberians, v. 204 ; 206 

Evalcus, Spartan, slain by Pyrrhus, IX. 

448 
Evander (1) Arcadian, husband of 

Carmenta or Nicostrat6, I. 156; 

came to Italy, 124 
Evander (2), Cretan, remains with 

Perseus in his flight, vi. 416 
Evander's hill, near Messenc, X. 308 
Evangelus (1\ Pericles' steward, most 

economical, III. 52 
Evangelus (2), his ' Tactics '" studied 

by Philopoemen, X. 264 
Evanthes, Samian, cited, I. 430 
Exathres, brother of Dareius, admitted 



as companion of Alexander, vii. 

352 
Eiecestides, father of Solon, descended 

from Solon, I. 404 
" Exegetics,' work of Autocleides, III. 

292 
Exhibitions, choral and gymnastic, 

given by Nicias to win favour. III. 

214 
Expedition, Sicilian, III. 250 f., IV. 

44 f. 
Exports, from Athens, I. 470 



Fabia, sister of Terentia, Cicero's wife, 
slandered by Clodius, vill. 278 

Fabii, origin of the family, ill. 118; 
3 men of, sent as ambassadors to 
Gauls, denounced by the Fetiales, 

II. 130 f.; 300 of, slain by Tuscans, 
136 

Fabius (1), founder of family of Fabii, 

III. 118 

Fabius (2), pontifex maximus, with 
the other priests and aged ex- 
consuls refuses to leave Rome, II. 
146 

Fabius (3), great-grandfather of 
Fabius Cunctator, 5 times consul, 
served as legate under his son when 
latter was consul, 111. 188 

Fabius (4), son of preceding, consul, 
celebrated triumph, iii. 188 

Fabius (5), pro-praetor, sent grain 
from Spain to Rome, X. 210 

Fabius (6), Lucullus' legate, defeated 
by Mithridates, ll. 584 

Fabius Ambustus, see " Ambustus, 
Q. Fabius." 

Fabius Buteo, dictator with Marcus 
Junius after Cannae, III. 146 

Fabius Fabulus, said to have slain 
Galba, XI. 266 

Fabius Maximus (1) Cunctator Verru- 
cosus, his family and character, ill. 
118 f.; in his 1st consulship 
triumphs over Ligurians, 120; after 
defeat of Romans at lake Thrasy- 
men6 appointed dictator, appoints 
M. Minucius master of horse, 126 ; 
follows Hannibal but avoids battle, 
130 f.; pens Hannibal up in 
district of Casilinum, 134; lets 
Hannibal escape, 138; denounced 
at Rome for bis tactics, 140; 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



ransoms prisoners at his own 
expense, 142 ; has to share power 
of dictatorship with Minucius, 146; 
rescues Minucius from disaster, 
who resigns his equality of com- 
mand, 152 f.; lays down his 
dictatorship, 158; urges Aemilius 
Paulus the consul to be cautious, 
160 

CaUns the citizens after Cannae, 
170; is put in command with 
Claudius Marcellus, 1 72 ; consul 
5 times, escapes Hannibal's trap, 
174 1.; believes in treating dis- 
affection mildly, 176 f.; recaptures 
Tarentum, ISOf. ; inciu-s reproach 
of perfidy and cruelty, 184; is 
honoured by his son being made 
consul, 186 ; opposes Scipio and 
his policy, 190 f.; died at about 
time Hannibal set sail from Italy, 
196 

See also II. 308, III. 6, V. 456, 492, 
500, 506, VII. 478 

Quoted: 111.134,152,160,178,184, 
186, 492 

Fabius Maximus (2) son of preceding, 
made consul, corrects his father, 
in. 186; died in consulship before 
his father, 120, 190 

Fabius Maximus (3), son of Aemilius 
Paulus and Papiria, VI. 364, 366; 
seizes pass through Perrhaebia, 
392 ; received all of his father's 
estate, 458 

Fabius Valeus, commander of a legion 
under Verginius Rufus, takes oath 
of allegiance to Galba, XI. 226; 
slew Fonteius in Germany by order 
of Galba, 236; first 'to salute 
Vitellius as emperor, 254; in 
possession of Alps, 286; his 
character, 290 f., 294 

Fabius Pictor, kinsman of Fabius 
Cunctator, sent to consult oracle of 
Delphi after Cannae, III. 170 f;" 
follows Diocles of Peparethus in his 
account of Romulus and founding 
of Rome, I. 96; cited, I. 96, 112, 
126 

Fables related : ll. 50, IV. 130, V. 102, 
VU. 56, VIII. 162 

Fabricius, C, explains defeat at 
Heraclela, IX. 400 ; heads embassy to 
Pyrrhus re exchange of prisoners. 



406, made consul, warns Pyrrhus 
of plot to poison him, 410, X. 378; 
II. 386; 394; quoted IX. 408 

Fabulus, Fabius, see " Fabius 
Fabulus." 

" Faenum habet in coma,'* origin and 
significance of saying, III. 334 

Faith, see " Fides." 

Falerians, with Capenates, utterly 
defeated by Camillus, II. 98; con- 
quered by Camillus, 104; attacked 
by Romans under Camillus, make 
peace with Rome, 116 f., 130 

Falerii, attacked by Romans on 
account of insult to tribune 
Genucius, X. 204; besieged by 
Camillus, II. 116; induced to yield 
by his treatment of traitorous 
schoolmaster, 120, UI. 122 

Faliscans, see " Falerians." 

Famine, in Citium, ll. 466 ; in Athens, 

IV. 270; 366, in Rome, I. 546 
Fannia, divorced from Titinnius, 

befriends Marius, rx. 570 

Fannius, C, says Ti. Gracchus with 
himself first to scale wall of Carthage 
X. 152, elected consul, 212; 222 

Far-darter, epithet applied to Apollo, 
X. 358 

Fasces, what they were, I. 172; 
carried before Vestals in public, 
342; 528 

Father, his right to sell sons curtailed 
by Numa, i. 366 

Faunus, demi-god, once haunted 
Aventine, I. 158, 358; husband of 
Bona according to Romans, vii, 
462 

Fausta, twin daughter of Sulla and 
Metella, IV. 434 

Faustulus, servant of Amulius, ex- 
posed children of Ilia, I. 96 ; reared 
Ilia's twins, 102; 108; slain with 
Remus, 116 

Faustus, twin son of Sulla and Metella, 
rv. 434; thrashed by Casslus, vi. 
144; married Pompey's daughter, 
v. 238, 326, VII. 474- V. 224; 
placarded his household goods for 
Bale, VII. 150 

Favonius, Cato's friend, last to take 
oath to uphold Caesar's land law, 
VIII. 314; VII. 496; 542; elected 
aedile, Viil. 348; v. 274, Vll. 524; 

V. 290, 334; on board ship acts as 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Pompey's valet, 306 ; not informed 

of conspiracy to murder Caesar, 

VI. 148 f.; reconciles Brutus and 

Oassius at Sardis, '200 
Fear, temple to, at Sparta, X. 60; 

signs of, XI. 68 
" Febrata," ancient name of day of 

feast of Lupercalia, 1. 156 
February, means purification, I. 156, 

370; intercalary month called 

Mercedinus by Romans, 366 
Fees, for public services introduced by 

Pericles, III. 24; none charged by 

Gate the Elder, ii. 304 
" Felix," title adopted by Sulla, iv. 

434 
Fenestella, cited, III. 326 
Ferentine gate, 1. 166 
Festival, of Adonis, described. III. 

256, IV. 48; of Ceres, III. 170; 

Coreia, VI. 118; Dionysiac, VII. 

308, IX. 28 ; Hyacinthia, at Sparta, 

II 244; Lupercalia, vil. 584; 

Lysandreia of Samians, IV. 280 ; of 

The Pitchers, IX. 298; Saturnalia, 

license of slaves then, iv. 386; 

Thesmophoria, v. 352; iv. 390 
Fetiales, priests established by Numa, 

their duties, I. 346, ll. 132 
Fever-few, grew on acropolis at 

Athens, IV. 366 
Fidenae, people of, defeated by Romu- 
lus and taken to Rome, 1. 138, 164 ; 

attacked by Veii, 168 ; 560 f . 
Fidentia, battle there between Sulla's 

and Marius' men, iv. 412 
Fides, temple to, erected by Numa, 

I. 362 
Fimbria, assassinated Flaccus, IV. 

364, 402, II. 490; defeated Mithri- 

dates by land, asked Sulla to cut 
- him off by sea, 478 f . Vlll. 64, X. 

384 ; when his soldiers go over to 

Sulla, commits suicide, IV. 404; II. 

582 f,; quoted, 480 
Fines: II. 412, 414, III. 64, 78, 102, 

226, IV. 320, 406, V. 4, 10, 98, 204, 

412, VI. 198, VII. 64, 100. 
Fire, perpetual, in Greece entrusted 

to widows past age of marrying; 

how rekindled if extinguished, I. 

338 f.; in Rome entrusted to 

Vestals, 338; appointed by Numa 

to be worshipped as first cause of all 

things, II. 142 



Firmum, soldiers from, under Catc 
the Elder at Thermopylae, ll. 
338 

" Five Thousand," at Athens, on 
getting control are remiss in waging 
war on Sparta, IV. 74 

Flaccus, Fulvius, see " Fulvius 
Flaccus." 

Flaccus, Hordeonius, sent by Galba 
to succeed Verginius Rufus, xi. 
226; 244; 252. 

Flaccus, Valerius (1) induced Cato 
the Elder to enter public life, 
consul and censor with him, ii. 
310, 330, 350; made chief senator 
by Cato, 350 

Flaccus, Valerius (2) consul with 
Marius in his 6th consulship, IX. 
542; chosen consul (with Cinna), 
crossing Ionian sea against Sulhi, 
IV. 390; slain by his soldiers 
instigated by Fimbria, ii. 582, iv. 
364, 402 

Flamen Quirinalis, added as priest of 
Romulus by Numa Pompilius, I. 
328 

Flamens, named from their caps called 
pilamenai, l. 328, V. 446 

Flamininus, L. Quintius, naval com- 
mander on his brother's expedition 
to Greece, X. 328; expelled from 
senate by Cato the Elder, il. 350 f., 
X. 372 f. 

Flamininus, T. Quintius, statue of him 
at Rome, his disposition, x. 322 ; 
served as military tribune under 
Marcellus against Hannibal ; consul 
before 30, and assigned to war 
against Philip, 324; crosses at 
once to Epirus and relieves Publius 
Villius, 328 ; learning of secret path, 
forces the heights held by Philip, 
330 f.; joined by Thessaly and 
Achaeans, 334; joined by rest of 
Greece, 336 ; is given extension of 
command, 338; defeats Philip at 
Cynoscephalae, 340 f., IV. 364, VI. 
372, X. 292 ; is vexed by Aetolians, 
X. 344; restores Macedonia to 
Philip on terms, 346 ; proclaims 
freedom to the Greeks at the 
Isthmian games, 350 

Begins war with Nabis, tyrant of 
Sparta, and then makes peace with 
him, 368, 296; jealous of Philopoe- 



386 



J 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



men, honoured by Achaeans and 
given Roman prisoners sold as 
slaves by Hannibal, 360 ; spoils of 
war shown at Rome, 362 ; made 
lieutenant of Manias Acilius in war 
against Antiochas, 364; intercedes 
with Manias for Naupactus, 
Aetolians, and Chalcidians, 366; 
highly honoured by Chalcidians and 
other Greeks, 368; made censor 
with son of Marcellus, makes 
Scipio Dean of Senate, quarrels 
with Cato, 372 f ., ii. 356 ; censured 
for his persecution of Hannibal, X. 
378 f. 

See also II. 336, 386, X. 300, 306, 
316 

Sayings : X. 258 f., 370 f. 

Flaminius, circus of, decorated by 
Lucullus, II, 592 

Flaminius, C, routs Insubres after 
receiving senate's message of recall, 
V. 442 ; appointed master of horse 
by Minucius, 446 ; defeated and 
slain by Hannibal at Thrasymene, 
III. 122 

Flavius (1), military tribune under 
Marcellus, pat elephant to flight, 
V. 508. 

Flavius (2), tribune, deprived of 
ofl&ce for taking royal diadems off 
Caesar's statues, Vll. 584 

Flavius, C, Brutus' chief of engineers, 
slain at Pharsalus, VI. 240 f. 

Flavius Gallus, eflBcient oflBcer under 
Antony, worsted by Parthians, IX. 
234 

Flavius Sabinus, Vespasian's brother, 
made prefect of city by Nero, later 
by Otho, XI. 286 

Flora, courtesan, her relations with 
Pompey, V. 118, 252 

Floras, Mestrius, shows battlefield of 
Otho and VitelLius to Plutarch, XI. 
308 f. 

" Fodii," original form of " Fabii " 
according to some, ill. 118 

Fonteius, slain in Germany by Valens 
by order of Galba, xi. 236 

Fonteius Capito, see " Capito, 
Fontcius." 

Forgery, by Haimibal, ill. 176 

Fortune, temple of, beyond Tiber in 
Plutarch's time, \1. 168 

Fortune, Women's, temple of, erected 



bv senate after CoriolEinus spared 

city, IV. 210 
Forum Romanum, originally valley of 

slime there, I. 144; contained 

Basilica Porcia, II. 356 ; V. 442 
Fossae Cluiliae, 5 miles from Rome, 

IV. 188. 

" Four Hundred," see " Five 
Thousand." 

Fregellae, V. 516 ; conspiracv there, 
S. 202 

Frentanian, IX. 398 

Fufidius, creature of Sulla's, IV. 426; 
governor of Baetica, routed by 
Sertorius, Vlll. 30 

Fulcinia, mother of C. Marius, IX. 466 

" Fulvia," basilica in Rome, replaced 
by Paulus the consul, VII. 514 

Fulvia (1) reveals plot for his murder 
to Cicero, VII. 120 

Fulvia (2), widow of Clodius, married 
to Antony, IX. 160; had daughter 
Glodia, 180; quarrelled with L. 
Antonius, then with him fought 
Octavius and was defeated, 196, 
2U2; 198; died at Sicyon, 204 ; had 
son Antony, 266, 330 

Fulvius, tribune, opposes T. Flami- 
ninus' candidacy for consulship, 
X. 324 

Fulvius Flaccus, Gn., defeated and 
slain in Apulia by Hannibal, V. 502 

Fulvius Flaccus, M., implores Ti. 
Gracchus to submit question of 
agrarian law to senate, x. 170; 
186 f. ; questions Scipio about death 
of Ti. Gracchus, 196; friend of C. 
Gracchus, hLs character and deeds, 
attacked by Livius Drusus, sus- 
pected of death of Scipio, commis- 
sioner with C. Gracchus for distri- 
bution of public land, 218 f.; 220; 
urges C. Gracchus to resist consul 
Opimius, 226 ; with his partisans 
seizes Aventine hill, 230, 232 ; slain 
with his elder son, 234, 236 f . ; had 
been consul and celebrated triumph 
over Gauls, 230, 238 

Fulvius Flaccus, Q., consul with 
Appius, reduced Capua, ill. 200; 

V. 504 

Funeral rites, Greek : regulations of 
Solon, I, 432, 462, 524; II. 278; at 
Sparta, V. 112; VI. 352; Vll. 424 

Funeral rites, Roman : r^ulations of 



387 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Noma, I. 346 ; origin of custom of 

funeral oration, 524; 564; one to 

be pronounced over woman's body, 

11.114; III. 190 
" Furcifer," origin and meaning of 

terra, IV. 178 
Furies, grove of, X. 236 
Furii, first made conspicuous by 

Camillus, II. 96 
Furius (1), consul with Flaminius, 

leads forces against Insubrians, 

recalled, v. 442 
Fiirius (2), legate of praetor Varinus, 

routed by Spartacus, ill. 338 
Furius, L., son of Camillus, II. 182; 

colleague of Camillus in war with 

Praenestians and Volscians, 190; 

192 
Fumius, ablest orator in Rome, ix. 

270 



Gaben^, has winter-quarters of 
Eumenes' men, vili. 124 

Gabii, where Romulus and Remus 
were educated, I. 102 

Gabinian way, Brennus defeated 
beside it by Camillus, II. 166 

Gabinius, A. (1), military tribune 
under Sulla at Chaeroneia, iv. 378 

Gabinius, A. (2), intimate of Pompey, 
proposes law giving him almost 
unlimited power to wage war on 
pirates, V. 176; consul with Piso, 
240, Vlll. 216 ; had law written out 
to depose Piso from consulship, v. 
182 ; gets province of Syria with 
helpof Clodius,VlI.156; 160; takes 
M. Antony as commander of the 
horse to Syria with him, reluctant 
to help Ptolemy recover Egjpt, 
IX. 142 ; ordered by Caesar to bring 
his troops with all speed to 
Macedonia, 154 

Gaesatae, v. 440; defeated at Clasti- 
dium by Marcellus, 446 

Gaesylus, Spartan, reconciles Dion 
and Heracleides, VI. 104 

" Galata," later name of Mt. Acrurium. 
VIII. 222 

Galatia, visited by Marius, IX. 548; 
taken from Tigranes by Lucullus, 
II. 510, V. 202 ; added to Pompey's 
sway by Manilian law, 190; IX. 
276 



Galatians, baggage carriers with 
Lucullus, II. 510 

Galba, slain by Caesar's mutinous 
soldiers, VII. 562 , 

Galba, C. Sulpicius (1), Sulla's legate 
at Chaeroneia, iv. 384 

Galba, 0. Sulpicius (2), cited, 1. 142 , 

Galba, Ser. Sulpicius (1), opposed^ 
triumph of Aemilius Paulus, vi. 
434, 438; impeached by Cato the 
Elder, II. 344; 386 ! 

Galba, Ser. Sulpicius (2), proclaimed 
emperor on persuasion of Nym- 
phidius Sabinus, xi. 208 f.; his 
wealth and family, 210 ; career and 
popularity under Nero, 212; in- 
vited by Vindex to assume the 
imperial power, 214; joined by 
nearly all, 216; invites Verginius 
to join in preserving empire, 218; 
informed he has been proclaimed 
emperor by army, senate and people, 
218; secretly opposed by Nym- 
phidius, 220 f . ; fears Verginius, 
224; comes under influence of 
Vinius, 228; orders fellow-con- 
spirators of Nymphidius to be 
executed, 236; becoming un- 
popular owing to severity and 
greed, 236 f.; censured even for 
reasonable measures, 242 f.; 
appoints Vinius and himself con- 
suls, 250 ; hated by soldiers for his 
stinginess, 252 

On learning that Vitellius had 
been proclaimed emperor in 
Germany adopts Piso as his 
successor, 256; warned by priest 
Umbricius of treachery, 258; in- 
formed that Otho has been pro- 
claimed emperor, 262 ; slain by 
soldiers, 266 ; buried by Argivus, a 
freedman, 270 ; recapitulation, 270 ; 
quoted, 266. See also 286 

Qalepsus, near Amplxipolls, vi, 416 

Galley, thirty-oared of Theseus, pre- 
served till time of Demetrius 
Phalereus, I. 48. Seealso " Ships." 

Gallia Narboneusis, Vlll. 32 

Galloscythians, term applied to whole 
army of Cimbri and Teu tones, ix. 
488 

Gallus, Annius, commands part of 
Otho's forces, XI. 288; 292; 296; 
304 



t$8 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Gallus, C. Cornelius, sent by Octavius 
to help take Cleopatra aUve, rs. 
316 
Gallus, Flavins, see " Flavius Gallus." 
Games : funeral games instituted by 
Minos, I. 30 ; gymnopaediae at 
Sparta, V. 80; 56; 252; Isthmian, 

VI. 322; X. 350; Nemean, parslev 
used for wreath, Vl. 322 ; X. 88"; 
284; 354; XI. 64: Olympic, IV. 24; 
V. 34 ; YII. 230 ; Pythian, v. 50 ; IX. 
100 

Gandarites, people of India, VII. 400 
Ganges, its width and depth, VII. 400 
Gardens, of Lucullus, II. 598 
Gargettus, has place called Araterion, 

1.80 
Garland, of oak leaves given by 

Romans to one who saves life of 

citizen, iv. 122 
Gates, Dipylon, Piraic, Sacred, of 

Athens, iv. 370 
Gaugamela, means camel's house; 

actual site of battle of Arbela, VII. 

316 
Gaul, its extent, IX. 488; given as 

province to Caesar for 5 years, v. 

240, VII. 474 ; given to Caesar for 

5 more years, ill. 360, v. 250, VII. 

494; pacified by Verginius Rufus, 

XI. 224 
Gaul, Cisalpine, separated from Italy 

by Rubicon, vii. 490; invaded by 

Cimbri and Teutones, who rout 

Romans, \IU. 6; II. 484; revolts, 

VII. 106; 110; held by Brutus for 
Lepidup, V. 152 ; governed by 
Cassius, III. 340; governed by 
Brutus, VI. 138; decreed province 
of Brutus Albinus, 168 

Gaul, Transalpine, Cimbri and Teu- 
tones defeat many large Roman 
armies there, IX. 490 

Gauls, of Celtic stock, early migrations 
and settlements, I. 408,"ll. 126, 404, 
IX. 488 ; attracted to Italy by love 
of wine, II. 126, Vl. 368; besiege 
Clusium, II. 128; on recognizing 
Fabius Ambustus, Roman am- 
bassador among their foes, march 
on Rome, 132, l. 348; defeat 
Romans at battle of Allia, 160, 
n. 136 ; sack Rome, 1. 142, 184, 350, 
II. 148, V. 440; defeated by 
Ardeans led by Camillas, II. 150; 



fail to take Capitol on account of 

geese, 158; suffering from plague, 

come to agreement with besieged 

on Capitol, 162 ; cut to pieces by 

Camillus, 166; in 2nd march on 

Rome defeated by Camillus at the 

Anio, 198. Clodius in his ' An 

Examination of Chronology " says 

ancient records lost when Gauls 

sacked Rome, I. 306. 

Destroy Ptolemy Ceraunus and 

his army, IX. 416; 426; 430 f.; 

fight Rome after 1st Punic war, v. 

436, 440 f . ; defeated by Flaminius, 

442,111. 122 ; 334; II. 560 ; III. 392 ; 

rise against Caesar, are subdued, 

VII. 502; XI. 242 
Gaza, principal city of Syria, taken 

by Alexander, Vll. 296; IX. 12 
Gedrosia, in Persia, vii. 410 f. 
Geese, sacred, give alarm on Capitol, 

11. 160 
Gegania, one of two first Vestals 

appointed by Noma, i. 340 ; 394 
Gela, Aeschylus' grave near, ll. 430, 

VI, 56 ; repeopled after Timoleon 

pacified Sicily, 344 
Gelae, neighbours of Albani and 

Amazons, V. 208 
Gelanor, king of Argos, expelled by 

faction, IX. 454 
Geleontes, one of 4 original Attic 

tribes, why so called, I. 468 
Gellianus, friend of Nymphidius 

Sabinus, XT. 224 ; 230 
Gellius, L., consul, crushed Germans 

in Spartacus' forces, ill. 340 ; viii. 

252; censor, v. 170; opposed 

Caesar's agrarian law, Vll. 146 
Gellius, M., VII. 150 
Gelon (1), tyrant of Syracuse, vi. 12 ; 

defeated Carthaginians at Hiniera 

318 ; sends grain to Rome, IV. 154 
Gelon (2), plots against Pvrrhus, ix 

356 f . 
Geminius (1), of Terraeina, enemy of 

Alarius, IX. 562, 568 
Geminius (2), Pompey's friend, V. 118 ; 

bv his orders slays Brutus the 

Elder, V. 154 
Geminius (3), Antony's friend, IX. 272 
Genthius, king of lilyrians, Vl. 376; 

bribed by Perseus to imprison 

Roman embassy, taken by L. 

Anicius, 386 



389 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Genucius, tribune of people, insulted 

by Falerians, X. 204 
Geometricians, VI, 26 ; cited, 394 
Geometry, studied by Archimedes, V. 

470 
Geradas, Spartan, re adultery at 

Sparta, I, 252 
Geraestus, near Aulis, V. 14 
Gerandas, Spartan, slain in skirmish 

with Thebans, V. 402 
Geraneian range, in Greece, X. 92, 

XI. 70 
Qergithus, its revenue offered Phocion 

by Alexander, viil. 186 
" Germanicus," title accepted by 

Vitellius, XI. 254 
Germanicus, descended from Drusus 

and Antonia, had son Caius, IX. 

332 
Germanicus Nero, see "Nero Ger- 
manicus." 
Germans, under xVriovistus, crushed 

by Caesar, VII. 488 f . ; IX. 488 
" Germanus," earlier name of Ker- 

malus, 1. 98 
Germany, ravaged for 18 days by 

Caesar, vii. 498 
Gerontes, appointed at Sparta by 

Lycurgus himself, afterwards 

elected, I. 282 
Getae, Dicomes their king, IX. 280 
Ghosts : 11.406, 420, VI. 206, 234, VII. 

606 
Giants, Battle of, group of figures at 

Athens, IX. 274 
Gifts : II. 432, 530, 566, 594, III. 26, 

108, 316, 350, IV. 154, 436, V. 112, 

230, VII.562, IX. 146 
Gigis, maidservant of Parysatis, 

executed by Artaxerxes, XI. 170 f. 
Qisco (1), assists Hicetas and Ma- 

mercus, VI. 334 ; defeated by Timo- 

leon, 340 
Qisco (2), with Hannibal, iii. 162 
Glabrio, M'. Acilius (1), see " Acilius 

Glabrio." 
Glabrio, M'. Acilius (2), his wife 

Aemilia taken from him by Sulla 

and given to Pompey, iv. 432, v. 

134; had province of Eithynia, V. 

190 
Glaucia, helps Marius oppose Metellus, 

IX. 542 ; drives him from Rome, 

IV. 446 
Glaucias, king of Illyrians, befriends 

39P 



infant Pyrrhus, restores him to his 

father's throne, IX. 350 f . 
Glaucippus, son of Hypereides, spoke 

against Phocion, viii. 152 
Glaucus (1), Corinthian, ally of 

Trojans, VI. 2 
Glaucus (2), Hephaestion's physician, 

crucified by Alexander, VIl. 424 
Glaucus (3), son of Polymedes, dis- 
tinguishes himself under Phocion, 

VIII. 172 
Glaucus (4), physician, warns Dellius 

of Cleopatra's plot against him, ix. 

272 
Glycon, moves Menon the informer be 

given immunity from taxation, iii. 

90 
Gnathaemion, Argive sempstress, 

mother of Perseus, vi. 374, XI. 124 
Goat's Marsh, where Romulus dis- 
appeared, I. 176, 186, 308,11. 180: 

I. 184 
Gobryas, father of Ariomandes, II. 

440 
Gold, withdrawn from currency by 

Lycurgus, I. 228 ; scarce in Rome in 

Camillus' time, II. 114 
Gomphi, city of Thessaly, taken by 

Caesar, vii. 542 
" Gonatas,' surname of Antigonus, 

VI. 372 
Gongylius, reaches Syracuse from 

Corinth, tells of Gylippus coming; 

slain. III. 274 f. 
Gordium, home of ancient Midas, 

taken by Alexander, VII. 272 
Gordius, driven out of Cappadocia 

by Sulla, IV. 334 
Gordyaeau mountains, VII. 316 
Gordyen^^, Zarbienus, king of, II. 534, 

568, 584; invaded by Parthian 

king, relieved by Afranius, V. 208 
Gordyeni, some moved to Tigranocerta 

by Tigranes, II. 552 ; join Tigranes 

with their hosts, 554 ; join Lucullus ; 

the reason, 568 
Gorgias (1) Leontine, cited, II. 434 
Gorgias (2), oQicer under Eumenes, 

VIII. 98 
Gorgias (3) rhetorician, censured by 

Cicero, VII. 142 
Gorgidas, with armed following helps 

Theban exiles, v. 368, 370; 

boeotarch with Pelopidas, 372; 

firsit formed sacred band, 382; 386 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Gorgo, Leonidas' wife, quoted, I. 

246 
Gorgoleon, Spartan polemarch, slain 

in battle with Thebans at Tegyra, 

V. 380 
Gorgon, her head lost from image of 

goddess, II. 30 
Gorgus, sailing from Ceos, repeopled 

G«la, VI, 344 
" Gorpiaeus," name of month in 

Cyprus, I. 42 
Gortynians, in Crete, aided by Areus, 

IX. 436 ; helped in war by Philopoe- 
men, x. 288 f . 

Gouras, Tigranes' brother, nominal 
defender of Nisibis, captured by 
Lucullus, II. 578 

Gracchus, Ti. Semproniua (1) married 
Cornelia, daughter of Scipio 
Africanus, X. 144, 146, 152 ; father 
of Ti. and C. Gracchus, twice 
consul, censor, had 2 triumphs, 
144; subdued many of Spaniards, 
but made peace with Numantines, 
154; when consul named Scipio 
Nasica and C. Marcius his suc- 
cessors, then found he had made 
mistake in taking auspices, V. 444 ; 
died leaving wife with 12 children, 

X. 146 

Gracchus, Ti. Sempronius (2) son of 
Ti. Gracchus and Cornelia, daughter 
of Scipio, brother of C. Gracchus, 
X. 144; contrasted with his 
brother, 146 f.; made augiir, 
becomes son-in-law of Appius 
Claudius, 150; served with the 
younger Scipio in taking Carthage, 
as quaestor served under consul C. 
Mancinus against Numantia, 152 f. ; 
why he began to agitate for his 
agrarian laws, 158 f.; advised by 
Orassus, pontifei maiimus, Mucins 
Scaevola, jurist, and Appius 
Claudius, 162 f. ; his bill vetoed by 
Octavius another tribune, intro- 
duces one more severe, ordering 
wTongdoers to vacate without 
compensation illegally acquired 
land, 166 ; his life in danger, 168 ; 
illegally has Octavius removed from 
ofiBce, 170 f.; his agrarian bill 
becoming law, is chosen with 
Appius Claudius and his brother to 
survey and distribute the public 



land, 174; proposes that money 
willed Rome by king Attains be 
given citizens who received public 
land to aid them in stocking their 
farms, 176 ; defends his course in 
respect to Octavius, 178 f.; stands 
for tribune for following year, 182 ; 
warned by Fulvius Flaccus of plan 
to kill him, 188; slain by mob of 
opponents, 190; his body thrown 
into river, his friends banished or 
executed, 192. See alio 198 

Gracchus, 0. Sempronius (1), son of 
elder Ti. Gracchus and ComeUa, 
X. 144; Quoted, 164, 180 

Gracchus, C. Sepronius (2), son of elder 
Ti. Gracchus and Cornelia, X. 144; 
9 years younger than his brother, 
150, 198; reared with brother by his 
mother, 146; contrasted with his 
brother, 6, 146 ; while serving under 
Scipio against Numantia, appointed 
one of 3 men to administer agrarian 
law of Ti. Gracchus, 174; married 
Licinla, 194; 196 ; goes as quaestor 
with consul Orestes to Sardinia, 198 ; 
canvasses for tribuneship, 202; 
elected 4th, introduces 2 laws, 1st, 
that magistrate deprived of office 
should not be allowed to hold 
office again, 2nd, that magistrate 
banishing citizen without trial 
should be prosecuted, 204 f . ; pro- 
poses 5 laws to gratify people 
and overthrow senate, 206 f . ; 
becomes very powerful, his further 
measures and activities, 208 f . ; 
gets C. Fannius elected consul, is 
made tribune again, 214; outbid 
by colleague Livius Drusus, 214 f. ; 
sails off to found colony at Carthage, 
meanwhile further undermined by 
Drusus, 218; returns in 70 days, 
220 ; changes his residence from 
Palatine to near forum, opposed 
by consul Fannius, 222 ; not 
elected tribune 3rd time, 224; many 
of his laws to be revoked by consul 
Opimius and followers, 216; dis- 
tressed by murder of consul's 
servant Antyllius, 226 ; warned of 
danger by his wife, 232 ; prevented 
from slaying himself by 2 com- 
panions, flees, 234; slain, his body 
thrown into the Tiber, his property 



391 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE * LIVES ' 



confiscated, 236 ; his memory 
honoured by the people, 238 

Wrote pamphlet explaining what 
induced Ti. Gracchus to undertake 
agrarian reform, 162, quoted, 204 f. 

Qracinus, one of conspirators against 
Sertorius, VIII. 68 

Granicus, river, where Alexander 
defeats Persians, II. 138, vil. 264; 
where LucuUus defeats Mithridates, 
II. 504 

Graailus (1) Marius' step-son, IX. 560; 
accompaiiies Marius in flight, 564, 
574 

Gramus(2), magistrate of Dicaearchia, 
ordered strangled by Sulla, iv. 442 

Granius Petro, quaestor in Caesar's 
army, taken by Scipio, kills 
himself, Vll. 480 

Grants, for festivals, by Pericles, III. 
24 

Great Mother, prophesies victory for 
Bomans against Cimbri and Teu- 
tones, IX. 508 

Greece, invaded by Darius' forces 
under Datis, II. 224; invaded by 
Xerxes, 18, 234; invaded by 
Antiochus the Great, 334; toured 
by Aemilius Paulus after Pydna, 
VI. 428 ; its sacred treasiures taken 
by Sulla, IV. 362 ; Pompey's great 
force there, V. 280 

Greek, understood by Cato the Elder, 
II. 336 ; spoken fluently by Lucullus 
II. 470 

Greek culture, opposed by Cato the 
Elder, ll. 370 

Greek words, once numerous in Latin, 
V. 454 

Greeks, defeat Persians at Marathon, 
Salamis, Plataea, Mycale, Arbela, 
II. 10, 40, 138, 264, VII. 136; are 
medishig, ll. 18, 268; saved by 
Themistocles, 20; pay war con- 
tribution fixed by Aristides at 460 
talents, 286; under leadership of 
Cimon, 420; defeated by Persians 
In Egypt, 618; have no success 
against Persians after Cimon, 464; 
their peace disturbed by Alcibiades, 
IV. 32 f . ; despised Persians after 
return of 10,000, XI. 172 f.; have 
Peace of Antalcidas dictated to 
them by Persian king, 176; 
honoured Dion, VI. 34; defeated 



by Philip at Chaeroneia, ii. 138, 

VII. 48 f.; 250 f.; united against 
Alexander by Demosthenes, 54; 
proclaim Alexander leader against 
Persia, 258 ; crushed at Crannon by 
Antipater and Craterus, 68, II. 138, 

VIII. 200 ; subjugated by Cassander 
and Ptolemy; Antigonus and 
Demetrius attempt to free them, 

IX. 18 f.; tempted to revolt by 
Ptolemy, governed by Demetrius' 
son, 108 f. ; helped by Pyrrhus 
against Demetrius, 378; had little 
contact with Romans up to time of 
Flamininus, X. 326 ; 334, 336, pro- 
claimed free by Flamininus at 
Isthmian games, 296, 350, 386; 
welcomed at Lucullus' house in 
Eome, II. 604; treated well by 
Antony, IX. 184 

Greeks and their generals 
criticized, X. 352 f., 386 f.; their 
opinions and laws opposed to 
father marrying daughter, XI. 182 

Greeks, Asiatic, some moved from 
Cilicia and Cappadocia to Mesopo- 
tamia by Tigranes, li. 536 ; many 
transplanted from Cilicia to Tigra- 
nocerta, 552; sent from Tigrano- 
certa to their homes by Lucullus, 
566 

Greeks, Italian, fight battle at river 
Sagra, VI. 420 ; invite Pyrrhus, IX. 
384 

Greeks, Sicilian, send to Corinth for 
help and get Timoleon, VI. 264; 
freed from Carthaginians by 
Timoleon, 332 

" Grypus," cognomen or epithet, IX. 
464 

Gulf, Arabian, see " Arabian Gulf." 

Gyarta, large rich tract in territory of 
"Syracuse, VI. 80 

Gylippus (1), comes from Sparta to 
aid Syracuse, ill. 272, IV. 62. VI. 
104; in first battle defeated by 
Athenians, next day defeats them, 
III. 276; captures Plemmyriura 
with large stores and moneys, 278; 
282; 296; receives proposal of truce 
from Niclas, 300 ; slays or captures 
Athenian force, spares Nicias, 302 ; 
is refused request to be allowed to 
take Athenian generals captive to 
Sparta, 304 ; III. 66 ; 1.298; son of 



39* 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Cleandridas, banished for abstract- 
ing 30 talents from 1000 sent by 
Lysander to Sparta, III. 66, 306, IV. 
274 f., VI. 460 

Gylippus (2), father of Agiatis, X. 50 

Gylon, father of Demosthenes' 
mother, banished on charge of 
treason, vii. 8 

Gymnasium, at Athens, near it 
Theseas buried, I. 84. 

Gymnopaediae, at Sparta, i. 2-18, v, 
80 

Gymnosophists, said to have been 
consulted by Alexander, i. 216; 
caused Alexander much trouble 
VII. 404 f . ; 408 

Gynaeceia, same as Roman " Bona 
Dea," mother of Midas according 
to Phrygians, vil. 128, 462 

Gythium, Cleomenes puts to sea from 
"it, X. 116 ; relieved bv Philopoemen, 
294 



Habrotonon, Thracian, mother of 

ThemL-torles, II. 2, 8 
Hades, II. 372 
Haemon, afterwards called Thermo- 

don, Hows past Heracleum, i. 64, 

VII. 46 
Hagnon (1), father of Theramenes, 

III, 212, IV. 270; amends bill of 

Dracontides, III. 92 
Hagnon (2), Teian, with Alexander, 

VII. 286; 342; 382 
Hagnonides, public informer, VIII. 

210; denounces Phocion as traitor, 

220; 222; 226; executed by 

Athenians, 232 
Hagnothemls, cited, VII. 436 
Hair, sheared on fore part of head by 

Theseus, Abantes, Mysians, I. 10; 

shaved ofif by Argives, worn long 

by Spartans, "iv. 234 
Haiae, burial place of Timon, IX. 298 ; 

destroyed by Sulla, iv. 408 
Haliartus, tomb of Rhadamanthus 

near it ; Lysander routed and slain 

there, iv. 312, 452; Halicarnassus, 

in Caria, native city of Euterp6, ll. 

2 ; stormed by Alexander, vii. 268 ; 

besieged by JPtolemy, relieved by 

Demetrius, IX. 18 
Halimus, deme of Thacydides, II. 

412 



Halonnesus, speech on, by Demos- 
thenes, VII. 24 

Hamilcar, with Hasdrubal, com- 
mander of Carthaginian forces 
defeated by Timoleon at river 
Crimesus, VI. 320 

Hamilcar Barcas, II. 324 

Hannibal, invaded Italy, III. 122, V. 
456 ; defeats Flamiaius at lake 
Thrasymen^ in Tuscany, III. 124; 
tries to force Fabius to fight, 132 ; 
escapes from Fabius' trap bv ruse, 
136, 200; spares Fabius' fields to 
bring odium upon him, 140; traps 
Minucius, retires when Fabius 
comes to rescue, 150 f.; destroys 
Roman army at Cannae, 162 f.; 
refuses to attack Rome ; how helped 
by Cannae, 168; defeated bv 
Marcellus at Nola, v. 462 ; 464 ; 500"; 
slew Gn. Fulvius the proconsul and 
most of his army in Apulia, 502 ; 
fights drawn battle with Marcellus 
near Numistro, 502 ; fights battles 
with Marcellus near Canusium, 
506 f . ; worn out with fighting 
Marcellus, afraid of Fabius, ill. 174 ; 
loses Tarentum to Fabius, begins to 
realize insufiBciency of his forces. 
186; traps and slays the consuls 
Marcellus and Crispinus, v. 518; 
recalled to Carthage, defeated by 
Scipio, 40, II. 398, III. 192, X. 144, 
328 ; stirs up Antiochus against 
Rome, 346 ; after defeat of Antiochus 
goes to Artaxas the Armenian and 
supervises building of city Artaxata, 
II. 672 ; flees to Prusias in Bithynia, 
commits suicide, x. 378 f. 

See also I. 162, li. 304, 334, III. 6, 
176, V, 344, 524, 528, VIII. 4, X. 384. 
Quoted: III. 154, 162 f.; 186, V. 
458, 506 f., 520, IX. 366, X. 380 

Hanno, Carthaginian admiral, vi. 306 

Harmony, goddess, bom of Ares and 
Aphrodite, V. 386 

Harmost, left in each city by Lysander, 
IV. 266; Callibius the Spartan in 
Acropolis, 274 ; Sphodrias, at 
Thespiae, V. 66; 370 

Harpalus (1), banished by Philip, 
honoured afterwards by Alexander, 
VII. 250; appointed governor of 
Babylonia by Alexander, 332 ; sent 
books to Alexander, 242 ; ab- 

393 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE * LIVES * 



sconded, 346; tried to bribe 
Phocion, VIII. 190, bribed Demo- 
sthenes, sent from city, vil. 60, 
216 

Harpalus (2), served with Aemilius 
Paulus against Perseus, vi. 392 

Hasdrubal (1), see " Hamilcar." 

Hasdrubal (2), conquered in Spain by 
Scipio, X. 328 

Heads of the Great Syrtis, Vl. 54 

Health, temple of, had statue in 
honour of Cato the Elder, ii. 356 

"Hecaergos," name given Apollo, X. 
358 

Hecal6, honoured for her hospitality 
by Theseus, I. 26 

Hecalesia, sacrifice to Zeus Hecalus 
in honour of Hecal6, 1. 26 

" Hecalin6," diminutive of Hecal6, I. 
26 

Hecataeus (1) sophist, what Archi- 
damidas said about him, I. 266 

Hecataeus (2), tyrant of Oardia, urges 
Leonnatus to go to aid of Antipater, 
distrusts Eumenes, VIII. 86 

Hecataeus (3) of Eretria, cited, VII. 
356 

Hecatombaeon, Athenian month, I, 
52, 84; same as Boeotian Hippo- 
dromius, ll. 138; V. 78; same as 
Macedonian Loils, VII. 228 f. 

Hecatombaeum, near Dym6, X. 80 

Hecatompedon, part of Syracuse, VI. 
94 

Hectemorioi, or Thetes, Athenians 
who paid a sixth of increase as rent, 
I. 436 

Hector, captured and plundered 
Troezen, carried off Aethra, I. 78; 
V. 188; Spartan youth closely 
resembled him, XI. 8 

Hecuba, V. 414 

Hedylium, mountain, iv. 378 f. 

Hegemon, accompanies Phocion to 
Polysperchon, VIII. 224; condemned 
to death with Phocion, 228 

Hegesias, cited, vil. 230 

Hegesipyl6, Thracian, wife of Miltiades, 
mother of Cimon, ii. 412 

Hegestratus, Athenian archou, i. 496 

Helen, rape of, by Theseus led to war 
in Attica and Theseus* banishment 
and death, I. 60, 196; different 
accounts of rape of, 70 ; on way to 
Troy threw golden tripod into sea, 

394 



which fished up was offered as prize 

to wisest man, I. 412 
Helenus, son of Pyrrhus and Bircenna 

IX. 370, 454; found and sent back 

to Epeirus by Alyoneus, 460 
Heliaea, in Athens, Vlll. 178 
Helicon (1) of Cyzicus, friend of Plato, 

predicted eclipse of sun, VI. 40 
Helicon (2), made belt for Alexander, 

VII. 322 

Helicon, mountain, IV. 318, V. 48 
Helicus, X. 102 

Heliopolis, Psenophls of, I. 476 
Helius, adherent of Nero, executed 

by Qalba, XI. 240 
Hellas, came into closer relations with 

Persia after time of Themistocles, 

II. 80. See also " Greeks." 
Hellanicus (1), cited : I. 32, 66, 58, 60, 

70, IV. 54 
Hellanicus (2), sent by Syracusans to 

implore help of Dion, VI. 88 
Hellenes, see " Greeks." 
Hellenic Council, ll. 274, 278 
Hellespont, II. 240, 506, III. 56; 

Philip driven from it by Phocion, 

VIII. 174 f . 

Helots, made slaves by Spartans 
under Soils, 1. 206 ; tilled ground for 
Spartans, 278 ; slain by young men 
of "krupteia," 288, 290; treated 
very harshly, 386 ; did all business, 
prepared and cooked meals, etc, 
388; 464; revolt from Sparta at 
time of great earthquake, I. 292, ii. 
454 f . ; many desert from Agesilails 
to enemy, v. 90 ; those who could 
pay 5 Attic minas freed by Cleo- 
menes ; 2000 armed in Macedonian 
fashion, x. 100 

Helvetii, defeated by Caesar and forced 
to return home, VII. 486 

Helvia, Cicero's mother, VII. 82 

Helvidius Priscus, took up Qalba's 
body, XI. 270 

Heuiochd, daughter of Pittheus, wife of 
Canethus, mother of Sciron, I. 56 

Hephaestion, friend of Alexander, 
VII. 340, 346; followed Alexander 
in adopting barbarian mode of life, 
quarrels with Craterus, 360; 382; 
quarrels with Eumenes, Vlll. 78 f. ; 
dies at Ecbatana to great grief of 
Alexander, splendidly buried, 82, 
V. 428, VII. 424 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Heptachalcum, place at Athens, IV. 
368 

Hera, statue of, at Axgos, ill. 4 ; 70 ; 
attacked by Ixion, x. 2 ; festival of, 
among Samians to be called Lvsan- 
dreia, IV. 280; temple of, I. "482; 
temples of, at Samos, Argos, 
Lacinium, plundered by pirates, V. 
174; temple of, at Corinth, seized 
by Aratus, XI. 54 

Hera, Cithaeronian, II. 246, 266 

•* Heracleia," name of precincts dedi- 
cated to Herakles by Theseus, I. 80 

Heracleia, taken by Demetrius, IX. 52 

Heracleia, sacked by M'. Acilius, x. 
364 

Heracleia, in Pontus, ghost-oracle of, 
II. 422; reached by Mithridates, 
508 

Heracleia, in Italy, battle between 
Pvrrhus and Laevinus near it, IX. 
394 

Heracleidae, how maintained by 
Athenians, I. 48 ; included Spartan 
kings, 206 ; united with Dorians 
and came into Peloponnesus, but 
only 2 houses, EurjiDontidae and 
Agiadae, furnished kings, IV. 300; 
234; IX. 464 

Heracleides (1), Syracusan boy, brings 
on sea fight, lU, 292 

Heracleides (2), Syracusan, Dion 
accused of plotting with him 
against Dionysius, VI. 24; returns 
from Peloponnesus to Syracuse; 
brief account of him ; becomes rival 
of Dion, 70 ; though admiral, fails 
to prevent Dionysius sailing away, 
supports popular proposals, 80; 
elected general, 82 ; recalls Dion, 
94; pardoned by Dion, 100; 
appointed admiral, renews his 
machinations against Dion, 102; 
prevented from occupying Syracuse 
by Dion, takes tip Gaesylus the 
Spartan, 104; reconciled to Dion 
by Gaesylus, 106; again plots 
against Dion, who has him slain, 
112 

Heracleides (3), of Cym6, cited, XI. 
182 

Heracleides (4), Ponticus cited : I. 
404, 466, 494, 496, II. 72, 146, III. 
102, VII. 298 

Heracleitus : (Frag. 74, Bywater 30), 



I. 182; (Frag. 105, Bywater 41), 
IV. 170; (Frag. 116, Bywater 45), 
214, II. 136 

Heracleium, II. 38, III. 294, VI. 392, 
IX. 274 

Heracles (1), destroyed some powerful 
wicked men in Hellas, cowed others ; 
after he slew Iphitus and went to 
Lydia, old villainies burst forth 
anew, but Lydia got peace and 
security, I. 14, 296 ; kinsman of 
Theseus, 16; sacrificed Busiris, 
wrestled Antaeus to death, slew 
Oyenus, dashed out Termerus' 
brains, 22; instituted Olympian 
games in honour of Zeus, 56 ; ac- 
companied by Theseus in campaign 
against Amazons, 58, 544; slew 
Antiope and her Amazons, 64; 68; 
initiated into Eleusinian mysteries 
at instigation of Theseus, 70 ; 78 ; 
secured Theseus' release from 
Aidoneus, 80; father of Teleplius, 
92; ancestor 11th removed from 
Lycurgus, 206, 446; II, 2; had 
daughter Eucleia by Myrto, 278; 
410 ; statue of, removed from Taren- 
tum and set up in Capitol at E ome by 
PabiusMaximus,III.184; 210; had 
tendency to melancholy according 
to Aristotle, iv. 236 ; V. 380 ; said 
to have loved Tolaiis, 384; father 
of Macaria, 390; ancestor of 
Alexander, VII. 224; took Ilium, 

VIII. 2 ; had sou Sophax by Tinga, 
settled Olbianians and Mycenaeans 
about city of Tinga, 24; had son 
Anton, IX. 146 ; shown in paintings 
with Omphal6 taking away his 
club and lion's skin, 336 

Heracles (2), son of Alexander by 

Barsin6, VIII. 80 
" Heracles, bowl of," Vll. 432 
Heraea, IV. 294; city belonging to 

Acaaean league, seized by 

Cleomenes, x. 64 
"Heraea," Greek for " Junonia," x. 

220 
Heraeum, II. 266 ; at Corinth, seized 

by Agesilaus, V. 58 ; X. 94 ; 110 
Heralds, at Rome, I. 354 
Hercules, I 114; became father of 

1st Fabius, lll. 118 ; 350 
Hercynii, inland limit of Cimmerians, 

IX. 490 

395 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE * LIVES ' 



llereas, Megarian, cited, I. 40, 76, 428 
ilerennius, C, reluctant to witness 

against Marius, IX. 472 ; with 

Perpenna defeated by Pompey, v. 

158 
Herennius, centurion, kills Cicero, vii. 

206 
Herippidas, V. 28; harmost in 

Thebes, executed by Spartans, 370 
Hermae, of stone, dedicated by 

Cimon, II. 424 
Hermae, mutilation of, III. 210, 254, 

IV. 48, 52 

Hermaeus, priest with Mithridates* 

army, ii, 522 
Hermagoras, rhetorician, opposed by 

Poseidonius at Ehodes, v. 224 
Hermes, to east of Delphinium at 

Athens, called Hermes at Aegeus' 

gate, I. 24 
" Hermes of Andocides," why so 

called. III. 254, iv. 56 
Hermes Terrestrial, ii. 280 
Herminius, helped Horatius defend 

the bridge, I, 544 
Hermion^, joins Achaean league, Xl. 

78; taken by Cleomenes, x. 90; 

had temple of Chthonian Earth, 

V, 174; purple came from there, 
VII. 332 ; Epicles of, II. 14 

Hermippus (1), comic poet, prosecutes 

Aspasia for impiety, ill. 92 ; 

(Kock I. 236 f .), cited, 96 
Hermippus (2), cited : I. 218, 278, 

406, 418, 430, VII. 12, 26, 70, 74, 

380 
Hermocrates, Syracusan, his daughter 

married Dionysius the Elder, VI. 

6; son of Hermon, destined to 

cause most of Athenian reverses, 

III. 210; 296; 304; his saying re 

Nlcias, 264 
Hermolaiis, plots against Alexander, 

is executed, VII. 382 
Hermon (1), father of Hermocrates, 

III. 210 
Hermon (2), slew Phrynichus, crowned 

by Athenians, IV. 74 
Hermotimus, Phocaean, father of 

Milto, III.. 72 
Hermus, left by Theseus as one ol 

governors of Pythopolis, I. 60 
Hermus, on road from Athens to 

Eleupis, has tomb of Pythonic^, 

Vill. 192 



Hero, niece of Aristotle, mother of 
Callisthenes, vil. 384 

Herod, Jew, sends army to Antony, 
IX. 276 ; deserts to Octavius, 300, 
302 

Herodes, urged by Cicero to study 
philosophy with Cratippus, VII. 142 

Herodorus Ponticus, cited I. 58, 
66, 70, 114 

Herodotus (1), story about him among 
Bith3rnians resembles that about 
Numa and Egeria, I. 316 

Herodotus (2), cited : (viu. 3), ll. 
56 ; (5), 20 ; (93), 46 ; (IX. 46), 258 ; 
(64), 388; (85), 272 

Herophytus, Samian, not so shrewd 
as Cimon, II. 430 

Herostratus, sent into Macedonia by 
Brutus to win over commanders of 
armies there, VI. 178 

Hersilia, only married Sabine woman 
seized, married to Hostilius or to 
Romulus, 1. 130, 146; appealed for 
reconciliation between Bomans and 
Sabines, 150 

Hesiod, loved by gods for sake of 
Muses, 1. 318 : verse expunged from 
his poems by Peisistratus, 40; 
rebuked for calling some days good 
and others bad, ll. 136. Works and 
Days (309), II. 390; (311), I. 408; 
(366), XI. 240; (370) quoted and 
ascribed to Pittheus on authority of 
Aristotle, 1.6; calls Minos " most 
royal," 30 

Hestia, goddess, forbids Tarchetius 
murdering his daughter, I. 94 

Hestiaea, ii. 22 

Hestiaeans, expelled from their 
country by Pericles, III. 66 

Hesuchia, priestess of Athena at 
Clazomenae, III. 254 

Hexapyla, of Syracuse, cut through 
by Marcellus, V. 482 

Hicetas, of Leontini, chosen general 
by Syracusans, secretly negotiates 
with Carthaginians, VI. 264; 276; 
defeats Dionysius, shuts him up in 
acropolis, orders Carthaginians to 
prevent Timoleon from landing, 
280; 284; defeated by Timoleon, 
288 ; continues siege of acropolis of 
Syracuse, tries to have Timoleon 
assassinated, 298; summons to his 
aid Mago, 302, 304; his forces in 



396 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Syracuse defeated and driven out 
by Timoleon, 312 ; compelled to 
forsake cause of Carthage, demolish 
his citadels and live as private 
person at Leontini, 318 ; invades 
territory of Syracuse, defeated and 
executed, 334 f.; had murdered 
Andromache and Arete, 122, 340 

Hidrieus, Carian, gets letter from 
Agesilaiis, V. 36 

Hiempsal, king of Xumidia, IX. 574, 
576 ; given larbas' kingdom by 
Pompey, V. 142 

Hierapoli's, III. 366; formerly called 
Bambyce, given Monaeses by 
Antony, IX. 220 

Hiero (1), tyrant of Sicily, refused 
Themistocles his daughter's hand, 

II. 66 

Hiero (2), intimate friend of Nicias, 

III. 224 

lliero (3), king of Syracuse, receives 
gifts from Romans, V. 456 ; had per- 
suaded Archimedes to make prac- 
tical application of his geometrv, 
470 

Hieronymus (1), historian, sent by 
Antigonus to make treaty with 
Eumenes, VIII. 114; left as governor 
of Boeotians bv Demetrius, IX. 96 ; 
cited, 400, 414" 

Hieronymus (2), Ehodian philosopher, 
cited, II. 296; V. 36 

Hieronymus (3), tyrant of Syracuse, 
dies, V. 466 

Hieronymus (4), of Carrhae, urges P. 
Crassus to escape to Ichnae, III. 
394 

Hill-men, at Athens, favoured 
democracy, I. 434; led by Peisis- 
tratus, 486 

Himera, river in Sicily where Crelon 
defeated Carthaginians, VI. 318 

Himera, Sicilian city, pardoned by 
Pompey, v. 140 

Himeraeus, brother of Demetrius the 
Phalerean, executed by Antipater, 
VII. 70 

Hippada Telountes, Athenians able 
to keep horse or getting 500 
measures yearly, Solon's 2nd class, 
I. 450 

Hipparchus (1) of Cholargus, kinsman 
of Peisistratub, first man ostracized, 
III. 260 



Hipparchus (2), father of Asclepiades, 

VIII. 194 
Hipparchus (3), son of Theophilu-, 

fir.<t freedman to desert Antony for 

Octavius, IX. 292 ; 304 
Hipparchus (4) Spartan, father of 

Aristocrates the writer, I. 216, 302 
Hipparete, daughter of Hipponicns, 

wife of Alcibiades, applied for 

divorce, IV. 20 
Hipparinus (1), father of Aristomache, 

once colleague of Dionvsius the 

Elder, Vl. 6 
Hipparinus (2), Dion's son, called 

Aretaeus according to Timaeus, vi. 

68 
Hippias (1), sophist of Elis, published 

list of victors at Olympic games, I. 

308; cited, 276 
Hippias (2), one of 3 young men 

fleeing with infant Pyrrhus, IX. 

348 
Hippias (3), mime with Antony, ix. 

158 
Hippikon, distance of 4 furlongs, I. 

468 
Hippitas, lame friend of Cleomenes in 

Egypt, X. 134, 136 
Hippo, tyrant of Messana, vi. 80 ; 

shelters Mamercus, caught and 

executed, 342 
Hippobotae, wealthy class of Chal- 

cidians, banished by Pericles, iii. 66 
Hippoclus, father of Pclopidas, V. 346 
Hippocoon, father of Enarsphorus, I. 

72 
Hippocrates (1) mathematician, en- 
gaged in trade, I. 408 
Hippocrates (2), physician, consulted 

by Persian king, his reply, ii. 372 
Hippocrates (3), father of Peisistratus, 

1.490 
Hippocrates (4), general when 1000 

Athenians lost at Delium, ill. 226 
Hippocrates (5), Spartan governor of 

Chalcedon, defeated and slain by 

Alcibiades, IV. 86 
Hippocrates (6), commander of — 

Syracusans, seizes city and defies 

Marcellus, V. 468; his camp at 

Acrillae captured by Marcellus, v. 

482 
Hippodrome, at Rome, I. 102 
Hippodromius, Boeotian month, same 
as Athenian Hecatombaeon, li. 138 

397 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Uippolyta, not Antiop6, said by 
Cleidemus to have been the name of 
the Amazon whom Theseus married, 
1.62 

nippolytus (1), or Demophoon, son of 
Theseus and Antiope, I. 64 

flippolvtus (2), Sicyonian, loved by 
Apollo, I, 318 

Hippomachus, tramer, his saying, VI. 
2 

Hippomedon, son of Agesilaiis, urges 
father to support Agis, X. 14 ; saves 
father, 36 

Hlpponicus (1), friend of Solon, I. 
444 

Hlpponicus (2), father of Callias the 
Rich by wife who later married 
Pericles, III. 70; gave Alcibiades 
his daughter Hipparete to wife, IV. 
18 f. 

Hipponium, city of Lucania, later 
called Vibo, VII 162 

Hipposthenides, Theban, one of con- 
spirators assisting Pelopidas, V. 
356 

Hirtius, consul elect with Pansa, 
keeps Cicero at Rome to support 
them, VI. 452, VII. 190 ; with Pansa 
defeats Antony at Mutina but is 
himself slain, 198, IX. 174 

History of Rome, written by Cato the 
Elder for his son, il. 362 ; planned 
by Cicero, VII. 186 

Histories of Rutilius, v. 212 

" Hoc age," its meaning, I. 356, IV. 
178 

Homer, poems of, preserved among 
posterity of Creophylus in Ionia, 
first made really known by Lycur- 
gus, I. 214; said by Tiraaeus to 
have met the elder Lycurgus, 
204; " Od." XI. 631 inserted by 
Peisistratus, 40; "II." II. 557 f. 
inserted by Solon according to most 
writers, 426; II. 424; ill. 172; his 
view as to man's responsibility for 
his actions, IV. 196; used by 
teachers, 16 ; always brings his 
boldest and most valiant heroes 
into battle well armed, v. 342 ; his 
poetry characterized, VI. 346 ; Alex- 
ander considered Iliad viaticum of 
military art, had Aristotle's re- 
cension called Iliad of the Casket, 
VII. 242 ; 298 ; H,s»id to have been 



born at los, and to have died at 
Smyrna, VIII. 4; IX. 420; 490; 
studied by Philopoemen, X. 264; 
XI. 246 

Iliad, (I. 188 f.) IV. 198, (238 f.) 

IX. 106, (259) VI. 202, (491 f.) IX. 
382, X. 128, (II. 204) IX. 320, (363) 
V. 384, (547) I. 54, (557 f.) 426, 
(607) XI. 106, (III. 144) I. 78, (172) 

X. 68, (IV. 175) V. 40, (431) X. 68, 
(V. 340) VII. 306, (VI. 161 f.) IV. 176, 
(429 f.) VI. 176, (491) 176, (IX. 
438 f.) X. 256, (XI. 544) V. 302, 
(XII. 243) IX. 442, (XIV. 86 f.) 
436, (XV. 189) 254, (XVI. 849) VI. 
178, (XIX. 15 f.) X. 280, (XX. 467) 
VII. 28, (XXI. 107) 380, (XXII. 207) 

V. 188, (XXIII. 296 f .) 24, (XXIV. 162) 
IX. 192, (525 f.) VI. 446, (630) 260. 

Odyssey (I. 47) X. 196, (IV. 230) 

III. 236, (246) IV. 172, (354 f.) VII. 
298, (VIII. 75 f.) V.12, (IX. 299) 

IV. 198, (339) IV. 196, (494) Vlll. 
180, (XI. 14 f.) IX. 490, (XII. 428) 

VI. 38, (XIV. 162) I. 474, (222 f.) II. 
392, (XVIII. 158) IV. 196, (XIX. 179) 
I. 32, IX. 106, (307) I. 474 

Verse not now in poems, iv. 196 
Homoloichus, Chaeroneian, assists 

Sulla, IV. 382, 390 
Honoratus, Antonius, see " Antonius 

Honoratus." 
Honour and Virtue, temple to, by 

Marcellus, V. 512 
" Hoplias," former name of stream 

Hoplites, IV. 316 
Hoplitai, one of 4 original Attic 

tribes, composed of warriors, I. 468 
Hoplites, stream near Haliartus, or, 

as some say, Coroneia, iv. 316 
Horatius Cocles, helped by Herminius 

and Lartius, saves Rome by holding 

bridge, I. 544 
Horatius Flaccus, " Epist." I. 6. 45 f., 

cited, II. 598 
Horatius, M., elected consul to 

succeed Lucretius, I. 534 ; quarrels 

with Publicola about consecration 

of temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, 

538 
Horcomosium, place at Athens, 

adjoining Theseum, I. 64 
Hordeonius Flaccus, see " Flaccus, 

Hordeonius." 
•' Horns," place in Megara, II. 38 



398 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Hortensius, Q. Hortatus (1) orator, 

brother of Valeria, iv. 436 ; legate 

of Sulla in Greece, iv. 374, 384, 386 ; 

appeared for Verres, Yll. 98; sur- 
passed Cicero at trial of Licinius 

Morena, 170; admirer of Cato, 

takes Cato's wife Marcia, VIII. 292 f . ; 

made her his heir, 362 ; il. 472 
Hortensius, Q. Hortatus (2) delivered 

up Macedonia to Brutus, VI. 180; 

ordered to kill 0. Antonius, and 

after Philippi slain on his tomb by 

Antony, 186, IX. 184 
Hostilius (1) Sabine, husband of 

Hersilia, grandfather of Hostilius 

who was king after Numa, fell in 

battle between Romans and Sabines, 

1. 130, 146 
Hostilius (2), Tullus, king after Numa, 

his character «md death, I. 146, 

382 
Hostilius Mancinus, Aulas, consul, 

repulsed by Perseus at Elimiae, 

VI. 376 
Hostius, L., first parricide at Rome, 

I. 162 
" House of Hermes," place in Pytho- 

polis, I. 60 
" House of Tiberius," place in Rome, 

XI. 260 
Houses, of Cato the Elder, did not 

have plastered walls, II. 314 
Hyacinthia, festival celebrated at 

Sparta, ll. 244 
Hyacinthus, loved by Apollo, I. 318 
Hvbla, in Sicilv, attacked by Nicias, 

III. 262 
Hybreas, rebukes Antony in behalf of 

Asia, IX. 188 
Hyccara, barbarian fastness in Sicily, 

overthrown by Nicias, iii. 262 
Hydaspes, river in India, Vll. 394 
Hydra, " cutting ofE its heads," 

proverbial expression, X. 244 
Hydrus, II. 444 

Hyllus, father of Cleodaeus, IX. 346 
" Hymenaeus," nuptial cry of Greeks, 

1.132 
Hypates, one of Theban tyrants, slain 

by Pelopidas' band of conspirators, 

V. 366 f . 
Hyperbatas, Theban general, x. 80 
Hvperbolus, of deme Perithoedae, last 

man ostracised, II. 252, III. 248, iv. 

28 



Hyperboracans, army of, captured 
Rome, II. 146 

Hypereides, denounced Demosthenes, 
but admitted him to be man of 
mark, vn. 30, 32 ; father of Glaucip- 
pus, VIII. 152; 160; his surrender 
demanded by Alexander, 182 ; 196 ; 
leaves Athens in advance of Anti- 
pater, 202 ; his surrender demanded 
by Antipater, 204; executed by 
Antipater at Cleonae, 210, vil. 70 ; 
quoted, vril. 168 

Hypsaeus, Publius Plautius, with 
Scipio and Milo, candidate for con- 
sulship, VIII. 350 ; when on trial, 
appeals to Pompey in vain, v. 262 

Hypsechidas, one of 5 Spartan arbiters 
in dispute between Athens and 
Megara, I. 428 

Hypsicrateia, concubine of Mithri- 
dates, v. 200 

" Hypsicrates," pet name of Hypsi- 
crateia, v. 200 

Hypsion, Plataean hero, II. 246 

Hyrcania, invaded by Alexander, 
VII. 352 ; left by him in haste, v. 
206; III. 376; 434 

Hvrcanian sea, reached bv Alexander, 
'vii. 352 ; II. 590 ; V. 208 ; 214 

Hyrodes (also called Arsaces, g. v.), 
driven from Parthia, restored, by 
Surena, III. 378 ; having divided his 
forces, he himself attacks Armenia 
to punish Artavasdes, and sends 
Surena to attack Crassus, 376; 
informed of Crassus' death, 416 ; 
becomes reconciled to Artavasdes, 
the Armenian king, acquainted with 
Greek language and literature, 420 ; 
his general Phamapates defeated 
by Ventidius, ix. 210; his son 
Pacorus defeated and slain bv 
Ventidius, 212, III. 422 ; strangled 
by his son Phraates, 422, ix. 218 

Hysiae, at foot of Mt. Cithaeron, near 
it temple of Eleusinian Demeter 
and Cora, II. 248 



laccheium, the so-called, II. 296 
lacchus, escorted from Athens tc 

Eleui^Ls on 20th of Boedromion, II. 

140, IV. 98, VIII. 206 
lalysiis, story of, painted by Pro- 

togeues the Caunian ; what Apelles 



399 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



said of it; destroyed in fire at 
Rome, IX. 50 f . 

lalysus, native city of Timocreon, il. 
58 

lampsas, see " Hiempsal." 

lapygia, VI. 52, 76 

lapygian promontory, on coast of 
Italy, IX. 390 

larbas, king, confederate of Domitius, 
captured and his kingdom given to 
Hiempsal, V. 144 

Iberia, visited by Lycurgus according 
to Aristocrates, I. 216 

Iberia, triumphed over by Pompey, 
V. 230. 

Iberians (1), of Spain, used by Cartha- 
ginians in their battles, VI. 330; 
mixed with Ligurians, 368 ; mourn 
death of Aemilius Paulus, 456 ; 
their sons educated at Osca by 
Sertorius, 36 ; 56 ; some killed by 
Sertorius, others sold into slavery, 
68; after murder of Sertorius 
submit to Pompey, 72 

Iberians (2), neighbours of Albanians, 
11.554; some as lancers in Tigranes' 
army, 574; one of 2 greatest 
peoples about Caucasus Mts. ; extent 
of territory, V. 204; short account 
of ; defeated by Pompey, 206 ; 212 ; 
conquered by Oanidius, Antony's 
general, IX. 214 

Iberian mountains, source of Cymus 
river, v. 206 

Ibycus, calls Spartan maids " phaino- 
merides," I. 390 

Icelus, frcedman, announces Nero's 
death to Galba, given name 
Marcianus, XI. 218 f. ; helped Otho, 
250 

Ichnae, city not far from Carrhae, 
espoused Roman cause, iil. 394 

Ichneumon, found in Asia, vil. 346 

Ictinus, with Callicrates, architect of 
Parthenon, iii. 40 

Ida, mountain, VIII. 192 

Idaeus, secretary of Agesilaiis, v. 34 

Idas, with Lynceus, carried off Helen 
according to some, I. 70 

Idomeneus, cited : ll. 214, 222, 242, 
III. 30, 102, VII. 38, 56, VIII. 
152 

'UpoL^, title of tyrant?, II. 228 

letae, place in Sicily, vi. 334 

Ignatius, with 300 horsemen reaches 



Carrhae with news of battle, then 
rides on to Zeugma, III. 402 

Ilia (or Rhea, or Silvia) Numitor's 
aaughter, made Vestal virgin, de- 
livered of twins, imprisoned by 
Amulius, I. 96 ; said Mars father of 
her babes, but Amulius was real 
father, 98 

Ilia, first wife of Sulla, to whom she 
bore a daughter, iv. 344 

Iliad, see " Homer." 

Ilicium, from iA.ew?, place where 
Numa met Jupiter, I. 360 

Ilium, taken in Thargelion according 
to Ephorus, CalUsthenes, Damastes, 
and Phylarchus, II. 138; thrice 
taken, vill. 2f. ; Alexander sacri- 
fices to Athena there, vil. 262 ; ll. 
502; 506 

Illyrians, conquered by Parmenio at 
time of Alexander's birth, vil. 230; 
ravage Macedonia, x. 112; Glaucias 
their king, ix. 350; fight against 
Cleomenes at Sellasia, X. 114; 268; 
VI. 376 

lUyricum, decreed to Oaesar for 5 
years, V. 240 

Impeachment, of Servilius the augur 
by LucuUus, II. 470 

Inauguration, of Roman kings, I. 
326 f . ; of Persian kings, XI. 130 

India, visited by Lycurgus according 
to Aristocrates, I. 216 ; invaded by 
Alexander, VI. 384, VII. 384 ; v. 298; 
VI. 254 

Indian, in retinue of Augustus, 
burned himself to death as Oalanus 
did, VII. 418 

Indian Ocean, III. 428 

Indian war, of Alexander, Vll. 384 f . 

" Indian's Tomb," at Athens in 
Plutarch's time, vil. 418 

Indians, Macedonian troops refuse to 
follow Alexander against them, vii. 
258 

Inferno of Homer, I. 40 

Ino, II. 104 

Inscriptions: 11.16,24,210; to mark 
battlefield of Plataea, 272 ; 276 ; in 
honour of Cato the Elder, 356 ; 424 ; 
by Nicias on stone at Delos, III. 218; 
IV. 234 ; V. 184; VI. 394; on pedestal 
of Demosthenes' statue, vil. 76; 
268; on tomb of Cyrus, 416; on 
tomb of Timon the raisftothrope, 



400 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



ES. 298 ; 432 ; X. 358 ; 368 ; in honour 

of Aratus, XI. 32 ; on Otho's tomb, 

318 
Inst€ias, M., with M. Octavius, led 

centre for Antony at Actium, ix. 

284 
Insubrians, their race and home ; call 

Gaesatae to their aid and wage war 

on Eome, v. 440 ; routed by 

Flamlnius, 442 ; stirred up by 

Gaesatae, again make war on 

Rome, 446 ; submit to Rome, 452 
Insurrection, Servile, lll. 334 f. 

See also " Spartacus." 
" Inter duos pontes," what it was and 

how formed, l. 520 
Interest, rate of in Asia, regulated by 

Lucullus, II. 532 
Interregnum, description of the one 

after death of Romulus, I. 312 
Investments, Cato the Elder's, II. 366 
lolas, son of Antipater and his chief 

cupbearer; feared by Alexander, 

VII. 428 ; believed to have poisoned 

Alexander, 434 
lolalis, said to have been beloved by 

Hercules, V. 384 
lolcus, villages about it furnished 

settlers for new city Demetrias, IX. 

134 
Ion (1), of Chios, poet, when youth, 

came from Chios to Athens, ll. 430. 
Cited : (Bergk il. 254) I. 40; II. 

418 ; 430 ; 456 ; III. 14 ; 82 ; vii. 6 
Ion (2), delivers Perseus' children to 

Romans, VI. 424 
" Ionia," name used for Athenian 

territory on pillar set up by Theseus 

on the Isthmus, I. 56 
Ionia, III. 82 ; u. 438; almost all stirred 

to revolt by Alcibiades, iv. 66; VU. 

60 
Ionian civilization, extravagant and 

luxurious, I. 214 
Ionian, Salamis so called in certain 

oracles, I. 428 
Ionian sea, vi. 448, VII. 532, IX. 390 
lonians, implored by Themistocles to 

help Greeks against Xerxes, II, 26 ; 

448: m. 56 
Iop6, daughter of Iphicles, married by 

Theseus, I. 66 
lophon, son of Peislstratus and 

Timonassa, II. 376 
los, where Homer was born, viii. 4 



loxids, colony of in Caria, founded bj 

loxus and Ornytus, bums neither 

asparagus-thorn nor rush on 

account of vow made by Perigune, 

1.18 
loius, son of ilelanippus, grandson of 

Theseus and Perigune, vdth 

Ornytus led colony into Caria, 1. 18 
Iphicles, father of Iop6, l. 66 
Iphicrates, Athenian, best type of 

mercenary soldier, xi. 206 ; cuts 

Spartan division to pieces, v. 60; 

conducts unsuccessful war for 

Artaxerxes against Egypt because 

of quarrelling with Pharnabazus, 

XI. 184; cited, V. 342 
Iphitus, with Lycurgus established 

Olympian truce, I, 204, 278; slain 

by Hercules, 14 
Iphtha, father of Ascalis, VIII. 22 
Ipsus, battle of, in which Antigonus 

was defeated and slain by the allied 

kings, IX. 80, 354 
Iras, waiting woman of Cleopatra, 

IX. 274, 326 
Isaeus, Demosthenes' guide in public 

speaking, Vll. 12 
Isauricus, P. ServiUus, candidate for 

pontifex maximus, defeated bv 

Caesar, VII. 456; consul witn 

Caesar, 532 
Isias, Corinthian, lands part of 

Timoleon's troops, Vl. 312 
Isidas, son of Phoebidas, brave in 

defence of Sparta, V. 96 
Isidorus (Isodorus) naval commander 

of ilithridates, slain near Lemnos 

by Lucullus, II. 606 
Isis, temple of, near Cleopatra's tomb 

and monument, IX. 306 
" Isis, New," title given Cleopatra, 

262 
Islands, Atlantic, called Islands of the 

Blest; their character, vui. 20 
Ismenias (1), Theban, taught the 

flute, III. 4, IX. 4 
Ismenias (2), with Androcleidcs led 

Theban democratic party to which 

Pelopidas belonged, hated by 

Spartans, V. 350 ; carried to Sparta 

and executed, 352 
Ismenias (3), accompanied Pelopidas 

on embassy to Persian king, xi. 

178; on embassy to Thessaly, v. 

406; rescued by Epaminondas, 414 

40T 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Ismenus, sanctuary of, had oracle, IV. 
316 

Isocrates, charged fee of 10 minas, too 
much for Demosthenes to pay, vil. 
12 ; Orat. 12, " De bigis," written 
for son of Alcibiades, IV. 26; 
criticized by Cato the Elder, ii. 
372 

Isodic^, daughter of Euryptolemus, 
granddaughter of Megacles, wife of 
Ciraon, II. 416, 452 

Isodorus, see " Isidorus." 

Isomantus, stream formerly called 
Hoplites, IV. 316 

Issorium, stronghold in Sparta where 
temple of Artemis stood, seized by 
200 mutineers, recovered through a 
ruse by AgesilaUs, V. 88 

Issus, battle of, Alexander defeats 
Dareius, VII. 290, 322 

Ister, '* Attic History," Bk 13, cited, 
I. 78, VII. 356 

Isthmian games, instituted in honour 
of Poseidon by Theseus, I. 56; 
rictor to receive 100 drachmas 
according to Solon's regulation, 
466 ; victor's wreath at first of 
parsley, afterwards of pine, VI. 
322 f.; freedom of Greece pro- 
claimed at games by Flamininus, 
X. 350; V. 56 

Isthmus of Oorinth, unites Greek 
continent, XI. 36; wall proposed 
there to block Persians, II. 26 ; 48; 
Greeks assembled there vote to 
join Alexander against Persians, 
VII. 258; IX. 58; temple of Poseidon 
there, v. 174; Oaesar proposed to 
dig through it : had put Anienus in 
charge, VII. 578 

Isthmus between Libya and Asia, 300 
furlongs in width, IX. 296 

Isthmus at Rhegium, blocked by wall 
and ditch 300 furlongs long by 
Crassuy, III. 344 

Italia, Themistocles' daughter, 
married Pantholdes the Chian, ii. 
88 

Italian allies, expelled from Rome, X. 
222 ; strive for Roman citizenship, 
viii, 238 

Italus, father of Boma by Leucaria, i. 
92 

Italy, separated from Cisalpine Gaul 
by Rubicon, VII. 490 ; distracted by 



pestilence, I. 350 ; first invasion of, 
by Gauls, ll. 126 f.; invaded by 
Pyrrhus, IX. 390 f . ; returned to by 
Pyrrhus from Sicily, 424 ; subdued 
by Romans soon after Beneventum, 
428 ; invaded by Hannibal, in. 122, 
V. 456 ; overrun by Hannibal, 168, 
II. 304; invaded by Cimbri and 
Teutones, ix. 488; mastered by 
Caesar in 60 days, V. 280; entrusted 
to Antony, IX. 152 

Ithagenes, father of Melissus the 
philosopher, in. 74 

Ithomatas, place walled in and 
garrisoned like the Acrocorinthus, 
XI. 114 

Ithom6, stronghold of Messenians and 
Helots in revolt against Sparta, ll. 
456; peopled with Messenians by 
Thebans, v. 398 

Itonis (Itonia) see " Athena Itonis." 

lulls, small part of Ceos, bred good 
actors and poets, vii. 2 

Ixion, embraced cloud instead of 
Hera and begat Centaurs, x. 2 



Janiculum, held 2 stone coffins, one 
with body of Numa, the other with 
sacred books he had written, I. 
378; occupied by Marius, IX. 580 

January, changed from IKh to 1st 
month by Numa, i. 366 ; by many 
said to have been put in calendar 
by him, 368; named from Janus, 
370; nearly same as Athenian 
Poseideon, VII. 532 

January Calends, first day of Roman 
year, XI. 492, 590 

Janus, account of; why 2 faces; his 
temple at Rome, when closed, i. 
372; double doors of temple opened 
after Numa's death. 398 

Jason (1), commander of Argo, sailed 
about, clearing sea of pirates, I. 38 ; 
helped at Colchis by Theseus, 66, 
11.410 

Jason (2), father of Theb6; friend of 
relopida.s, V. 410 

Jason (3), tragic actor in retinue of 
Hyrodes, III. 420 

Jews, stirred to revolt by Aristobulus, 
IX. 142 

Journals, with particulars of Alex- 
ander's last illness, vii. 43:} 



402 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Jove, Olympian, IV. 380 

Juba (1), king, aids Cato and Scipio in 
Africa, VII. 562 ; Vlll.372; 374; his 
camp sacked by Caesar, vii. 566; 
escaped from Thapsus with few 
followers, vill. 378; hidden in 
mountain with few men, sends 
letter to Cato, 384, 386 

Juba (2), son of preceding, led in 
Caesar's triumph; became one of 
most learned historians of Hellas, 
VII. 570; married Cleopatra, 
Cleopatra's daughter, ix. 330. 

Cited : l. 130, 132, 142, 330, 352, 
IV. 380, V. 524 

Judaea, subdued by Pompey and its 
king imprisoned, V. 216; 230; 
pacified by Antony, ix. 142 ; 
balsam-producing part given to 
Cleopatra, 218 

Jugurtha, the Numidian, bribed 
Opimius, X. 238 ; IX. 478 ; son-in- 
law of Bocchus, surrendered to 
Sulla, 484, IV. 328 ; led in triumph, 
died in prison, IX. 494 

JuUa (1), sister of Caesar's father, wife 
of Marius the Elder, mother of 
Marius the Younger, vii. 442, ix. 
474 ; Caesar delivers funeral oration 
over her in forum, VII. 450 

Julia (2), of house of Caesars, wife of 
Antonius Creticus, mother of M. 
Antony, after death of A. C. 
married Cornelius Lentulus, IX. 
138; 180 

Julia (3), daughter of Caesar, be- 
trothed to Caepio, married to 
Pompey, v. 238, 298, VII. 474, Vlll. 
310; great love between her and 
Pompey, buried in Campus 
Martius, her death removes check 
on rivalrv between Pompey and 
Caesar, v."25'2, VII. 500 ; 570 

Julia (4), daughter of Augustus, 
married first to Marcellus, then to 
Agrippa, IX. 330 f. 

Julius, censor, died, II. 124 

Julius Proculus, see " Proculus, 
Julius." 

Julius Salinator, see " Salinator, 
Julius." 

July, named from J. Oaesar, originally 
called Quintilis, I. 370 

June, derived from " Juno " or 
" iunior," l. 370 



Junia, sister of Brutus, wife of Cassius 

VI. 140 
Junius, governor of Asia, VII. 446 
Junius, M., dictator after Cannae, III. 

146 
Junius Silanus, see " Silanus, Junius." 
Juno, temple of, in citadel of Veil, il. 

106 ; image of, treinsferred to 

Rome, 108 ; temple of, on Capi- 

toline, 160 
Juno of Hierapolis, IV. 366 
Juno Quiritis, her statue leans upon a 

spear, 1. 182 
Junonia, in Greek Heraea; colony 

founded on site of Carthage by C. 

Gracchus, X. 220 
Jupiter, received dedication of Capil ol 

from Tarquin, I. 144; story of his 

conversation with Kuma, 360 ; 

garland of oak leaves sacred to him, 

IV. 122 ; 176 
Jupiter Capitolinus, temple of, built 

by Tarquin the Proud ; story of the 

terra cotta chariot for the roof, I. 

534 ; history of temple, 536 f . 
Jupiter Feretrius, origin of the term, 

I. 136 f., V. 454; 450; temple of, 

454 
Jupiter Stesius or Stator, origin and 

meaning of the term, i. 146; his 

temple at beginning of Sacra Via as 

you go up Palatine HUl, vil. 120 
Jus trium liberorum, what it was, I. 

342 
Justice, seated beside Zens, VII. 376 ; 

Spartan idea of, V. 106 



KoJ5ixo?, Its meaning, I. 240 
Kannathron, what it i?, V. 52 
KfKaSSCadai, its meaning, I, 240 
Keraton, sort of altar about which the 

" Crane " was danced by Theseus, 

1.44 
Kepavi/os, title of tyrants, II. 228 
Kermalus, once called Germanus, 

jilace where trough containing 

Ilia's twins landed, 1. 98 
Kitaris, Persian for tiara, XI. 190 
Klaria, Spartan for mortgages, X. 30 
Klodones, women devoted to Orphic 

rites and orgies of Dionysus, VII. 

226 
Kotbon, Laconian drinking-cup, its 

description, l. 230 



403 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Krupteia, at Sparta, its nature ; said 
by Aristotle to have been an 
institution ot Lycurgue, I. 288 
Kv/3epi/^<rta, see " Cybernesia." 
Kurbeis, what they were, I. 472, 572 



Labeo, Q. Antistius, informed of 
conspiracy to murder Caesar, VI. 
160; Brutus' legate, slain at 
Pharsalus, 240 

Labienus, T., Caesar's legate, crushes 
Tigurini at river Arar, VII. 486 ; 
deserts Caesar for Pompey, v. 282, 
VII. 526; commander of Pompey's 
cavalry, v. 292 ; not admitted to 
Cyren6, VIII. 370; quoted, vil. 180 

Labienus, Q., son of preceding, 
Parthian commander-in-chief, IX. 
196 ; subduing Asia from Euphrates, 
and Syria as far as Lydia and Ionia, 
204; slain by Ventidius, 210 

Labyrinth, Cretan, lair of Minotaur, I. 
28; a dungeon according to 
Philochorus, 30 ; its intricate wind- 
ings traversed by Theseus by means 
of thread given by Ariadne, 36; 
scene of battle between Theseus 
and Deucalion, 40 ; dance imitating 
its windings still performed by 
Delians, 44 

Laccopluti, nickname given by comic 
poets to descendants of Cailias, II, 
226 

Lacedaemonius, son of Cimon and 
woman of Arcadia, III, 82 ; sent 
with 10 ships to aid Corcyra, 82 

Lacetanians, Spanish tribe, subdued 
by Cato the Elder, ll. 332 

Lachares (1), becomes tyrant of 
Athens, IX. 80; flees when 
Demetrius blockades city, 82 

Lachares (2), father of Eurycles, 
executed by Antony on charge of 
robbery, 290 

Lachartus, Corinthian, upbraids 
Cimon, II. 456 

Laciadae, deme of Miltiades, ll. 412; 
of Cimon, 432; of Thessalus, iv. 
60 

Lacinium, temple of Hera at, v. 174 

Laco, Cornelius, appointed prefect of 
praetorian guard under Calba, XI. 
230; 262; slain by Otho's men, 
268; 272 

404 



Laconia, its coasts ravaged by Nicias, 
III. 230; by Conon and Phama- 
bazus, V. 62 ; most of it detached 
from Spartan confederacy, 396; 
invaded by Demetrius, ix. 84; by 
Aetolia and 50,000 slaves taken, x. 
88; 110; invaded by T. Flamininus, 
300 

" Laconistes," nickname of Archi- 
biades, VIII. 166 

Laconizers, II. 456, 458 

Lacratidas (1), public prosecutor of 
Pericles according to Heracleides 
Ponticus, III. 102 

Lacratidas (2) Spartan ephor, IV. 320 

Lacritus, rhetorician, teacher of 
Archias according to Hermippus, 
VII. 70 

" Lacus Ourtius," origin of the name, 
1. 144, XI. 266 

Ladder, so-called, road along coast of 
Pamphylia, VII. 272 

Laelius, reproached Cicero for not 
opposing Caesar, VII. 220 

Laelius, in army of Lepidus, ix. 176 

Laelius, C, friend of Scipio, attempted 
agrarian reform, x. 160; 250 

Laena, priestly mantle, derived from 
Greek " chlaina," I. 330 

Laertes, " to live life of," Vll. 184 

Laevlnus, consul, defeated by 
Pyrrhus at Heracleia, ix. 392 f ., 
398 ; not deposed by Romans after 
Heracleia, 400 

Lais, courtesan, sold when girl from 
Hyccara and brought to Pelopon- 
nesus, III. 262, IV. 114 

Laius, Theban king, v. 386 

Lamachus (1), IV. 2 ; good soldier but 
lacked authority and prestige 
because of poverty, 58; left by 
Pericles to help Sinopeans against 
Timesileos, III. 60; elected general 
with Nicias and Alcibiades for 
Sicilian expedition, 252, IV. 46, 52 ; 
urges battle close to Syracuse, III. 
258, 260 ; slaiu by Callicrates before 
Syracuse, 270 

Lamachus (2), Myrinaean, wrote 
encomium on Kings Philip and 
Alexander ; effectually answered 
by Demosthenes, VII. 20 

Lamia, in booty captured from 
Ptolemy by Demetrius at Salamis, 
IX. 36; 44; 54; 60; exacted money 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



from Athenians on her own account, 

62; anecdotes about her, 64 f., 

336 
Lamia, Antipater besieged there by 

Leosthene?, VII. 66, VUI. 86, IX. 346 
Lampido, wife of Archidamus, mother 

of Agis, V. 2 
Lampon, Athenian seer, ill. 14 
Lamponius, Lucanian, with Telesinus 

nearly overthrew Sulla at gates of 

Rome, IV. 418, 454 
Lamprias, Plutarch's grandfather, IX. 

198 
Lampsacus, II. 80, IV. 106 ; with help 

of Storax taken by Lysander, rv. 

254 
Lamptrae, Aeschines of, ll. 252; 

Philomelas of, Vlll. 220 
Lanassa (1), daughter of Cleodaeus, 

wife of Neoptolemus and mother of 

Pyrrhus, IX. 346 
Lanassa (2), daughter of Agathocles of 

Syracuse marries Pyrrhus with city 

of Corcyra as dowry, ix. 368 : leaves 

Pyrrhus and marries Demetrius, 

372 
Langobritae, attacked by Metellus, 

saved by Sertorius, vill. 34 
Langon, cleared of Achaean garrison 

and restored to Eleians, X. 80 
Language, Carian, II. 270 
Laodic6, mother of Munychxis by 

Demophoon, I. 78, II. 414 
Laomedon (1), king of Troy, wronged 

Heracles, m. 210, VIII. 2 
Laomedon (2), Orchomenian, how he 

became great long-distance runner, 

VII. 14 
laomedon (8), gave dinner to Cimon 

and others, II. 430 
Laphystius, popular leader at 

Syracuse, attacks Timoleon, VI. 

348 
Lapithae, aided by Theseus, fight 

Centaurs, I. 66, 70 
Larentalia, festival in honour of Acca 

Larentia, I. 100 
Larentia Q.), see " Acca Larentia." 
Larentia (2), why honoured, I. 100 
Largess of grain, given poor on 

suggestion of Cato, vill. 296 
Larissa (1), imprisons Agesilaiis' 2 

ambassadors, Xenocles and Scythes, 

v. 42 ; taken by Epaminondas, 404; 

306; VI. 136; IX. 90 



Larissa (2), given Monaeses by Antonv, 

IX. 220 
Larissus river, Achaeans fight 

Aetolians and Eleians there, X. 272 
Lars Porsena, of Clusium, attacks 

Eome, then withdraws, I. 542 f . : 

father of Anms, 550; bronze 

statue of, near senate-house, 554 
Lartius, helps Horatius defend the 

bridge, I. 544 
Lartius, T., left by the consul Comi- 

nius in charge of the siege of Corioli, 

IV. 132; 138 
Larymna, of Boeotia, destroyed by 

Sulla, IV. 408 
Lathyrus, surname of Ptolemy, IV. 

142 
Latin festival, added by vote of 

people, II. 204 
Latins, especially honour woodpecker, 

I. 98; made alliance with Romulus, 
164; with Sabines wage war on 
Rome, are defeated, 556 f . ; their 
country devastated by Coriolanus, 
Rome refusing help, iv. 186; with 
Volscians and Aequians invade 
Roman territory, ll. 176; defeated 
by Camillus, 180; invited to 
participate in Roman franchise by 
0. Gracchus, X. 214 

Latinus, son of Telemachus, father of 

Romulus by Roma according to one 

account, I. 92 
Latinus, T., story of his dream in 

which Jupiter appeared, I v. 176 
Lattamyaa, with his ThessaUans 

conquered by Boeotians at Ceressus, 

II. 138 

Laughter, statue of, erected by 

Lycurgus, I. 280; temple of, at 

Sparta, X. 66 
Laurentum, people of, slay Tatius, I. 

162 f.; plague at, 166 
Laureium, silver mines at, the revenue 

shared among Athenians, II. 10, III. 

218 
Lauron, in Spain, captured by 

Sertorius in spite of Pompey, V. 158, 

VIII. 48 
Laverna, IV. 340 
Lavicum, captured by Volscians under 

Coriolanus, IV. 186 
Lavinia, mother of Aemilia by 

Aeneas, I. 92 
Lavinium, 1. 162 ; founded by Aeneas 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



contained sacred symbols of Roman 

ancestral gods, besieged by Vol- 

scians, IV. 188 
Law of nations, violated by Roman 

ambassador, ll. 132 
Lebadeia, sacked by Lysander,iv. 310 ; 

sacked and despoiled of oracle by 

Mithridates, 376 
Lecanius, said to have slain Galba, XI. 

266 
Lechaeom, harbour at Corinth, seized 

by Aratus, n. 54; x. 92 
Lectuna, in Troad, ll. 480 
Leges, neighbours of Albani and 

Amazons, V. 208 
Legion, what it was; why so called, 

I. 122 ; enlarged, 150 f . 

" Legs," name of long walls of Athens, 

II. 446 

Leibethra, image of Orpheus there, 

VII. 260 
" Leiton," means public hall, 1. 172 
Lemnos, II. 298, III. 72, 74; naval 

battle near it between LucuUus and 

Mithridates, II. 506 
Lentuli, the two, taken on board ship 

with Pompey in his flight after 

Pharsalus, V. 306 
Lentulus, sent to Asia by Flamininus 

to free Bargylia, x. 354 
Lentulus (Dolabella), 3rd husband of 

Cicero'sdaughter, VII.188. See also 

" Dolabella (2), P. Cornelius." 
Lentulus Batiatus, had school of 

gladiators at Capua, lll. 334 
Lentulus, Cornelius, offers consul 

Paulus his horse in rout at Cannae, 

III. 166 

Lentulus Clodianus, Qn. Cornelius, 
consul with Gellius, defeated by 
Spartacus, III. 340; censor with 
Gellius, V. 168 

Lentulus Crus, L. Cornelius, opposes 
Caesar bitterly, v. 272, VII. 512, 
518, 524; drives Antony from 
senate, ix. 150 ; lands in Egypt and 
is slain, v. 324 

Lentulus Spinther, L. Cornelius, con- 
sul, V. 244; with Pompey's army 
in Thessaly, V. 290, vii. 178, 544; 
falsely claimed share in murder of 
Caesar; executed by Antony and 
Octavius, 600 

Lentulus Sura, P. Cornelius, his 
character and career, leads Catiline's 

406 



followers left in Rome, Vll. 122, 
458, VIII. 286 ; convicted, gives up 
office of praetor and is arrested, 
VII. 128; executed, 134, 136, 140, 
158, VIIl. 296, IX. 138 

Leo, Valerius, entertains Caesar, vri. 
484 

Leobates, Alcmeon's son, of deme 
AgrauK', accused Themistocles of 
treason, ll. 62 

Leochares, moulded some of figures 
in hunting scene dedicated by 
Craterus, VII. 344 

Leocrates, Athenian general, re- 
strained by AristiJes, II. 274; ill. 
52; 198 

Leon (1), Spartan, father of Axital- 
cidas, XI. 176 

Leon (2), of Byzantium, companion of 
Phocion in the Academy, VIII . 176 ; 
quoted. III. 288 

Leonidas (1), brother of Polydectes' 
widow, attacks Lycurgus, I. 212 

Leonidas (2), slain at Artemisium by 
Xerxes' army, II. 24, v. 392, XI. 
178; quoted, X. 52 

Leonidas (3), son of Cleonymus, an 
Agiad, 8th in descent from the 
Pausanias who defeated Mardonius 
at Plataea, x. 8; becomes king, is 
unacceptable to people, 10; 
opposes Agis, 18, 22; indicted by 
Lysander and deposed, 24, 28; 
brought back from Tegea, pardons 
Cleombrotus, 36; expels ephors, 
plots against life of Agis, 40 ; slays 
Leonidas for attempting to restore 
ancient constitution, 42, V. 112: 
X. 48 

Leonidas (4), kinsman of Olympian, 
tutor of Alexander, VII. 236, 286, 
298 

Leonidas, Qorgo's husband, quoted, 
266 

Leonnatus (1), sent by Alexander to 
reassure female relatives of Alex- 
ander, VII. 282; 342; to help 
Eumenes, joined by Hecataeus, 
plots against Perdiccas, VIII. 84; 
defeated and slain by Greeks, 2U0 

Leonnatus (2), Macedonian, saves life 
of Pyrrhus, IX. 396 f . 

Leontidas, with Archias and Philip 
persuades Phoebidas to seize 
Cadraeia, V. 360; with Archias 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



made ruler of Thebes by Spartans, 

66, 352 ; how slain, 368 
Leontini, with Egesta sends embassy 

to Athens to urge Sicilian expedition 

UI. 250; 260; VI. 58; receives Dion 

kindly, 84; 264; its territory 

invaded by Timoleon, 338 ; ix. 416 ; 

taken by Marcellus, v. 468 
Leontis, Athenian tribe, 11. 2 ; opposed 

to Persian centre at Marathon, 

224 
Leontocephalum, village in Asia, il. 

82 
Leos, of Agnus, betrayed Pallantidae 

to Theseus, I. 26 
Leosthenes, Athenian, general merely, 

VII. 214, VIII. 160; besieged 
Antipater in Lamia, vi. 274, vn. 
66, VIII. 196 f., 220, IX. 346 

Leotychides (1), the Elder, his question 
about square trees, I. 242 ; ll. 58 

Leotychides (2), son of Timaea and 
Alcibiades, refused royal succession, 
IV. 64, 292, V. 6, 8, 326 ; father of 
Ohilonis, IX. 434 

Lepida, married Metellus Scipio, 

VIII. 250 

Lepidus, M. Aemilius (1), see 
" Aemilius Lepidus, M." 

Lepidus, M. Aemilius (2), chosen consul 
with support of Pompey, tried to 
deprive Sulla's body of usual 
burial honours, driven by Pompey 
from Italy to Sardinia where he 
died, IV. 434 f., 442, V. 150 f., 154, 
196, 326 

Lepidus, M. Aemilius (3), when 
praetor, entrusted with Rome by 
Caesar, IX. 152; consul with 
Caesar in latter's 3rd consulship, 
160, VII. 590, 600, VI. 168, IX. 168, 
174; forms triumvirate with 
Octavius and Antony, VI. 186, Vll. 
200, IX. 178; in command of Home 
when Octavius and Antony went to 
fight Brutus and Cassius, 182; 
permitted to have Africa, 204 

(Lepidus?) Paulus, Aemihus, pro- 
scribed by his brother the triumvir, 

IX. 178 

Leptines (1), brother of Dionysius the 
Elder, VI. 18; gave one of his 2 
daughters to Philistas, 24 ; 298 

Leptines (2), with Polysperchon puts 
Callippus to death, Vl. 122 ; tyrant 



of Apollonia, surrenders and is sent 

to Corinth by Timoleon, 318 
Lerna, X. 8U, XI. 90 
Lernaean hydra, IX. 406 
Lesbians, offer leadership to Aristides, 

U. 284; IV. 26; 66 
Lesbos, III. 56; captured by Paches, 

220; V. 286 
Leschai, I. 280 

Lesche, place at Sparta, I. 254 
Leto, II. 58; delivered of Apollo, v. 

378 
Leucadia, colonized by Corinth, vi. 

294; VI. 278; in league against 

Philip, VII. 40 
Leucaria, mother of Eoma by Italus, 

I. 92 
Leucas, to be colony of Corinth and 

Corcyra in common, ll. 64; V. 174 
Leucaspides, class of troops serving 

Antigonus, X. 100 
Leucon, Plataean hero, II. 246 
Leucothea, almost identical with 

Mater Matuta, II. 104 
Leuctra (1), battle at, Thebans defeat 

Spartans, Cleombrotus killed, i. 

300, II. 138, IV. 126, 280, 452, V. 

40, 78, 376, 394, 400, 414, X. 48, XI. 

178; plan of, has tombs of 

daughters of Scedasus; 2 other 

Leuctras, v. 390 
Leuctra (2), stronghold of Megalo- 
polis, occupied by Cleomenes, x. 60 
" Leuctridae," name given daughters 

of Scedasus, V. 390 
Leucus river, ran through plain at 

Pydna, VI. 396 ; 410 
Libitina (or Proserpina, or Venus) 

presides over services for dead, i, 

346 
Libo, L. Scribonius, blockading 

harbour of Brundisium, beaten oS 

by Antony, IX. 154 
Library, of Lucullus, II. 604 
Libya, I. 216, II. 474, III. 144, 190, 

250, IV. 44, 324, 328, VI. 310, VIII. 

372, Bocchus, king of, IX. 27G; 

separated from Asia by i^t^mlu^^ 

300 furlongs long, 296 ; 306 ; X. 122 
Libyans, used by Carthaginians iu 

their battles, VI. 330 
Libyan sea, proposed by Pyrrhus as 

boundary between Carthaginians 

and Grcek'5, IX. 420; cleared of 

pirates by Pompey, V. 182 

407 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Libya, Lysander's father, x, 14 
Libyssa, village, in Bithynia, x. 380 
Lichas, Spartan, famous for hosni- 

tality, II. 434 
Licinia (1), daughter of P. Crassus, 

wife of 0. Gracchus, x. 194; 

deprived of her marriage portion, 

236 ; quoted, 230 
Licinia (2), vestal, her name con- 
nected with that of Crassus, ill. 

314 
Licinius, trusty servant of C. Gracchus, 

X. 148, 234 
Licinius, P., first to invade Macedonia, 

defeated by Perseus, Vl. 376 
Licinius Macer, see " Macer, Licinius." 
Licinius Philonicus, Eoman of humble 

birth, VI. 454 
Licinius Stolo, see " Stolo, Licinius." 
Lictores, attended Romulus, their 

duties, derivation of word, I. 172; 

number of, VI. 362. See also 

" fasces." 
Licymnius, his tomb in Argos, ix, 458 
" Life of Oaecilius Metellus," cited, 

IX. 546 
Ligarius (0. or Q. ?) pardoned by 

Caesar, vil. 182; friend of Brutus, 

joins conspiracy to murder Caesar, 

VI. 148 
liguria, traversed by Cimbri and 

Teutones, K. 302 
Ligurians, defeated by Fabius 

Maximus, III. 120; also called 

Ligustines, brief account of them, 

subdued by Aemilius Paulus, VT. 

366 f.; 402; 458; call themselves 

Ambrones by descent, defeat 

Ambrones at Aquae Sextiae, IX, 

514 
Lilybaeum, Carthaginians land there, 

VI. 320 

TJmnaeus, slain defending Alexander, 

VII. 404 

IJmnus, Macedonian from Chalaestra, 

conspires against Alexander and is 

killed, VII. 364 
Lindus, Marcellus dedicated treasures 

from Syracuse there, v. 520 
Lingones, their territory crossed by 

Caesar, VII. 506 
Lion's Head, village where Themis- 

tocles was to be murdered, ll. 82 
Liparian galleys, capture Roman 

envoys on way to Delphi, ll. 114 

408 



Liris, river, ix. 566 

Lissus, Pompeian, captured by 

Antony, ix. 154 
Lists of citizens, arranged by censors, 

II. 346 

Literature, loved by Lucullus, II. 472 
" Litores," original form of " lictores," 

I. 172 

Lituus, crooked staff used in augury, 
carried by Romulus ; preserved on 
Palatine, lost at time of Gallic 
invasion, found afterwards, I. 160; 
its use, II. 174 

Livia, wife of Augustus Caesar; 
related to Sulpicius Galba, XI. 210; 
IX. 322; 330 

Livius, M., lost Tarentum to Hannibal, 

III. 186 

Livius Drusus, see " Drusus, Livius." 
Livius Postumius, led Latins against 

Rome after Gauls left, I. 184 

Livy, of Patavium, historian, vil. 554 

ated : (V. 22) II, 108, (xxiii. 16. 

15) V. 462, (XXVII. 2) V. 502, (27) 

620, (XXXIX. 5) X. 378, 380, (42) 

II. 352 ; 564 ; 576 ; IV. 342 ; VII 554 ; 
690 

Locri Epizephyrii, favoured Hannibal, 

V. 514 
Locrians, give divine honours to 

Eucleia, li. 278 ; proclaimed free at 

Isthmian games by Flamininus, X. 

350 
Locrians, Ozolian, iii. 56 
Locris, invaded by Orchomenians, V. 

376 ; ravaged by Aratus, XI. 34 
Lollius, M., colleague of Cato as 

quaestor, VIII. 272 
" Longimanus," surname of Arta- 

xerxes I., XI. 128 
" Long Walls," of Athens, called 

*' legs," begun by Cimon at liis own 

expense, 11. 446 
LoUs, Macedonian for month Hecatom- 

baeon, VII. 228 
Love, signs of, IX. 92; statue of, in 

Academy, dedicated by PeLsi- 

stratus, I. 406 
Luca, where Caesar, Pompey, and 

Crassus met. III. 356, V. 248, VII. 

494 
Lucauia, VI. 176, VII. 162, IX. 384, 394 
Lucanians, Mamercus planned to 

bring them against Timoleon, VI. 

S42; those joining Pyrrhus after 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE aJVES ' 



Heracleia are censured, IX. 400; 

inveterate foes of Rome, iv. 420 
Lucerenses, one of the 3 divisions of 

Roman people in time of Romulus ; 

derived from " lucus," 1. 152 
Lucilius, tribune, advises Pompey be 

made tribune and Ls attacked by 

Cato, V. 256 
Lucilius, comrade of Brutus, saves 

him from capture at Philippi, vi. 

238; becomes a friend of Antonv, 

IX. 294 
Lucinus, Sextus, thrown down 

Tarpeian rock by orders of Marius, 

IX. 590 
Lucius (1), see " Furius, L." 
Lucius (2), brother of Scipio Africanus 

Maior, expelled from equestrian 

order by Cato the Elder, il. 354 
Lucius (3), brother of Valens, sent 

away by Otho with Dolabella, xi. 

286 
" Lucius," name called out on way to 

sacrifice to Romulus, I. 184 
Lucretia (1), wife of Numa, mother of 

Pompilia, I. 376 
Lucretia (2), suffered violence, com- 
mitted suicide, I. 502, 534 
Lucretius (1), father of Lucretia, 

elected consul with Publicola, died 

soon after, I. 534 
Lucretius (2) T., chosen consul as 

colleague to Publicola, I. 542 ; 

attacks and routs Sabine cavalrv, 

560 
Lucretius (3), invited first to express 

opinion re moving to Veil, II. 170 
Lucretius Of el la, urged to raise siege 

of the younger Marius at Praeneste, 

IV. 422 ; candidate for consulship 

against Sulla's wishes, murdered by 

his orders, 432 ; 448 
Lucullea, festivals in honour of 

Lucullus in Asia, II. 542 
Lucullean money, used widely and 

for long time, II. 474 
Luculli, the two, absent in Servile 

war, in. 432; VII. 478 
Lucullus, L. Lictnius, his family and 

accomplishments, Sulla's memoirs 

dedicated to him, it. 470 f., 484; 

wrote Greek history of Marsic war, 

472; favoured and employed by 

Sulla, 474 f . ; commissioned by 

Bulla to collect the 20,000 talents 

VOL. XI. 



exacted from Asia and re-coin it, 
482 ; appointed guardian of Sulla's 
son; consul with M. Cotta, gets 
province of Cisalpine Gaul, 484; 
has money sent to Pompey in Spain, 
486, V. 162 ; with help of Praecia 
and Cethegus gets province of 
Cilicia and Mithridatic war, ii. 488 ; 
advances against Mithridatcs, 494; 
comes to relief of Cyzicus, 498 ; cuts 
to pieces part of ilithridates' forces 
at river Rhyndacus, another part 
at river Granicus, relieves Cyzicus, 
504; refuses senate's vote of 3000 
talents for ships, 508; invades 
Mithridates' country by way of 
Bith3-nia and Galatia, 510; leaves 
Murena in charge of siege of Amisus, 
514; inflicts severe losses upon 
Mithridates, who flees, 520 ; found 
great treasure in Cabira and other 
places captured, 524; subdued 
Chaldaeans and Tibareni, occupied 
Lesser Armenia, 526 : takes AmLsus, 
which is sacked and burned by the 
soldiers, 528; frees cities of Asia of 
their financial oppression, 532 ; 
gives processions, festivals, etc. 
in cities of Asia, 542 ; leaving 
Somatius as guardian of Pontus, 
sets out for 2nd war, crosses 
Euphrates, 546 : crosses Tigris and 
enters Armenia, 548; defeats 
Tigranes and invests Tigranocerta, 
.")52 ; utterly defeats Tigranes' 
great army near Tigranocerta, 
liii, 556 f."; takes Tigranocerta, 
566 ; honours memory of Zarbicnus, 
king of the Gordyeni, 568; decides 
to attack Parthia, but his soldiers 
refuse, 570 ; plundered Armenia and 
nii:rched against Artaxata, royal 
residence of Tigranes, 572 ; defeats 
Tigranes at the river Arsania, 574; 
purposes to advance farther but 
the troops object, 578 

Begins to fail because of mutinous 
army, 578 f.; is also secretly under- 
mined by P. Clodius, 582 ; cannot 
^et army to march against Tigranes 
or against Mithridates, who had 
come back into Pontus from 
Armenia, 584 ; is superseded by 
Pompey, meets him in Galatia, but 
comes to no agreement with him, 

o 409 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



588 f., V. 190 f.; failed because he 
could not win the affection of his 
soldiers, II. 590; on return to 
Rome is attached by Memmius and 
has difficulty in getting a triumph, 
692, VIII. 304; divorces Clodia, 
marries Servilia, sister of Cato, 
divorces her, ll. 594; retires from 
public life, 596; his extravagance 
and luxury, 598 f ., IX. 556 ; threw 
his libraries open to all ; fond of all 
philosophy, but favoured the Old 
Academy, II, 604 f.; still supports 
his political friends at times and 
opposes Pompey, 606, VIII. 308; 
opposes measures of Caesar the 
consul, 310, II. 608; retires even 
more from public life, loses his mind 
in old age, 376, 608; buried on his 
estate at Tusculum, 610 

See also ll. 406, 408, 410, III. 370, 
398, IV. 412, V. 192, 202, 216, 234, 
238, 240, VII. 151, 162, X. 384 

Quoted : II. 512, 548, 562, 598, 
602 

LucuUus, M. Licinius, loved by his 
brother Lucius, elected aedile with 
him, II. 472 f . ; as Sulla's legate 
defeats 50 cohorts of enemy at 
Fidentia, iv. 412 ; when praetor of 
Macedonia tries P. Antonius for 
corruption, vii. 448; absent from 
Servile war, ill. 4H2 ; prosecuted 
for his act? as quaestor under Sulla, 
but acquitted, II. 592 ; died soon 
after his brother, 610 

Lucumo, wealthy Tuscan who 
wronged his guardian Arron, ll. 
126 

" Lupa," means both she-wolf and 
courtezan, and may mean latter in 
reference to Eomulus' nurse, I. 100 

Lupercalia, derivation of word; 
origin and nature of festival held in 
February, I. 156 f ., 370, VII, 584 ; 
called Lycaea in Greek, ix. 164 

Luperci, what they do at the Luper- 
calia, I. 156, IX."l<i4 

Lusitanians, triumphed over by 
Brutus, X. 194; organized by 
Scrtorius, viii, 24 f. ; conquered by 
Caesar, VII. 470 

L-usius, C., serves under his uncle 
ilarius; slain by Trebonlus, IX. 
498 



" Lycaea," related in meaning to 
Lupercalia, I. 156, VII. 584, IX. 164 

Lycaeura, Mt., where Cleomenes 
defeated Aratus, X. 58, XI. 82 

Lycaonia, II. 544 ; added to Pompey's 
sway by the Maailian law, V. 190; 
Amyntas king of, IX. 276 

Lyceum, at Athens, I. 62; ravaged 
"by Sulla, IV. 362 

Lycians, refuse Brutus' demand for 
money, Vl. 192 ; forced to give 160 
talents, 198 

Lycomedes (1), king of Scyros, asked 
to restore lands to Theseus, mur- 
dered him, I. 82, II. 428 

Lycomedes (2), Athenian captain, 
first to capture Persian ship at 
Salamis, n. 44 

Lycomidae, Themistocles connected 
with family of, II. 4 

Lycon (1), Syracusan, supplies sword 
for murdering Dion, VI. 120 

Lycon (2), of Scarpheia, actor, brgs 
10 talents of Alexander, VII. 310 

" Lycophon," used in pallet-beds of 
Spartan boys in winter for warmth, 
I. 258 

Lycophron (1), Athenian general, slain 
in battle with Nicias, HI. 228 

Lycophron (2), brother of Heb6, helps 
slay Alexander of Pherae, V. 430 f . 

Lycortas,chosen general by Messenians 
"to avenge death of Philopoemen, x. 
314 

Lycurgidae, anniversaries of death of 
Lycurgus, I. 302 

Lycurgus (1), when he lived, I. 204 ; 
his lineage, 206; after death of 
Polydectes became king of Sparta 
for short time, 208; resigning 
kingship makes himself guardian 
of his brother's son, the new kinp-, 
210 ; accused of desiring the king s 
death, goes abroad and studies 
various forms of government, 212 ; 
on returning to Sparta undertakes 
to change the existing order of 
things eutii-ely, 216; his most 
important innovation was the 
institution of a senate or Council of 
Elders, 218 ; gets oracle from Delphi 
to lend sanction to his work, 220 ; 
Tephors introduced later to curb the 
oligarchical element), 224; as 2nd 
measure redistributes the land, 226 ; 



410 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



next divides up the movable 
property, withdraws all gold and 
silver money and introduces iron 
currency, 228, IV. 276; banishes 
unnecessary arts, I. 230; intro- 
duces common messes, 232 

Attacked by wealthy citizens and 
blinded in one eye by Alcander, 
23-1; boys came to the public 
messes, 238; put none of his laws 
into writing, 240 ; forbade extra- 
vagance and making frequent 
expeditions against the same 
enemy, 242 ; carefully regulated 
marriages and birth=, 244; put 
public stigma upon confirmed 
bachelors, 248; his system of 
training for boys and youth=, 
256 f. ; examples of Spartan wit 
and brevity of speech, 266 f.; 
Spartan training in music and 
poetry, 270; their life in time of 
war, 274 f.; Lycurgus said to have 
been an experienced warrior, 276; 
training of Spartans lasted until 
full maturity, 278; Lycurgus 
trained citizens to have neither wish 
nor ability to live for themselves; 
how senators were elected, 282 ; 
regulations as to burial, 286 ; 
travel and presence of foreigners 
forbidden; what the " krupteia " 
was; treatment of Helots, 283 f.; 
bound citizens by oath to observe 
his laws until he retiurned, then 
consulted the oracle at Delphi and 
starved himself to death, 292 f. ; in 
reign of Agis gold and silver crept 
into Sparta, 296; Lycurgus' de>ign 
for a civil polity adopted by Plato, 
Diogenes, and Zeno, 300; the place 
of his death, 302 

See also I. 320, 446, II. 214, 390, 
IV. 234, V. 72, X. 12, 68, 244, 250 
Sayings: I. 210, 266 

Lvcurgus (2), led Plain-men at Athens, 
"l. 486 

Lyctu-gus (3) of Byzantium, with 
AnaxilaUs and others, agreed to 
surrender the city to Alcibiades if 
it were not plundered, IV. 90 

Lycurgus (4), Athenian orator, VIII. 
160; his surrender demanded by 
Alexander, 182, vii. 56; viii. 166; 
X. 356; quoted, III. 4J4 



Lvcus, place to north of Greece, x. 
330 

Lvcus river (1), in Asia Minor, II. 514, 
IX. 118 

Lycus river (2), in Sicily, VI. 340 

Lydia, obtained peace and seciurity 
through Heracles, I. 14; II. 432; 
invaded by AgesUaiis, V. 24 

Lydiades, tyrant of Megalopolis, 
resigns, makes city a member of 
Achaean league, tries to rival 
Aratus, XI. 69, 80; attacks 
Cleomenes at Megalopolis and is 
slain, 84, X. 62 

" Lydians, procession of," a rite at 
Sparta, II. 266 

Lygdamis, said by some to have led 
Cimmerians into Asia, IX. 490 

Lynceus (1), with Idas said to have 
carried oS Helen, i. 70 

Lynceus (2), Samian, cited, ix. 62 f. 

Lysander (1), father of Archipp^, 
adopted Diodes, ll. 86 

Lysander (2), statue of him at Delphi, 
his appearance, lineage, training and 
character, IV. 234 f.; put in com- 
mand of fleet after Athenian 
disaster in Sicily, 238 ; visits Cyrus 
at Sardis to accuse Tissaphemes of 
slackness, and gets 10,000 darics to 
increase pav of his sailors 1 obol a 
day, 102, 240; defeats Antochius, 
Alcibiades' pilot, off Samo?, 104. 242 ; 
organizes oligarchic political clubs 
in cities of Asia, is succeeded by 
Callicratidas, 244 ; returns as vice- 
admiral under Axactis, 248; un- 
scrupulous and subtle, deceives 
democracy of Miletus, 250 ; 
promised every assistance by 
Cyrus, 252 ; storms Lampsacus, 254 ; 
defeats Athenians at Aegospotami, 
258 f . ; slew 3000 prisoners includ- 
ing the admirals, 108, 260 f.; 
establLshes oligarchies in the cities, 
266 f . ; takes Athens, imposes harsh 
terms, 270 f.; establishes 30 rulers 
in Athens and 10 in the Piraeus, 
garrisons the acropolis, 110, 274 

Annoys leading men by his 
ambition, 282 ; recalled by ephors, 
284; released by ephors, sete sail 
to meet strong opposition, 290; 
persuades Agesilalis to claim 
throne, 292, V. 4 f. ; gels Agesilaiis 

4" 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE M.IVES ' 



appointed general for war against 
barbarians, and goes along as one 
of 30 counsellors, 12 f., iv. 296; 
thrust aside by Agesilaiis, 298, V. 
18; sent as ambassador to Helles- 
pont, induces Spithridates to revolt 
from Phamabazus, returns to 
Sparta without honour, plans 
revolution, 20, 52, IV. 300 f.; 
memorizes speech written by Cleon 
the Halicarnassian to persuade 
citizens, 302 ; his plot spoiled by 
cowardice of one of his co-workers, 
30C ; plunged Hellas into the 
Boeotian war, 308; took Orcho- 
menus, 310; defeated and slain by 
Thebans near Haliartus, 312 ; his 
speech on the constitution dis- 
covered by Agesilaiis but not 
published, 318, v. 54; honoured 
highly after death, IV. 320 

See also I. 298, III. 306, IV. 
112 

Quoted : IV. 250, 252, 292, 300 

Lysander (3), son of I-ibys, supports 
Agis in his attempted reforms, x. 14 ; 
elected by help of Agis, introduces 
bill to relieve debtors and divide 
laud, but the bill is defeated, 18; 
indicts Leonidas and has him de- 
posed from kingship, 20 f. ; indicted 
for violating law, 28, 30 

" Lysandreia," name given their 
festival of Hera by Samians in 
honour of Lysander, IV. 280 

Lysaudridas, of Megalopolis, captured 
by Cleomenes, driven out of Messene 
by Pbilopocmen, x. 104 

Lysanoridas, harmost in Thebes; 
being heavily fined, left Pelopon- 
nesus, V. 370 

Lysias, orator, Cato the Elder's model, 
say some, II. 320 

Lysicles, sheep-dealer, lived with 
Aspasia after death of Pericles, ill. 
70 

Lysidic6, daughter of Pelops and H'p- 
podameia, sister of Pittheus, mother 
of Alcmene, 1. 16 

Lysimachus (1), father of Aristides the 
Just, of tribe Antiochin, of deme 
Alopec6, II. 8, 210, 290, 418 

Lysimachus (2), son of Aristides, had 
daughter Polycrit^; given pension, 
II. 296 



Lysimachus (3), grandson of Aristides 
very poor, II. 296 

Lysimachus (4), Acarnanian, tutor of 
Alexander, VII. 236; saved from 
death by him, 294 

Lysimachus (5), king after Alexander, 
VII. 366; 382; IX. 30; begins to wear 
diadem, 40; 48; 60; 64; his territory 
ravaged by Demetrius, 74; father 
of Agathocles, marries one daughter 
of Ptolemy and takes another for 
his son, 76 ; deprived Demetrius of 
his cities in Asia, 86; 360; taken 
prisoner by Dromichaetes, then 
liberated, 98 ; leagued with Seleucus 
and Ptolemy against Demetrius, 
invades Macedonia from Thrace, 
108, 374; divides Macedonia with 
Pyrrhus, 112, 378 f.; attacks Pyr- 
rlius at Edessa and gains Macedonia, 
380; 116; offers Seleucus large sum 
to put Demetrius to death, 130; 338 

Lysimachus (6), companion of Pyr- 
'rhus, IX. 442 

Lysippus (1), his statues well repre- 
sent Alexander, vii. 230; 268; 314 

Lysippus (2), general of Achaeans, X. 
286 



Macaria, daughter of Hercules, sacri- 
ficed, V. 390 

Macedonia, II. 448; entered by Pelo- 
pidas, scene of war between Ptolemy 
and Alexander, king of Macedonia, 
V. 404; IX. 106; invaded by Lysi- 
machus and Pyrrhus, 108, 370; 
divided between Pyrrhus and Lysi- 
machus, 112, 378; deserts Pyrrhus 
for l-ysimachus, 380; invaded by 
Pyrrhus, 430; ravaged by bar- 
barians, who are utterly defeated by 
Antigonus, X. 118; invaded by 
Sulpicius and Villius late in season, 
X. 326; Greeks freed from it, VI. 
370; returned to Philip, x. 346; 
invaded by P. Licinius, vr. 376 ; in 
reign of Perseus subdued by 
Ilomans, 414 f.,IX. 134; being over- 
run by Ariarathes, IV. 358; pro- 
vince of, voted to Antonius, vil. 110 ; 
voted to Piso, 156; delivered up to 
P-rutus by Hortonsius, VI. 180 

Macedonian garri on, attacked by 
Thebans, VII. 54 



412 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Macedonian king, lets Agesilaiis pass 
through territory as friend, v. 42 

Macedonian?, I. 12; Greeks aroused 
against them by Demosthenes, vil. 
40 f.; 398; after Cassander's death 
ruled by his son Philip, IX. 86 ; pro- 
claim Demetrius king, 90 ; 36G ; 
proclaim Pyrrhus king, 376 ; driven 
from Peloponnesus by Aratus, X. 
82; expelled from Athens, xi. 78; 
harried by Ill3fTians, call Antigonus 
home, X. 112; call in Antigonus, 
cousin of Demetrius and make him 
first regent and then king, vi. 372 ; 
Greeks freed from by Romans, II. 
^34 ; submit to Aemilius Paulus and 
are to pay 100 talents tribute, VI. 
418,428; 458 

" Macedonicus," surname of Metellos, 
IX. 464 

Macer, Clodius, see " Clodius Macer." 

Macer, Licinius, convicted of fraud and 
died, vil. 102 

" Machaeriones," name given des- 
cendants of Anticrat€s who slew 
Epaminondas, V. 98 

Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta, de- 
feated and slain by Achaeans under 
Philopoemen, x. 280; succeeded by 
Nabis as tyrant of Sparta, 286 

Machares, son of Mithridates, held 
P)Osporus, asks to be Piome's 
friend, II. 544 

Machatas, father of Charops who 
was leading man in Epirus and well- 
di=T)0sed to Romans, X. 330 

Machinery, stage, referred to, IV. 302 

Macrinu-s, cognomen or epithet, ix. 
464 

Maecenas, Memoirs of Caesar Augustus 
addressed to him and Agrippa, Til. 
214, IX. 214 

Maedi, subdued by Alexander, vil. 
244; their country ravaged bv 
Sulla, IV. 402 

Maedica, force of Bisternae encamp 
there, vi. 382 

Maelius, Spurius, slain bv Serviliii- 
Ahala, Tl. 126 

Maeotic Lake (Lake Maeotis) 11. 518, 
IV. 358, V. 206, IX. 488 

Msigaeus, brother of Pharnabazu?, 
ordered to kill Alcibiades, iv. 112 

Magas, brother of Ptolemy IV., X. 124 

Magi, H. 132, 138 



Magnesia, given Themistocles for 
bread, II. 80, 82, 84 ; Themistocles 
died there, 86, 88, 90 

Magnesia, Diony^ius of, Vil. 90 

Magnesia, visited by Titus, X. 354 

Magnesian lore, exposition of, heard by 
Themistocles, II. 80 

Magnesians, have garrisons put over 
them by Alexander of Pherae, v. 
418 ; freed by him under compulsion 
430; proclaimed free at Isthmian 
games by Flamininus, X. 350 ; 364 

Mago, Carthaginian, summoned for 
help by Hicetas, occupies Syracuse 
with fleet and army, vi. 302, 304; 
frii?htened, sails off to Libya, 310; 
commits suicide, 314 

Maia, mother of Mercury, l. 370 

Maimacterion, Athenian month, same 
as Boeotian Alalcomeniu<!, II. 27S 

Malaca, plundered by Crassus, ill. 326 

Malchus, sends army to Alexander 
from Arabia, ix. 276 

Malcitas, leader of Thebans against 
Alexander of Pherae after death of 
Pelopidas, v. 430 

Malea, cape, IV. 358, X. 20, XI. 26 

Maliac gulf. III. 56 

Malli, people of India, attacked by 
Alexander v.ho was severely 
wounded, VII. 402 f., 414 

ifamerrii, descended from Mamercus, 
I. 376 

Mamercus (1), son of Pythagoras, I. 
334; surnamed Aemilius, founded 
Aemilian family according to some, 
VI. 358 

Mamercus (2), one of Numa's 4 sons, 
named after son of Pythagoras, 1. 
334, 37G 

Mamercus (3), tyrant of Catana, be- 
comes ally of Timoleon, VI. 290; 
forms alliance with Carthaginians, 
334 ; writer of poenvs and tragedies, 
336 ; defeated at river Abolus, 340; 
tried and condemned at Syracuse 
and crucified, 342, 350 

Mamertines, called in by some Sicilian 
cities owing to hatred of Pyrrhus, 
IX. 422, 424; barbarians about 
Messana, conquered by Pyrrhus, 
420 ; harshly treated by Pompey, v. 
136 

Mamurius, Veterius, copied accur- 
ately the sawred shield, I. 350; re- 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



warded by having his name men- 
tioned in a song of the Salii, 354 

Mancinus, C, Eoman consul, defeated 
several times in war against Nu- 
mantia and forced to make truce 
with enemy, x. 152 ; to be delivered 
up in bonds and unarmed to 
Numantines, 158 

Mandrocleidas (1), Spartan, sent as 
ambassador to Pyrrhus, IX. 436 

Mandrocleidas (2), son of Ecphanes, 
supports Agis in his attempted 
reforms, X. 14, 20; indicted for 
violating law by proposing abolition 
of debts and distribution of land, 
persuades 2 kings to act together 
and disregard ephors, 28 

Mandurium, in Italy, where Messa- 
pians slew Archidamus, X. 8 

" Mania," surname of Demo, IX. 64 

Manilius (1), expelled from senate by 
Cato the Elder for embracing his 
wife in the presence of his daughter, 
II. 352 

Manilius (2), tribune, proposes law 
giving Poinpey charge of war 
against Mithridates, V. 1 90 ; brought 
before Cicero a praetor on charge of 
fraudulent accounting ; defended by 
him, VII. 104 

" Manipularis," derived from Mani- 
pulup, 1. 110 

" Manipulus," origin of the word, I. 
110 

Manius Curius, see " Curins, M." 

Manius (1), consul, after defeating 
Antiochus, asked Achacans to per- 
mit exiles from Sparta to return 
home, X. 300 ; opposed consider- 
ably by Philopoemen, 316. Seealao 
" Acilius Glabrio, M." 

Manius (2), tribune, opposes T. Flami- 
ninus' candidacy for consulship, x. 
324 

" Manlius," name common to family, 
IX. 464 

Manlius (1), implores Ti. Gracchus to 
submit question of agrarian law to 
senate, X. 170 

Manlius (2), brought into plot against 
Sertorius, VIII. 08, 70, 74 

Manlius, 0., served with distinction 
under Sulla, led veterans in support 
of Catiline, VII. 114, 118, 120 

Manlius, L. (1), expert mountain- 



climber helps Cato the Elder at 
Thermopylae, II. 338 

Manlius, L. (2), came from Gallia 
Narbonensis to help Metellus, Vlll. 
32 

Manlius, T., in his consulship temple 
of Janus closed, I. 372 

Manlius Capitolinus, M., repulses 
attack of Gauls on the Capitol, II. 
160 f.; supports the poor, is con- 
demned and thrown from the 
Capitol, 188 

Manlius Maximus, Gn., defeated by the 
Ambroues, IX. 512 

Mantineia, not received into allegiance 
by Demetrius, IX. 58, XI. 58; ally 
of Cleomenes, captured by Aratus, 
joins Achaean league, 82, X. 60; 
freed of Achaean garrison and 
restored to its own laws and con- 
stitution by Cleomenes, 78, XI. 90 ; 
captured by Achaeans with aid of 
Antigonus and its inhabitants sold 
into slavery, founded anew and 
name changed to Antigoneia, 104 f ., 
X. 100, 250, 280 

Mantineia, battle of, Thebans defeat 
Spartans, but Epaminondas is 
slain, V. 92, 98, 348; 2nd battle of, 
Demetrius routs Archidamus, IX. 
84; 3rd battle of, Philopoemen 
defeats Machanidas, X. 282 

Mantineians, secede from Sparta and 
make alliance with Athens, III. 244, 
IV. 36 ; revolt from Thebes, helped 
by Spartans, V. 94 

Manumission among the Romans, X. 
302 

Marathon, I. 68 ; named from Mara- 
thus, 74 f. ; Aristonicus of, VII. 70 ; 
battle of, Greeks under Miltiades 
defeat Persians, I. 82, II. 10, 138, 
224, 226, 386, 396, 418, XI. 34 

Marathonian bull, sacrificed to Del- 
phiuian Apollo by Theseus, I. 26 

Marathus, Arcadian in army of Dios- 
curi, gave name Marathon to town- 
ship, I. 74 

Marcellinus, asks Pompey and Crassus 
if they intend to be candidates for 
consulship, III. 358, V. 248 

" Marcellus," means martial, V. 436 ; 
3rd Roman name, IX. 464 

Marcellus, quaestor with Cato the 
Younger, Vlll. 276 



414 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Marcellus, C. Clandlus (1), consul, 
votes Caesar be declared public 
enemy unless he lays down arms, v. 
268, VII. 512 f,; asks Pompey to 
prepare defence against Caesar, V. 
270, IX. 148; VII. 194; had 2 
daughters and 1 son by Octavia, 
sister of Augustus, V. 522, IX. 330 ; 
died, 206 ; quoted, v. 270 

Marcellus, C. Claudius (2), son of 
C. Marcellus and Octavia, sister of 
Augustus, married daughter of 
Augustus and died during aedile- 
ship, V. 522 ; made both son and 
son-in-law of Augustus, ix. 330 

MarceUns, M. Claudius (1), father of 
the following Marcellus, V. 436 

Marcellus, M. Claudius (2), 5 times 
consul, III. 174, V. 436, 522 ; mighty 
warrior, made curule aedile and 
augur, 438; appointed consul by 
the " interreges," appoints Gn. 
Cornelius his colleague ; wishes war 
with Gauls continued, 446 ; slays 
Britomartus, king of Gauls, winning 
"spolia opima," 450, I. 138; takes 
Mediolanum, grant" Gauls equitable 
peace, is given triumph, v. 454 ; 
after Cannae takes the lead in 
fighting Hannibal, 456 f.. III. 172 f.; 
surprises Hannibal at Nola, v. 462 ; 
made consul 2nd time, defeats 
Hannibal near Nola, 464; consul for 
3rd time, sailed to Sicily, 4C6; 
storms Leontinl, 468; captures 
Megara and Syracuse, 482 f.; re- 
grets death of Archimedes, 486 ; 
humane and just in treating 
Sicilians, 488, III. 184; brought 
back beautiful works of art, 184, 
V. 492. 

Consul 4th time, is accused by 
Syracusans of having treated their 
city with undue severity , is acquit t ed , 
496 f.; moves against Hannibal, 
600; fights several engagements 
with varying success, 502 f.; spends 
summer at Sinuessa recuperating bis 
soldiers, 510; consul 5th time, 
calms Etruria, 512 ; ambushed and 
slain with his colleague Crispinus 
by Hannibal, 516 f., X. 324; his 
memorials, 520 f.; compared with 
Pelopidas, 522 f . 
Quoted : v. 450, 478 



Marcellus, M. Claudius (3), son of 
preceding, v. 438; censor with T. 
Flamininus, expels 4 men from 
senate, X. 372 

Marcellus, M. Claudius (4),servestmder 
Marius against Teutones, IX. 518 

Marcellus, M. Claudius (5), with 2 
others comes to consul Cicero at 
midnight to warn of plot, vil. 116 

March, used to be first month; 
consecrate to Mars, i. 368; why 
moved by Numa, 370 

Marcia, daughter of Philippus, married 
to Cato, then to Hortensius, vili. 
292, 326 ; left widow by Hortensius, 
again married to Cato, 362 

Marcianus, see Icelus." 

Marcii, patrician house at Rome, had 
many distinguished sons, iv. 118 

Marcius (1), urged Numa to accept 
kingship of P^ome, I. 324; father of 
Marcius who married Pompilia, 
Numa's daughter ; rival of Hostilius 
for throne after Numa, defeated, 
starved himself to death, 378 

Marcius (2), son of preceding, hus- 
band of Pompilia and father of 
Ancus Martins, I. 378 

Marcius (3), with Cethegus ordered to 
kill acero, VII. 120 

Marcius (4), recently come from Rome 
to Pompey's camp, quoted, VII. ISO 

Marcius, mountain where Romans 
were besieged by Latins, ll. 176, 
180 

Marcius, Ancus, son of Marcius and 
Pompilia, Numa's daughter, 5 
years old when Numa died, suc- 
ceeded Tullus Hostilius to throne, 
I. 378, IV. 118; completed wooden 
bridge over Tiber, l. 338 

Marcius, C, consul with Scipio Nasica, 
not duly appointed and recalled, v. 
444 

Marcius, P., with Q. Marcius brought 
best and most abundant supply of 
water to Rome, I v. 118 

Marcius, Q., see preceding. 

Marcius Censorinus, see " Cen- 
sorinus." 

Marcius Rex, husband of Tertia, 
sister of Clodius, VII. 154 

Marcus, brother of Valerius, see 
" Valerius, M." 

" Marcus," name called out by people 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



as they went to sacrifice to Mars, I. 
184 
" Marcus," praenomen of Oamillos, II. 

148 

Mardian, a certain, acts as adviser and 
guide to Antony, IX. 230 

Mardian mounted archers in Tigranes' 
army, II. 574 

Mardion, eunuch of Cleopatra's, IX. 
274 

Mardonius, left behind by Xerxes to 
block pursuit, II. 12 f., 46 ; left 
behind with 300,000, tlireatens Hel- 
lenes and tempts Athenians, 240; 
invades Attica 2nd time, 242 ; 
repulsed with help of Athenians, 
252 ; decides to cross Asopus and 
attack Athenians unexpectedly, 
256, 260, 264 ; defeated and slaia at 
Plataea, 226, 270, X, 8; quoted, II. 
240 

Margianian steel, III. 386 

" Margites," epithet applied to Alex- 
ander by Demosthenes, VII. 54 

Marian canal, IX. 502 

" Marian mule," origin of the term, 
IX. 494 

Marica, grove near Mintumae, IX. 572 

" Maricas," play of Eupolis, III. 220 

Marius, father of the famous Marius, 
IX. 466 

Marius, C. (1), about his name, IX. 
464; appearance, early trainiag, 
family, 466 ; saw first service with 
Scipio Africanus in siege of Nu- 
mantia, 468; makes his mark as 
tribune of the people, 470 ; defeated 
for aedile, elected praetor, 472 ; re- 
ceives province of Farther Spain, 
marries Julia, aunt of J. Caesar, 474 ; 
serves with distinction in Africa 
under Caecilius Metellus against 
Jugurtha, 476; returns to Rome 
and is elected consul for war 
against Jugurtha, 480 f . ; succeeds 
Metellus in Africa, but Sulla, his 
quaestor, gets Jugurtha, 484, IV. 330 
Elected consul in his absence 
for war against Cimbri and 
Teutones, IX. 486, 492; celebrates 
triumph over Jugurtha, 492 f . ; 
drills hia army and wins their 
respect, 494 f . ; elected consul 3rd 
time, 498 ; elected 4th time with 
Lutatius Catulus, 500; confronted 

416 



by Teutones and Ambrones, 502 f . ; 
follows the barbarians to Aquae 
Sextiae, 510 ; cuts the Ambrones to 
pieces, 514; utterly defeats the 
Teutones, 518 f . ; receives news of 
being elected consul for 5th time, 
522; agrees with Boeorix, king of the 
Cimbri, to fight on plain of Vercellae 
Srd day following, 530 ; utterly de- 
feats the Cimbri, 536 

Elected consul 6th time through 
bribery, supports Saturninus in 
many of his misdeeds, 542 : when 
Metellus is recalled from exile sets 
sail for Cappadocia and Galatia 
hoping for war against Mithridates, 
548; on returning finds a rival in 
Sulla, 550; loses prestige in Social 
war, 552 ; by striving to get ap- 
pointed to war against Mithridates 
brings on civil strife, 536 f . ; gets 
appointed but Sulla refuses to hand 
over his troops and drives Marius 
from Rome, 560; is captured and 
taken to Mintumae, 568 ; frightens 
barbarian sent In to slay him, 572 ; 
is put aboard ship and sails to 
Africa, 574; is warned off by 
Sextilius the governor, rejoined by 
his son, 576; gathers a force and 
returns, 578 f . ; enters Rome with 
Cinna and puts many to death, 58 1 
f. ; kills Marcus Antonius the orator, 
586, IX. 138; elected consul 7th 
time, 590; dies of pleurisy, 592, 
596. 

See also II. 484, 596, III. 322, iv. 
328, 336, 344, 348, 360, 352, 354, 
454, V. 140, VI. 190, VII. 442, 460, 
478, VIII. 6, 10, 14, X. 384. 

Quoted : ill. 318, IX. 550, 554, 
672, 576 

Marius, 0. (2), son of Julia, vil. 442 ; 
escapes to Africa, IX. 560 ; goes to 
Hiempsal to ask help, 574; escape? 
from him and with his father crosses 
to island of Cercina, 676 ; assumes 
consulship and is very cruel to his 
opponents, 696, VIII. 14; defeated 
with Norbanus by Sulla near Capua, 
IV. 410 ; defeated at Signia, flees to 
Praeneste, 416; besieged at Prae- 
neste by Ofella, 418, 422, v. 146; 
slew himself, IV. 428, IX. 598 

Marius, M. (1), sent by Sertorius to 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Mithridates from Spain with an 
army, advances against Lucullus, 
II. 494, Yll. 66; captured and exe- 
cuted by Lucullus, II. 506 

Marius, M. (2), slain by Catiline, 17. 
430 

Marius Celsus, see " Celsus, Marios." 

Marphadates, royal host of Cato the 
Younger's son in Cappadocia, vill. 
408 

Marriage, among Athenians as regu- 
lated by Solon, i. 456 f . ; would-be 
brides and bridegrooms sacrifice 
to Eucleia, II. 278, 296; libations 
at wedding feast at Athens, III. 18 ; 
why Romans called " Talasius " or 
"Talasio" at weddings, I. 130 f., 
V. 124 f.; msurriages reviewed by 
censors, II. 346 ; laws concerning, 
introduced by Sulla, iv. 450; 
regulations of Numa and Lycurgus 
compared, 1. 390 ; marriage as regu- 
lated by Spartans, 248 ; penalty at 
Sparta for not marrying, marrying 
late, or marrying badly, IV. 320 ; 
marriage with one who had proved 
cowardlv in battle considered dis- 
grace at Sparta, V. 82, IX. 206 

Marrucinians, repulsed at Pvdna, VI. 
406 

Mars, father of Romulus by Aemilia 
according to some, I. 92 ; field of, 
dedicated, 520 ; shrine of, burned 
and demolished by barbarians, kept 
letters of Romulus uninjured, ll. 
174, IV. 390. See also" Enyalius." 

" Mars," name applied to spear con- 
secrated in the Regia, I. 182 

Marsi, persuaded by Sulla to become 
friends and allies of Rome, 17. 
330 

Marsic war, Greek history of, by 
Lucullus, II. 472, VII. 86, VIII. 8 

Marsvas (1), slain by Dionysius the 
Elder, VI. 20 

Marsyas (2), cited, VII. 42 

Martha, Syrian woman used as pro- 
phetess by Marius, IX. 506 

Martialis, military tribune, lets Otho's 
men into camp, XI. 262 

Martianus, gladiator, reputed father 
of Nymphidius Sabina«, XI. 224 

Marvel, raven stunned by shouting, v. 
180 

Marj llus, tribune removed from office 



for taking diadems off Caesar's 
statues, VII. 584 

Masabates, eunuch of Artaxerxes, had 
cut oH hands and head of Cyrus, 
tortured and executed, XI. 164 f. 

Masinissa, friend of Romans, at war 
with Carthage, II. 380 

Masistius, commander of Persian 
cavalry in Mardonius* army, slain 
by Athenians, II. 254 

Maso, of consular rank, father of 
Papiria who married Aemilius 
Paulus, \T. 364 

Massalia (Marseilles), founded by 
Protis, a merchant, 1. 408 ; people of, 
fence vineyards with bones of thoso 
slain at Aquae Sextiae, IX. 520 

Master of Horse, his powers, ix. 156 

Mater Matuta, Camillus vows a temple 
to her; her rites almost identical 
with Leucothea's, ll. 104 

Mathematicians, teaching as to 
course of sun, vrii. 148 

Matronalia, festival for women, why 
institut€d, 1. 154 

Mauricus, noble Roman of Galba's 
time, XI. 222 

Maurusians, in Africa, attack Ser- 
torius, \1U. 18 ; helped by Sertorius, 
22 ; slay some of his murderers, 74 

Maxims, those of Fabius Maximus re- 
sembled those of Thucydides, ill. 
120 

Maximus, consul in Caesar's time, vil. 
576 

" Maximus," bestowed as title upon 
Valerius and Fabius Rullus, V. 146 

May, named from Maia, mother of 
Mercury, to whom it is sacred, or 
from " maior," i. 370 

Mazaeus, Persian general in battle of 
Arbela, VII. 320; his son offered a 
second province by Alexander, 342 

Mechanical contrivances, ll. 500; 
siege works employed by Calli- 
machus, II. 528; engines of war, 
592 ; engine of artillery used by 
Marcelliis, V . 470 ; engines used by 
ArchimefieS; 474; engines used by 
Demetrius, IX. 48 f. 

Mochanics, brief history of, v. 470 

iledea, fled from Corinth ; living 
with;Aegeus, tried to poison Theseus, 
I. 22 f.; naphtha said to be the 
drug she used, VII. 33o 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Medes, attacked by Perseus, II. 410; 
invasion of, 416; flight of, from 
Hellas, 418; defeated at Mycale, 

VI. 420; II. 514; join Tigranes, 551, 
558 ; king of, sends ambassadors to 
Pompey, v. 208; king of, quarrels 
with Phraortes the Parthian, in- 
vites Anton V to come to his help, 
IX. 254; 276 

Media, si. 140; eastern boundary of 

Lucullus' conquests, ll. 618; 

triumphed over by Pompey, v. 230 
Mediolanum, captured by Marcellus, 

V. 452; VII. 484 
Mediterranean sea, divided by Pompey 

into 13 districts for war on pirates, 

V. 182 
Medius (1), in retinue of Alexander, 

VII. 432 

Medius (2), friend of Antigonus, IX. 

42 
Megabaccbus, serves with Orassus in 

Parthia, III. 390; commits suicide 

with P. Crassus, 396 
Megabates, son of Spithrldates, 

favourite of Agesilaiis, V. 28 
Megabyzus, gets letter from Alexander, 

VII. 348 
Megacles (1), persuaded Cylon and 

followers to stand trial and then 

murdered them, i. 430 
Megacles (2), son of Alcmaeon, led 

Shore-men, I. 486; with rest of 

Alcmaeonidae flees from Athens, 

492 
Megacles (3), father of Euryplolemus, 

who was father of Isodic^, wife of 

Cimon, II. 416, 452 
Megacles (4), father of Deinomach^ the 

mother of Alcibiades, IV. 2 
Megacles (5), Dion's brother, VI. 60 
Megacles (6), friend of Pyrrhus, slain 

by Dexolis, IX. 398 
Megaleas, courtier of Philip, son of 

Antigonus, XI. 110 
Megalophancs, of Megalopolis, made 

tutor of Philopoemen; his career, 

X. 256 

Megalopolis, In Arcadia, Leuctra near 
it, V. 390; Chaeron of, VII. 228; 
IX. 434 ; X. 8, 10, 74, 100, 256, 288 f., 

XI. 68 ; attacked by Spartans under 
Cleomenes, 82 f. 

Megara (1), annexed to Attica by 
Theseus, 1. 64; attacked by Corinth, 



II. 456; garrisoned by Cassander.l 
taken and freed by Demetrius, IX.' 
22 ; seceded from Antigonus and 
joined Achaean league, Xl. 54 ; 
besieged by Boeotians, X. 286; 
taken by Galenas, vi. 142, vil. 544. 

Megara (2), Macedonian town, ix. 348 

Megara (3), in Sicily, taken by Marcel- 
lus, V. 482 

Megarians, lost Eleusis to Theseus, I. 
20; 64; at war with Athens over 
Salamis, 420, 572; how outwitted 
by Solon, 422 f . ; during quarrel 
between Megacles and Cylon fac- 
tions recover Nisaea and Salamis, 
432; bury dead facing east, 428; 
hard pressed by Persian cavalry, 
succoured by Athenians, II. 252 ; 
revolt to Spartans, ill. 64; com- 
plain to Sparta that Athenians keep 
them from market-places and har- 
bours over which they have con- 
trol, 84 ; decree of Athens against, 
cause of Peloponnesian war, 84 f . ; 
88 ; shut up in their city and island 
of Minoa seized by Nicias, 228; iv. 
90; in league against Philip, vil. 
40 ; helped by Athens, vill. 176 

Megarid, Pegae in it, III. 60 ; razed by 
Pericles, 98 

Megellus, with Pheristus repeoples 
Agrigentum, VI. 344 

MegistonoUs, husband of Cratesicleia, 
convinced by Cleomenes that ephors 
must be removed and property 
divided to give Sparta supremacy 
in Greece, X. 62; stepfather of 
Cleomenes, places his property in 
the common stock, 72 ; 90 ; 94 ; de- 
feated by Aratus at Orchomenus, 
XI. 86; 96 

Meidias (1), Demosthenes spoke 
against him, IV. 24, VII. 28 

Meidias (2), exile, begs Sulla to spare 
Athens, IV. 370 

Melanippus, son of Theseus and Peri- 
guD6, father of loxus, I. 18 

Melanopus, unlike Demosthenes in 
character, quoted, VII. 30 f . 

Melanthius (1), poems of, II. 412; 
cited (Nauck 473). 414 

Melanthius (2), cnoregus, quoted, 
VIII. 188 

Mclanthns, flourished In time of 
Philip of Macedon, his painting of 



418 



GENEKAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



tyrant Aristratus saved at inter- 
cession of Nealces, XI. 28 

Melas, river, in plain about Orcho- 
menus, IV. 392 ; spreads out into 
marshes and lakes, V. 378 

Meleager, helped by Theseus in slaying 
Calydonian boar, I. 66 

Meleb'ias, father of Thucydides, III, 
22, 212 

Melesippidas, father of Eupolia, v. 2 

Melians, attacked by Nicias, III. 430; 
chief blame for execution of grown 
men of Melos rests upon Alcibiades, 
IV. 42 ; restored to their homes by 
Lysandcr, 270 

Meliboea, how treated by Alexander 
of Pherae, v. 412 

MeUcertes, games at Isthmus in honour 
of, at night, I. 56 

MelLssup, son of Tthagenes, physicist, 
defeated Pericles at siege of Samos 
and was defeated by him, ii. 6, 
III. 74 f. 

Melit^, in Attica, residence of son of 
Ajai, 1.428; Themistocles had house 
there, II. 60; Phocion had house 
there, nil. 186 

Meliteia, city of, IV. 390 

Mellaria, in Spain, VIII. 30 

'* Melleirens," name given oldest of 
boys at Sparta, I. 258 

Melon, prominent Athenian exile who 
with Pelopidas and others takes 
part In expulsion of Spartans at 
Thebes, V. 356, 366, 368; elected 
boeotarch, assaults acropolis, 370; 
400; magistrate with Pelopidas, 
urges Sphodrias to seize the 
Piraeus, V. 68 

Melos, see " Melians." 

Memmius, C, prosecutes M. Lucullua 
and opposes giving him a triumpli, 
then prosecutes his brother Lucius, 
II. 592, VIII. 304; forced by Cato 
to desist, 306 ; said Cato spent his 
entire nights drinking, 248 

Memmius, L., Pompey's brother-in- 
law, left as governor of Sicily by 
Pompey, V. 140 ; slain in battle with 
Sertorius, VI II. 54 

Memnon, commander of Dareius on 
sea-board, dies, VII. 272; Barsin6 
his widow, 284 

" Memor," surname of Artaxerxes 
II., XI. 128 



Memphis, not visited by Lucullus, II. 
476 

Menander (1), appointed colleague of 
Nicias for Sicilian expedition, iii, 
278; defeated by Syracusans, 280; 
one of Athenian generals at Aegos- 
potami, IV. 100 

Menander (2), companion of Alex- 
ander, executed for disobedience, 
VII. 386 

Menander (3), in command of Anti- 
gonus' baggage, escapes, VIII. 106 

Menander (4;, (Kock 240), cited, vil. 
270 

Menander (5), general of Mithridates, 
routed by Sornatius, II. 520 

Menas, corsair under Sextus Pompeius, 
IX. 206 

Mend6, ill. 434 

Mendes, in Egypt, V. 106 

Menecleidas, opposes Epaminondas 
and Pelopidas to his own discomfi- 
ture, V. 400 f . 

Menecrates (1), physician, reproved 
by Agesilaiis, V. 58 

Menecrates (2), naval commander 
under Sextus Pompeius, ix. 206 

Menecrates (3), author of history of 
Bithynian city of Nicaea, cited, I. 58 

Menedemus, chamberlain of Lucullus, 
11.518 

MenelaUs, brother of Ptolemy, de- 
feated in Cyprus by Demetrius, IX. 
34; surrenders Salamis to Deme- 
trius, 38 

Menelalis' Harbour, place on coast of 
of Libya where Agesilaiis died, 
V. 112 

Menemachus, general of Mithridates, 
defeated by Adrian, Tl. 520 

Menenius Aerippa, entreats plebs to 
return and tells fable of the belly and 
its members, iv, 130 

Menesthes, grandson of Scirus of 
Salamis, one of victims sent to Crete 
with Theseus, l. 34 

Menestheus (1), son of Pcteos, grand- 
son of Omeus, stirred up Athenians 
against Theseus, I. 72; succeeded 
Theseus as king, led men from 
Eion against TYoy and died there, 
82, II. 424 

Menestheus (2), Athenian general, ill. 
160 

" Menexenus," work of Plato, ill. 70 

419 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Meninx, island touched at bj Marias, 
IX. 574 

Menippus (1), friend of Pericles and 
colleague in generalship, ill. 44 

Menippus (2), Oarian, taught Cicero 
oratory, vil. 90 

Menoeceus, son of Creon, sacrificed in 
ancient times, V. 390 

Menoetius, father of Myrto, ll. 278 

Menon (1), assistant of Pheidias, 
charges him with embezzlement and 
is rewarded, ill. 90 

Menon (2), father of Theano, a 
priestess, IV. 60 

Menon (3), Greek general with Cyrus, 
spared by Artaxerses, xi. 168 

Menon (4), Thessalian, led Greek 
cavalry when Leonnatus was de- 
feated and slain, VIII. 200 ; father of 
Phthia, won high repute in Lamian 
war, IX. 346 

Mentor, friend of Eumenes, Vlll. 80 

Menyllus, friend of Phocion, com- 
mands Macedonian garrison in 
Athens, VIII. 206, 212 

Mercedinus, intercalary month of 
22 days inserted by Numa every 
other year after February, I. 366 

Mercedonius, intercalary month at 
Eome, VII. 580 

Merchants, held in honour by Greeks, 
1.408 

Mercury, son of Maia, T. 370 

** Meriones," name appearing on 
spears and bronze helmets in temple 
in Engyium in Sicily, V. 488 

Merop6, daughter of Erechtheus, 
mother of Daedalus, I. 38 

Mesopotamia, raided by Demetrius, 
IX. 16; filled with Greeks by Tig- 
ranes, ll. 536 ; 570 ; triumphed over 
by Pompey, V. 230 ; many cities in 
it join Crassus, III. 364; 368; 372; 
IX. 196 

Messala, father of Valeria, IV. 436 

Messala, M. Valerius, consul with 
Domitius, v. 256 

Messala Corviaus, M. Valerius, fought 
under Cassias at Philippi, vi. 216; 
228 ; fought for Octavius at Actium, 
244 ; reply to Augustus, 246. 
Cited : 214, 220, 226 

Messalae, trace descent to Publicola, 
I. 566 

Messana, saved from Athenians by 



Alciblades, IV. 58; attacked by 
Calippus, VI. 122; occupied by 
Timoleon, 308; freed of tyrant 
Hippo, 342 ; V, 13C 

Messapians, offer help to Pyrrhus ship- 
wrecked, IX. 392; slay Archidamus 
at Mandurium, X. 8 

Messen6, rebuilt by Epaminondas, V. 
94, 418; attacked by Demetrius, 

IX. 80; X. 102, 266; XI, 112; 116 f.; 
seized by Nabis, tyrant of Sparta, 
freed by Philopoemen, X. 286, 390; 
306; 388; 314 

Messenia, v. 330; ravaged by Aetol- 
ians, XI. 108 

Messenians, 1. 168; 226; rose agaiust 
Sparta after great earthquake, 
292, II. 456 ; restored by Thebans, 
V. 398; 100; X. 48 

Mestrius Elorus, see " Floras, Mes- 
trius." 

Metageitnion, full moon of, nearly 
coincides with Ides of September, 
I. 538; called by Boeotiaus Pane- 
mus, not favourable to Greeks, ll. 
138 f.; called Carneius by Syracu- 
sans, III. 304; vil. 68 

Metagenes, of deme Xypet4, com- 
pleted sanctuary of mysteries at 
Eleusis, III. 40 

Metapontum, in Italy, ill. 174 

Metella, wife of Sulla, had great in- 
fluence, IV. 344; 366; 396; bears 
twins Faustus and Fausta to Sulla, 
434 ; approves marriage of Pompey 
to Aemilia, her daughter by Scanrus, 
V. 134; IV, 436; VIII. 242 

Metellus, IV. 228 

Metellus, 0., interpellates Sulla, iv. 
42G 

Metellus, Q., upbraids Ti. Gracchus, 

X. 176 

Metellus Celer, Q. Caecilius, see " Oeler, 

Q. Caecilius Metellus." 
Metellus Crcticus, L. Caecilius, tries to 

prevent Caesar from taking money 

from public treasury, V. 276, VJI. 

528 
Metellus Oreticus, Q. Caecilius, 

captures pirates in Crete, v. 186 
Metellus Delm&ticus, L. Caecilius, 

helps Marius get elected tribune, 

ordered to prison by him, IX. 468 f . ; 

decorated temple of Castor and 

Pollux, V. 120. 



420 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



VIet€llu? Macedonicns, Q. Caecilius, 
robbed of Corinth by Mummius, 

III. 430; IX. 464 

Xtotellus Nepo?, Q. Caeciliu?, elected 
tribune with Cato, oppose? Cicero, 
is opposed by Cato, vii. 138, viii. 
280 f . ; proposes law giving Pompey 
supreme power, 29Gf. ; retires to 
Asia, 304; proconsul of Spain, visits 
Caesar at Luca, VII. 494 ; exchanges 
words with Cicero, 146 

Xtetellus Numidicos, Q. Cacciliias, 
uncle on mother's side of Lucullus, 
11.470; IV. 446; appointed general 
for Jugiirthine war, takes Marius as 
Legate, intrigued against by him, 
IX. 476 f., 4S0, 484; feared by 
Maiius and caused to lose election 
for consul, 540; through duplicity 
of Marius is banished, studies 
philosophy at Rhodes, 540 f., 582 f ., 
VII). 312; recalled from erile, IX. 
548; quoted 546 

MetelJus Pius, Q. Caecilius, son of 
Metellus Xumidicus, IX. 480; III. 
326; IV. 418; 340; V. 132; opi)ose3 
Sertorius in Spain with indifferent 
success, V. 156, 196, Vlll. 4, 32, 46, 
50, 54, 58, 72 ; is pontifex maximus, 

IV. 342, VII. 456; 478; 376; 488 
Meteorites, fell at Aegospotami; dis- 
cussion of them, IV. 262 

Methvdrium seized by Cleomenes, X. 

58" 
Metilius, tribune of people, opposes 

Fabius Maximus, III. 140, 144 
Metoecia, festival instituted by 

TheFea=, to be held on 10th of He- 

catombaeon, I. 52 
Meton, astrologer, foresees disaster in 

Sicilian expedition. III. 256, IV. 44; 
-Meton, citizen of Tarentum, op- 
poses iDviting Pyrrhus, IX. 382 
Metrobius (1), public scribe in " Archi- 

loohi," of Cratinus, II. 434 
Metrobius (2;, actor, liked by Sulla, 

IV. 328, 438 
Metrodonis (1), of Scepsis, incurs 

Mithridates* anger and is murdered, 

II. 538 
Metrodorus (2), dancer, in Ajitony's 

train, IX. 186 
Micion (1), devastating sea-coast of 

Athens, defeated and slain by 

I'bocion, VIII. 200 



Micion (2), with Eurycleides prevents 
Athenians from helning Aratus, Xl. 
94 

Micipsa, king in Africa, X. 200 

Midas, I. 542 ; Gordium his home, VII. 
272 : son of Gvnaeceia according to 
Phrygians, 462; X. 380 

Mieza, place in Macedonia, VII. 240 

" Milesiaoa," obscene work by Aris- 
tides, III. 418 

Milesians, some quarrel with Coans 
over golden tripod, I. 412; fight 
with Samians for Prien^, III. 61% 
72 f . ; their popular leaders deceived 
and slain by Lysander, IV. 250, 282 

Milesian wool, IV. 62 

Miletus, stormed bv Alexander, vii, 
268; 1X116 

Milo, general under Perseus, vi. 394 

Milo Papianus, T. Annius, with Scipio 
and Hypsaeus candidate for con- 
sulship, vlII. 350 ; tribune, pro- 
secutes Clodius for violence, Vll. 
166; kills Clodius, VII. 170 

Miltas, Thessalian seer, joins Dion s 
party, VI. 46; interprets omen of 
eclipse, VI. 48 f. 

Miltiades, father of Ctmon by Hege- 
sipyle, II. 412 ; chief of 10 Athenian 
generals at Marathon with Aristidos 
next, 10 f., 224; 388; of deme 
Laciadae, fined 50 talents, died in 
prison, 294, 412; 416; 426 

Mi'to, Phocaean, danghfer of Hermo- 
timu=, account of her, ill. 72 

Mimallones, Macedonian women de- 
voted to Orphic rites and orgies of 
Dionysus, vn. 226 

Mimnermu.s, addressed in verse by 
Solon, I. 566 

ilina, made to consist of 100 drachmas 
instead of 73 by Solon, I. 444 

Minas, corsair, served under Sertus 
Pompeius, IX. 206 f. 

Mindarus, Spartan admiral, defeated 
off Abydos by Athenians with help 
of Alcihiades, IV. 78; slain at 
Cy7.icu^, 82 

Minerva, statue of, dedicated in the 
Capitol by Cicero, VII. 162 

Minoa, i«land seized by Nicias, in. 
228, 430 

Minoa, place in Sicily, vi. 54 

Minos, king of Crete, invaded Attica 
on account of murder of Androgeos, 

421 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



I. 28, 30; was king and lawgiver, 
had Rhadamanthus, as judge under 
him, 32; 36; 38; 320; 11.372 

Minotaur, part bull and part man, said 
to have destroyed youths and 
maidens sent as tribute, 1. 28 ; slain 
by Theseus, 36 

Mint, managed by Lucullus, II. 474 

Minturnae, Italian city, IX. 564; 568; 
its magistrates Anally send Marius 
on his way, 572 

Minucius, C, supports Brutus and 
advises not to give the exiled 
Tarquins their property, I. 508 

Minucius, M., one of the first 2 
quaestors appointed, I. 534 

Minucius Rufus, M., made Master of 
Horse by Fabiu? Maximus, ill. 126; 
132 ; in Fabius' absence wins suc- 
cess over Hannibal, is given equal 
authority, is defeated by Hannibal, 
rescued by Fabius, 142 f., 202, 204; 
appointed dictator, then deposed on 
account of bad omen, V. 446 ; 
quoted. III. 154 

Minucius Thermus, supports Cato his 
colleague against Metellus Nepos, 

VIII. 298 f. 

Miracles, discussion of, II. 108 f., iv. 

210 f. 
Misenum, mole of, scene of meeting 

between Octavius, Antony, and 

Seitus Pompeius, IX. 206; is a 

promontory, 554, X. 240 
Mistletoe, used for making bird-limo, 

IV. 124 
Mithras, rites of, celebrated at 

Olympia by pirates, V. 174; Xl. 

134 
Mithridates(l), young Persian, wounds 

Cyrus at Cunaxa, XI. 150 ; rewarded 

by Artaxerxes, 158; executed by 

him, 160 f. 
Mithridates (2), son of Ariobarzanes, 

founded line of Pontic kings, IX. 

10 
Mithridates (3), had son Pharnaces, 

VII. 560; interviewed by Marius, 

IX. 550; had 150,000 Romans 
butchered in one dav, IV. 401; war 
with, IX. 554 f. ; to be checked by 
Sulla, IV. 334, 342 ; his early succes- 
ses and only slight reverses, 358 f . ; 
ravages Boeotia, IX. 678 ; his general 
Archelaiis defeated at Chaeroucia, 



IV. 382 f.; again ravages Greece 
390; his terms of agreement with 
Sulla, 398,400, 402; 454; VIII. 10, 
IX. 590 f., X. 384; besieged by 
Fimbria, let escape by Lucullus, II. 
478, 480, 482, 488 ; in 2nd war with 
reorganized army invades Bithynia, 
II. 490; makes alliance with Ser- 
torius and receives army from Spain, 
494, VIII. 62; besieges Cyzicus by 
land and sea, ll. 496; suffers de- 
feats at rivers Rhyndacus and 
Granicus at hands of Lucullus, 504 ; 
flees to Heracleia, 508 ; is father-in- 
law of Tigranes, 512 ; defeats 
Romans at Cabira, 514; is defeated 
and flees, 520 f. ; escapes to Tig- 
ranes in Armenia, 526 ; demanded 
of Tigranes by Olodius, 536; 538; 

IV. 412; 11.544; 552; with Tigranes 
begins to assemble fresh forces, 666 ; 
defeats Fabius and Triarius, 584, 

V. 216; defeated by Porapey near 
the Euphrates, 198; 204; among 
peoples of Bosporus, pursued by 
Pompey, 206, 210; documents of 
his found in fortress of Caenum and 
read by Pompey, 212 ; ends life, 
222, IT. 618; quoted, VIII. 64 

Mithridates (4), cousin of Monaeses, 

warns Antony, IX. 244 ; 248 
Mithridates (5), king of Commagen6 

fights under Antony, IX. 276 
Mithridates (6), of Pontus, ridicules 

Galba to Nymphidius Sabinus, xi. 

232; executed by Qalba, 236 
Mithrobarzanes, general of Tigranes, 

defeated and slain by Lucullus, II, 

550 
Mithropaustes, the Persian king's 

cousin, rebukes Demaratus the 

Spartan, II. 80 
Mitvleni^, ruled by tyrant Pittacus, I. 

438; exiled Diophanes, X. 160; 

revolts and is subdued by Lucullus, 

II. 482 ; freed by Pompev for sake 

of Theophanes, V. 224; 308; 310 
Mnasitheus, helps Aratus drive 

Nicocles from Corinth, xi. 16 
" Mnemon," cognomen or epithet, ix. 

464 
Mnesiphilup, Phrearrhian, teacher of 

Themistocles, precursor of sophists, 

II. 6 
Muesiptolema, daughter of Themls- 



422 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



tocles, made priestess of Dindy- 
msD^, II. 82 ; married Archeptoiis 
her half-brother, 88 

Mnestra, woed by Cimon, II. 416 

Moeroclcs, Athenian orator, VII. 32 ; 
his surrender demanded by Alex- 
ander, 56 

Molon, father of Apollonius the 
rhetorician, ni. 90, 446 

Molossians, had king Aldoneus, I. 72 ; 
had king Admetus, II. 64; had 
Pyrrhus as 1st king after the flood, 
IX. 346 ; expel Aeacides and bring 
to power sons of Neoptolemus, 348 ; 
drive out Pyrrhus and put Neopto- 
lemus on throne, 354 

ilolossus, succeeds Phocion in com- 
mand, is captured by the enemv, 

VIII. 174 

Molpadia, said to have slain Antiop6 
or nippolyta, I. 62 

Molup, river at foot of Thurium, iv. 
382; 390 

Monaeses, Parthian, fled to Antony, 
sent back to Phraates by him, ix. 
220, 244 

Moneta, temple of, built on site of 
Tatius' house, I. 152 ; built on site 
of Manlius Capitolina>' house, II, 
188 

Money-lenders at Rome, their op- 
pression, rv. 126; greatly afflicted 
Bithynia, driven out bv Lucullus, 
II. 492 : plunder Asia, 532 

Momm6, Milesian, wife of ilithridates, 
forced by him to commit suicide, 
II. 524; her correspondence with 
Mithridates, V. 212 

Month, naming and numbering of its 
days by Solon, I. 474; Sabines 
adopted their months from Romans, 
154; Numa's arrangements of 
months, 3G6 

Moon, eclipse of, III. 288 ; shortly 
before battle of Arbela, VII. 316; 
before Pydna, VI. 398 

" Moon," surname of Cleopatra, 
daughter of Antony and Cleopatra, 

IX. 218 

Mora, military unit of Spartans, its 

strength, V. 380 
Moschian Mts., on border of Iberians, 

V. 204 
Mothakes, Helots raised with Spartans 

X. 64 



Mother of the Gods, had shrine at 

Pessinus, IX. 508; 550 
Mothers, goddesses of city of Engvium 

in Sicily V. 483 f. 
Mothon6, seaport above ilalea, XI. 

26 
Mt. Lycaeum, see " Lycaeum, Mt." 
Mounychion, see " Munychion." 
Mourning at Rome, periods of, regu- 
lated by Numa, l. 346, IV. 216 
Mucia, divorced by Pompey, V. 226 
Mucianus, commander in Syria, 

friendly to Otho, xi. 284 
Mucins (1), client of Ti. Gracchus, 

elected tribune in place of M. 

Antonlus, X. 174, 186 
Mucins (2), jurist, eaten of worms, IV. 

440 
Mucius (3), father-in-law of younger 

Marius, IX. 560 
Mucius Scaevola, C, his experiences 

with Porsena, I. 546 f. ; quoted, 548 
Mucius Scaevola, P., jurist, helped Ti. 

Gracchus draw up his agrarian law, 

X. 162 f. 
Mucius Scaevola, Q., statesman and 

leader of senate, helped Cicero 

to acquaintance with law, vil. 86 
Mummius, Crassus' legate, defeated 

by Spartacus, ill. 342 
Mummius, C, sent by Sulla to seize 

citv-gate and walls on Esquiline liill, 

IV. 354 
Mummius, L., took Corinth, had no 

cognomen, got surname Achalcus, 

III. 430, IX. 4G4; X. 316 
Munatius (1), defended by Cicero, 

shows ingratitude, vll. 144 
Munatius (2), friend of Cato the 

Younger V^II. 254; 300; brings 

Pompey's proposal of marriage 

alliance to Cato, 306, 308 ; greatly 

angered by Cato's lack of trust in 

him, published treatise on Cato, 

322 f. ; in Bruttium receives under 

his protection Cato's younger son, 

360; cited, 292, 324 f. 
Munatius Plancus, L., spoke in favour 

of amnestv after miu-der of Caesar, 

VT. 166; joins Antony, IX. 176; flees 

to Caesar, tells of Antony's will, 

268 
Mnnatias Plancus Bursa, T., convicted 

in spite of Pompey's support, V. 262, 

VIII., 352 



423 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Munda, battle of; sons of Pompey 

defeated, vil. 572 
Mnndus, trench about Comitium, I. 

118 
Munycbia, in Athens, criticized by 

Epimenides of Phaestus, T. 43i; 

entered by Macedonian garrison, 

VII. 70; garrisoned by Cassander, 
IX. 18, 20; captured and dis- 
mantled by Demetrius, 24; 84; XI. 
78; IV. 372 

Munychion, Athenian month, I. 36; 
IV. 272; YIII. 2."0; changed to 
Demetrion in honour of Demetrius, 
IX, 28 

Munychus, son of Demophoon and 
Laodice, legend of, I. 78 

Murcus, slew Piso, XI. 266 

Murena, L. Licinius (1), serves under 
Sulla in Greece, IV. 380; given loft 
wing bv Sulla at Chaeroneia, 384, 
388 

Murena, L. Licinius (2), left by Lucul- 
lus in charge of siege of Amisus, II. 
514 ; gives freedom to Tyrannio the 
grammarian, 530; 552; left in 
charge of siege of Tigranocerta, 556 ; 
elected consul with Silanus, VII. 1 16 ; 
brought to trial by Cato, defended 
by Cicero and Hortensius, 170, 212, 

VIII. 284, 286: supports Cato, 302, 
Mnsaeus, Fragment 21 (Kinkel, Ep. 

Graec. Frag., p. 229), cited, IX. 
564 

Muses, Spartan king would sacrifice to 
Ihem before battle, I. 272; credited 
with oracular teaching of Numa, 
332 ; with Egeria give Kuma ac- 
count of bronze buckler fallen from 
heaven, 350 

Museum, at Athen.«, battle with 
Amazons near it, I. 60 ; garrisoned 
by Demetrius, IX. 84; one near 
Thurium, IV. 382 

Music, fluto-playing held ignoble by 
Alcibiades, while lyre became a 
gentleman, IV. 6 

"Muthos," nickname of Demetrius, 

IX. 64 

Ifutina, in Gaul, where Pompey be- 
sieged Brutus, father of the con- 
spirator, V. 154; where the con- 
suls llirtius and Pansa defeated 
Antony but were themselves slain, 
IX. 174 



Mutiny of Lucullus' troops, II. 570, 
576 f., 584 

Mycale, where Greeks under Xanthip- 
pus defeated Persians, II. 138, III, 
6, VI. 420 

Mycenae, vill. 24; xi. 66 

Mygdonia, described; invaded by 
Lucullus, II. 578 

Jfylae, town in Sicily, VI. 350 

Mylasa, city in Asia, its revenue 
offered Phocion bv Alexander, VIll. 
186 

Myron (1), of Phlya, prosecuted family 
of Megacles, I. 432 

Myron (2), general under Mithridates, 
defeated by Adrian, II. 520 

Myronides, with Cimon and Xanthip- 
pus an envoy to Sparta, II. 244; 
general with Aristides and Leocrates 
at Plataoa, 274; Til. 52; 198; char- 
acter in *' Demes " of Eupolis, 70 

Myrtilus (1), mentions Spartan youth 
who closely resembled Hector, XI. 
8 

Myrtilus (2), cup-bearer of Pyrrhus 
informs him of plot against his life, 
IX. 356 

Myrtle, Aphrodite's plant, v. 496 

Myrto (1), daughter of Menoetius and 
sister of Patroclus, had daughter 
Eucleia by Heracles, It. 278 

Myrto (2), granddaughter of Aristides, 
false story about her, II. 296 

Mysia, XI. 284 

Mvstae, initiates in mysteries of 
Eleusis, IV, 48, 60, Vlll. 208 

Mysteries, Eleusinian, at Athens, when 
held, II. 140, VIlI. 158, 206; out- 
rage upon, charged against Alcibi- 
ades, IV. 48, 52, 60, VII. 316 ; Deme- 
trius initiated; the grades and 
times, IX. 60 ; celebrated by 
Voconius, 11.508 

Myus, city in Asia, given Themistocles 
bv Persian king to supply meat, II. 
80 



Nabataeans, V, 292 

Nabis, successor of Macbanldas as 
tyrant of Sparta, seized Messend, 
frightened awav by Philopoemen, 
X, 286, 310, 390; at war with 
Achneans and Romans, defeats 
PJiilopoemen in naval battle, 292; 



424 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



routed by Philopoemen, 294; at- 
tacked by Flamininus who soon 
made peace with him, 358 ; treacher- 
oa«ly slain by Aetolians, 296 
Xakedness, Roman vs. Greek custom, 

II. 362 

Names, Roman, of persons, discussed, 
IX. 464 

Naphtha, its properties shown to 
Alexander; theory as to its origin, 
VII. 328 

Naples, V. 264, VII. 100 

Narbo, city of Gaul, XI. 226 

Narbonensis, Gallia, VIII. 32 

Namia, colonists sent to it, X. 324 

" Narrow," name of a place, VI. 208 

Narthacium, mountain near Phairsalus. 
V. 44 

Nasica, P. Cornelius Scipio, very large 
holder of public land, bitter hater 
of Ti. Gracchus X. 174; leads mob 
against Ti. Gracchus, who with more 
than 300 others was slain, 190: 
interrogates Blossius, 192; hated 
by people ; though pontifex maxi- 
mum, fled from Italy and committed 
suicide, 194 

Natiu-al philosophy, its advantages, 

III. 14 

Naucrates, persuades Lycians to 

revolt from Brutus, vi. 192 
Naupactus, besieged bv M.' Acilius, X. 

364 
NaupUa, Pyrrhus pitches his camp 

near it, ix. 450 
Nausicrates, rhetorician, cited, II. 466 
NausithoUs, given as pilot to Theseus, 

I. 34 
Naxians, their account of Ariadne and 

Theseus, I. 42 
Naios,II.68; sea-fightoff Naxos, won 

by Athenians, 138, vill. 156 ; HI. 34 ; 

218; 266 
Nealces, friend of Aratus, tries to save 

picture of Aristratus, XI. 28 
Neander, one of 3 young men who 

fled with the infant Pyrrhus, IX. 

348 
Neauthes, of Cyzicus, cited, ll. 2, 80 
Neapolis (1), v. 458; Lucullus had 

palaces there, II. 598, 612 
Neapolis (2), in territory of Agrigen- 

tum, VI. 102 
Neapolis (3), a part of Syracuse, V. 484 
Neapolitans, V. 264 



Nearclius (1), banished by Philip, 
honoured afterwards by Alexander, 
VII. 250; made admiral of fleet by 
Alexander, 410; meets Alexander 
at Gedrotia, 414; after sailing 
through ocean into Euphrates, joins 
Alexander, 426 ; 432 ; 434 

Nearchus (2), Cretan, pleads with 
Antigonus for life of Eumenes, VIII, 
134 

Nearchus (3), PvthafroreEin, lodged 
Cato the Elder, 11.318 

Nectanabis, cousin of Tacho^^, 
revolts from him and is made king 
by the Egyptians, is joined by 
Agcsilails, V. 104 f.; having ousted 
Tachos, is himself opposed by a 
rival from Mendes, 106 ; distrusts 
Agesilaiip, retires into fortified city, 
routs opponents with help of Age- 
silalis, dismisses him with gifts, 
108 f. 

Neleus, of Scepsis, to whom Theo- 
phrastus bequeathed his books, iv. 
406 

Nemea, where Athenians under 
Pericles defeated Sicyonians, ill. 
60; painted by Aristophon with 
Alcibiades in her arms, IV. 42 ; XI. 1 1 

Nemcan games, see " Games Nemean." 

" Nemesis," play of Cratinus, III. 8 

Neochorus, of Ilaliartus, slew Ly- 
sander, IV. 316 

Neocles (1), father of Themistocles, 
11.2,6,214 

Neocles (2), son of Themistoclcs, II. 88 

Neon (1), commander of Corinthian^ 
in acropolis of Syracuse, captures 
the Achradina, VI. 304 

Neon (2), Boeotian, remains with 
Porsena in his flight, VI. 416 

Neoptolemus (1), son of Achilles, after 
time of Deucalion took possession of 
country of Molossians and left line 
IX. 346 ; ancestor of Alexander on 
his mother's side, vil. 224 

Neoptolemus (2), brother of Arybas 
and uncle of Aeacides, IX. 348 

Neoptolemus (3), made king of 
Molossians in place of PjTrhus, ix. 
3o4; shares kingdom with Pyrrhus 
who finally slays him, 356 f. 

Neoptolemus (1), commander of 
Alexander's Shield-bearers, VIll. 
78; 88; bid by Perdiccas to take 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



orders from Eumenes, plans 
treachery, is defeated by Eumenes, 
flees to Craterus and Antipater, 90 ; 
defeated and slain by Eumenes in 
personal combat, 92 f. 

Neoptolemus (5), satrap of Mithri- 
dates, IX. 556 ; defeated off Tenedos 
by LucuUus, ll. 482 

Nepos, see " Metellus Nepos." 

Nepos, Cornelius, see " Cornelius 
Nepos." 

" Nero," title given Otho by the 
people, XI. 278 f. 

Nero Germanicus, son of Agrippina 
and Ahenobarbus, adopted by 
Claudius, became emperor, killed 
his mother, 5th in descent from 
Antony, IX. 332, XI. 206 ; ruined by 
Nymphidius Sabinus and Tigellinus, 
210, 240; his relations with Otho 
and Poppaea, 246 f. ; gave gifts to 
theatrical people, 238; executed 
Crassus and Scribonia, Piso's 
parents, 254; proclaimed G-reeks 
free at Isthmian games at Corinth, 
X. 358 ; sent Galba out as governor 
of Spain, Junius Vindex, general 
in Gaul, revolts, 212 ; denounced by 
Galba, 214; alarmed on learning of 
Galba's revolt, sells his property, 
216; announced as dead by Icelus, 
218 

Nervii, defeated by Caesar, VII. 492 

Nestor, of Homer, v. 384 

News, quick transmission of, IV. 124, 
VI. 418, 438 

Nicaea, Bithynian city, history of, by 
Menecrates, I. 58 

Niceaa, widow of Alexander, tyrant of 
Corinth, married to Demetrius, 
loses Acrocorinthus, Xl. 36 f. 

Nicagoras (1), of Troezen, introduces 
bill to support Athenian families 
fleeing from Persians before battle 
of Salamis, II. 30 

Nicagoras (2), Messenian, secret enemy 
of Cleomenes, arouses Ptolemy's 
suspicion and hate of him, x. 128 

Nicanor (1), sent by Cassander to 
replace Menyllus in command of 
garrison at Athens, induced by 
Phocian to be mild to Athenians, 
VIII. 216 ; escapes from Athens and 
plans hostilities, 218 

Nicanor (2), sent by Autigonus to 



receive Eumenes as a prisoner, viil, 
130 

Nicarchus, great-grandfather of 
Plutarch, IX. 294 

Nicator, title of tyrants, II. 228 

Niceratus (1), father of Nicias, III. 212, 
220, IV. 28 

Niceratus (2), poet of Heracleia, given 
crown over Antimachus of Colo- 
phon, IV. 282 

Nicias (1), son of Niceratus, becomes 
a leader after death of Pericles, ill, 
212 ; sought by expenditure of 
money to win favour, 214 f.; very 
pious and superstitious, had large 
interests in silver mines of Laurium, 
218; timid and returing, 220 f.; 
helped by his dependent Hiero, 224 ; 
as general made safety his chief 
aim, and so was successful for most 
part, 226; some of his minor suc- 
cesses, 228; discredited by Cleon's 
success on Sphacteria, 234; brought 
about the "Peace of Nicias"; its 
terms, 240, IV. 32 ; fails on embassy 
to Sparta, III. 244; arranges with 
Alcibiades his rival to have Hyper- 
bolus banished, 248 

Opposes expedition to Sicily, 
250; after being elected 1st of 3 
generals for Sicily still vainly op- 
poses the expedition, 252, 430; 
after recall of Alcibiades from 
expedition discourages troops by 
inaction, 258 ; at end of summer 
sails against Syracuse and wins a 
success, 262 f.; winters at Naxos, 
266 ; in spring seized Epipolae, de- 
feated Syracusans, and nearly 
circumvallated the city, 268 f. ; on 
death of Lamachus is sole general 
and in great hopes, 270 ; disregards 
approach of Glyippus, 272; is de- 
feated by Glyippus, who ran a cross 
wall to intersect the besiegers' wall 
of enclosure, 2 76 ; repulses Gylippus 
on the water, but loses Plemmjrriura. 
278; is reinforced by Demosthenes, 
who is defeated and urges return, 
280 f.; is about to change base 
when halted by eclipse of moon, 
288 f. ; is defeated on the water, 
292 ; is defeated on the water again 
so that he cannot retire by sea, 
294 f.; delays retiring by land until 



426 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Syracusans block all the routes, 
296 f. ; couducts retreat for 8 
successive days until Demosthenes 
and his detachment is captured, 
300; is captured at river Asinarus 
and most of his men are slain, 302 ; 
suffers death, 306, 310 

See also in. 430, IV. 28, 30, 46, 52 
Quoted : ill. 302 

Nicias (2), friend of Agesilaiis, V. 36 

Nicias (3), steward of Ptolemy's 
household, has freedom given him 
by senate, vill. 330 

Nicias (4), of Engyium, induced 
Marcellus to spare his city, V. 490 

Nicocles (1), Athenian, Vlll. 182 ; con- 
dertmed to death with Phocion, 228, 
230 

Nicocles (2), became tyrant of Sicyon, 
nearly lost city to AetoUans, xi. 8 ; 
his spies deceived by Aratus, 12 ; 
escapes from Sicyon, 20, x. 256 

Nicocreon, king of Salamis, com- 
petes as choregus against Pasicrates 
of Soli, VII. 308 

Nicodemus (1), lame and blind man, 
V. 348 

Nicodemus (2), Messenian, supported 
now Cassander now Demetrius, vii, 
32 

Nicogenes, wealthiest man in Aeolia, 
knew and sheltered Themistocles, 
II. 70, 76 

JTicolaus, philosopher, cited, Vl. 240 

Nicomach6, daughter of Themistocles, 
given in marriage by her brother to 
Phra^icles, II. 88 

Nicomachus (1), brother of Cebalinus, 
reveals plot of Limnus to Alexander, 
VII. 364 

Nicomachus (2), his paintings 
characterized, VI. 346 

Nicomachus (3), of Carrhae, urges P. 
Crassus to escape to Ichnae, III. 394 

Nicomedeia, city in Bithynia, ii. 5i)3 

Nicomedes (1), son-in-law of Themi- 
stocles, II. 88 

Nicomedes (2), to receive Bithynia 
again from Mitbridates, IV. 398; 
reconciled to Mithridates by Sulla, 
404; vLsited by Caesar, Vll. 444 

Nicon (1), servant of Cratenis, ar- 
rested by Peucestas, Vll. 348 

Nicon f2), an elephant, IX. 456 

Nicon (3), an ass, IX. 284 



Niconides, Thessalian, made wonder- 
ful siege-engines, ll. 500 

Nicopolis, city on Actium, IX. 278 

Nicopolis, wealthy woman, made Sulla 
her heir, IV. 328 

" Nicostrat^," other name of Car 
menta, wife of Evander, I. 156 

" Niger," Roman surname, iv. 142 

Niger, friend of Antony, brings mes- 
sage from Octavia to him, ix. 
256 

Nigidius, P., advises Cicero to put 
conspirators to death, VII. 130 

Niphates, VII. 316 

Nisaea, taken by Megara from Athens, 
I. 432 ; III. 228 ; sea-port of Megara, 
enclosed by wall and connected 
by walls with Megara, VIU. 178 

Nisaean horse, ix. 374 

Nisaeus, driven from Syracuse by 
Dionysius the Younger, vi. 262 

Nisibis, city in Mygdonia, called 
Antioch by Greeks, taken by Lucul- 
lus, II. 578, 592 

Nola, V. 458 ; battle of, Marcellus do- 
feats Hannibal, 462 ; defeats him 
again, 464; IV. 350 

Nonacris, cliff there had poisonous 
water, vil. 436 

Nones Capratine, day on which 
Romulus disappeared; reason for 
name, I. 182, 186, 308, II. 178 

Nonius (1), rival candidate for tribune 
ship, slain by Saturninus, IX. 542 

Nonius (2), nephew of Sulla, iv. 356 

Nonnius, in Pompey's camp, Vll. 
180 

Nora, stronghold on confines of 
Lycaonia and Cappadocia, VIII. 108 

Norbanus, encamped at Narrows near 
Symbolum, nearly captured wifli 
his army by Brutus and Cassius, vi. 
208 

Norbanus, 0., consul, with Marius the 
Younger defeated by Sulla and shut 
up in Capua, IV. 410 f., VIII. 14 

Noricum, traversed by Cimbri, ix. 
502 

" Nous," term applied to Anaiagoras 
of Clazomenae, III. 10 

" Novi homines," what they were, II. 
3U2 

Novum Comum, colony established 
by Caesar in Gaul, VII. 512 

Numa roinpilius, when he lived; said 

427 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



to have been friend of Pythagoras, 
I. 306; of Sabine descent, 308; 
nominated king by the Romans, 
312; came from Cures, was son of 
Pompon, 314; married Tatia, was 
fond of country Jife, 316; in 40th 
rear invited to become king, 320; 
declines, 322 ; accepts and goes to 
Rome, 326; disbands the body of 
300 called " Celeres," appoints 
Flamen Quirinalis, 328 ; proceeds 
to make the city more gentle and 
just, 330; claimed the nymph 
Egeria loved him, 316, 332 ; possibly 
influenced by Pythagoras, 334; 
instituted the Pontifices, 336; 
credited with consecration of the 
Vestal virgins, IGO, 338, II. 142; 
their number, duties, privileges, 
the punishment for unchastity, 
340 f . ; said to have built temple 
of Vesta, 344 ; fixed 10 months as 
longest period for mourning, 346, 
IV. 216; established the Salii, the 
Fetiales, and many other orders of 
priests, I. 346 ; reason for establish- 
ing Salii, 350. Built the Regia and 
had another house on the Quirinal, 
354; gave many precepts resembl- 
ing those of Pythagoreans, 356; 
story of his conversation with 
Jupiter, 358 ; first to build temples 
to Faith and Terminus, 362 ; 
divided people into groups accord- 
ing to trades or arts, 364 ; amended 
law permitting fathers to sell sons, 
adjusted calendar, 366, VII. 580; 
built temple of Janus, 372 ; varying 
accounts of his marriages and off- 
spring, 376; succeeded by Hosti- 
lius; his obsequies, 146, 378; 
quoted, 322 

See also 1. 154, IV. 178, V. 454, VI. 
358, vni. 152 

N"umantia, defeats Mancinus, makes 
truce owing to Ti. Gracchus, x. 154, 
246 ; taken and destroyed by Scipio 
Africanus Minor, II. 596, VI. 414, 
IX. 468, 494, X. 158, 174 

Numerius (1), friend of Marias, IX. 
560 

Xumerius (2), friend of Pompcv, V. 
280 

Numidia, king of, captured by Scipio 
Africanus, in. 194; Bocchus king of, 

428 



IV. 328; Hiempsal king of, IX. 574; 
subdued by Pompey, v. 144 

Numidians, used by Carthaginians in 
their armies, VI. 330; in army of 
Hannibal, ill. 152 ; V. 464 ; 520 ; rout 
Caesar's cavalry, VII. 564 

Numistro, city in Lucania, v. 502 

Nuniitor, chose kingdom in prefer- 
ence to gold and silver, but was 
dispossessed by his brother AmuUus ; 
had daughter Ilia, or Rhea, or Silvia, 
I. 96 ; his experience with Romulus 
and Remus, his daughter's children, 
102 f.; diedin Alba, 172 

Nundinae, market-day coming every 
9 days, IV. 162 

Nurses, Spartan, I. 254, IV. 2 

Nussa (Nursia) Sabine city, home 
town of Sertorius, vill. 4 

Nymphaeum (1), sacred precinct near 
Apollonia; story of satyr caught 
there, iv. 408 

Nymphaeum (2), sacred precinct fre- 
quented by Aristotle, vil. 240 

Nymphidia, daughter of Callistus and 
mother of Nymphidius Sabinus, 
XI. 224 

Nymphidius Sabinus, prefect of court 
guard with Tigellinus; by offer of 
bribe gets soldiers to proclaim Galba 
emperor, XI. 208 f . ; orders Tigel- 
linus to give up his command and 
aspires to imperial position, 220 f. ; 
says he is son of C. Caesar who 
succeeded Tiberius; believed to be 
con of Martianus a gladiator, XI. 
222 f.; tries to be made emperor 
and is slain, 230 f.; his adherents 
went over to Galba, 258 

" Nympholepti," term applied to 
natives of Cithaeron with oracular 
power, II. 246 

Nymphs, Sphragitic, had cave on peak 
of Cithaeron, II. 246, 272 

Nypsius, Neapolitan, puts into 
Syracuse with food and money for 
beleaguered garrison of Dionysius, 
is defeated by Syracusans, then by 
surprise attack takes city, is de- 
feated by Dion, VI. 86 f. 

Nysa, citadel in India, attacked by 
Alexander, VII. 390 

Nysaeus, sec " Ni-aeus." 

Nyssa, sister of Mithridates, captured 
"by Lucullus, II. 524 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 



Oa, Attic deme, III. 26 

" Oarses," name of Axtaxenes Mne- 
mon at first according to Deinon, 
XI. 128 

Oath, Athenian, what it is, iv. 38 

Oath, the great, how taken, VI. 118 

Obai, subdivisions of Spartan people 
made bj Lycurgus, I. 220 

Obolus, its original meaning, IV. 278 

Ocean, nothero, u. 488 

Ochus, youngest son of Artaierres, 
rival of Dareius for throne, XI. 188 ; 
removes liis two remaining rivals 
Ariaspes and Arsames, 200, 202 ; 
did not once come into Persia to 
avoid giving money to women, Vll. 
416 

Ootavia, sister of Octavioa Caesar, 
daughter of Ancharia, married first 
to C. Marcellas, on his death to 
Antony, ix. 206 ; mother of ilar- 
cellus by C. Marcellus, dedicated 
Library in honour of her son, v. 522 ; 
IX. 210 ; bore 2 daughters to Antony, 
reconciles Octavius and Antony, 
214 ; gets 20 vessels for her brother, 
1000 troops for her husband, 216; 
on way to Antony, is stopped at 
Athens by letters from him, 256; 
returns from Athens, lives in her 
husband's house, 260 ; ejected from 
Antony's house in Rome, takes all 
his children with her except eldest 
son by Fulvia, 266 f.; reared 6 of 
Antony's children with her own, 
330; her daughters and whom they 
married, 332; had book addressed 
to her by Athenodorus, I. 548 

Octavius (1), governor of Cilicia, dies, 
11.486 

Octavius (2), legate of Crassus, III 
402, 408, 412 ; attempting to rescue 
Crassus, is slain, 414 

Octavius (3), reputed to be of African 
descent, vil. 146 

Octavius, C. (1), father of young 
Caesar, vil. 196 

Octavius, C. (2), falsely claimed to 
have been one of Caesar's murderers, 
executed by Antony and young 
Caesar, Vll."600 

Octavius, Gn. (1), admiral under 
Aemilius Paulus, anchors off Samo- 
thrac* to prevent escape of Perseus, 
VI. 422 



Octavius Gn. (2), co 
colleague Cinna in 
puts Cornelius Me: 
VIII. 10, IX. 578 f.; 
on approach of ila 
582, IV. 364; IX. 5| 

Octavius, L., ient by Pompey to 
Crete to suco. ed Metellus in fighting 
pirates, v. 188 

Octavius, M. (1), tribune of people, 
opposes Ti., Gracchus' agrarian law, 
X. 166 f. ; ejected from office on 
proposal of Ti. Gracchus, 170; 
206 

Octavius, M. (2), with 2 legions en- 
camped near Utica, asks Cato which 
of them is to command in province, 
VIII. 394; with M. Insteius com- 
manded centre for Antony at 
Actium, IX. 284 

Octavius Caesar, see " Augustus 
Caesar." 

October, called Domitianus by Domi- 
tian for short time, I. 370 

Odeum, built by Pericles, ill. 42 

Odysseus, father of Romanus by 
Circ6, I. 92 ; consulted shades of 
dead, rx. 490; Il.32fi; V. 12 

" Odyssey," see " Homer." 

Oedipus, fountain of, IV. 390 

Oenanth6, had great influence in 
government under Ptolemy iv., x. 
124 

Oenarus, priest of Dionysus, lived with 
Ariadne, I. 40 

Oeneid, Attic tribe, ll. 458 

Oeniadae, III. 60; their city de- 
stroyed by Aetolians, vil. 3G6 

Oenopion, son of Theseus by Ariadne 
according to Ion of Chios, I. 40 

Oenus, at first called Cnacion, river 
at Sparta, I. 222 

Oetaeans, III. 56 

Ofella, Lucretius, see " Lucretius 
Ofella." 

Oil. its action, n. 392; spring of, 
discovered, \ll. 388 

Olbianians, VIII. 24 

Olbius, pa»(lagogue of children of 
Nicogenej, 'J. 70 

Oligarchy, II. 54, 266 f. 

" Oligoi," conservative party at 
Athens, III. 32 

Oligyrtus, its garrison expelled from 
Phlius by Cleomenes, x. 110 



429 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



'• Olive," name of spring where 

Apollo was born, v. 378 
Olizon, opposite Artemisium, II. 22 
Olocrus, mountain near Pydna, VI. 

408 
Olorus (1), Thracian kin?, father of 

Hegesipyle, II. 412 
Olorus (2), father of Thucydides the 

historian, descended from preceding 

II. 412 
Olthacus, Dandarian prince, under- 
takes to assassinate Lucnllus, but 

fails, II. 518 
Olympia, II. 14; 68; 316; its sacred 

treasures used by Sulla, iv. 362; 

VII. 20 

Olympiad, 176th, II. 484 

"Olympian," surname of Pericles; 
how acquired. III. 22, 112 

Olympias, sister of Arymbas, married 
Philip of Macedon, VII. 226; de- 
voted Bacchante, kept great tame 
serpents, 228; spurred Alexander 
on to quarrel with his father, estab- 
lished by berson Alexander in Epirus, 
246 ; blamed for urging PaiLsauias to 
slay Philip, 250; 296; 340; rebels 
against Antipater and takes Epirus 
to rule, 414; put many to death, 
believed lolas to have poisoned 
Alexander, 436; drugged Arrhi- 
daeus and ruined his mind, 438; 
invited Eumenes to come and take 
charge of Alexander's little son, 

VIII. 116; IX. 50 

Olympic games, instituted by 

Heracles in honour of Zeus, I. 56; 

Athenian victor got 500 drachmas 

by Solon's regi:lation, 466, II. 296. 

See also " Games." 
Olympic truce, said to have been 

established by Lycurgus and 

Iphitup, 1. 204, 276 f. 
Olympielum, in Athens, unfinished, I. 

496 ; near Syracuse, III. 266 
Olympiodorus, with 300 Athenians 

sent to aid of Megarians at Plataea, 

II, 254 
OljTnpus, Cleopatra's physician, 

published history of her last days, 

IX. 320 

Olympus, town where pirates offered 

sacrifico, V. 174 
Olvmpus, mountain, VI. 386; its 

height, 394 



Olvnthus, VII. 20 

Omens : II. 34, 40, 44, 106, 108, 124, 
172, 174, 462, 496, 502, 548, 560, 
590, III. 14, 100, 122, 124, 208, 218, 
244, 256, 288, 294, 336, 362, 366, 
372, 382, IV. 46, 98, 174, 210, 260, 
280, 340, 346, 358, 372, 410, V. 68, 
78, 194, 294, 442, 464, 512, 516, VI. 
50, 62, 82, 150, 156, 178, 208, 210, 
234, 278, 322, 380, 398 f., 418, VII, 
130, 164, 226, 230, 260, 270, 296, 
300, 386, 426, 546, 554, 588, 604, 
^^II. 208, IX. 28, 70, 210, 274, 284, 
308, 362, 450, 506, 564, 570, X. 26, 
144, 184, 220, 340, XI. 100, 256, 
284 f. 

Omisu-, commended by Artaxerxes 
n.,xi.l34 

Omphal6, house of, had Hercules as 
slave, 1. 14; ill. 70; IX. 336 

Onatius Aurelius, see " Aurelius, 0." 

Oneian hills, X. 92 

Onesicritus, philosopher of school of 
Diogenes the Cynic ; his experiences 
with gymnosop lusts, VII. 408 ; 
appointed chief pilot of fleet by 
AJexander, 410 

ated : 242, 260, 356, 394, 398 

Onomarchus (1), one of party that 
seized Delphi and plundered 
sanctuary, VI. 334 

Onomarchus (2), keeper of Eumenes 
for Antigonus, VIll, 134 

Onomastus,freedman of Otho, XI. 258 

Ophelas, ruler of Cyren6, first husband 
of Eurydicd, IX. 32 

Opheltas, with his subjects conducted 
from Thessaly to Boeotia by Peri- 
politas, II. 404 

*' Opima," why term was applied to 
" spolia," 1.138 

Opimius, L., failed to get elected con- 
sul when Fanuius was supported 
by 0. Gracchus, X. 222; elected 
consul, 226 ; given full power to act 
against C. Gracchus, 228; refuses 
C. Gracchus' terms of peace, 232 ; 
attacks party of Fulvius, 234; first 
consul to exercise power of dictator, 
convicted of fraud and spent his 
last days in infamy, 238 

Oplax, Frentanian, slain by Pyrrhus, 
IX. 398 

Oppius, C, friend of Caesar, cited, v. 
138; VII. 484 



430 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



" Optio," latin for scout, XI. 258 

Opuntians, surrender voluntarily to 
Flamininus, X. 33 1 

Oracles, anonymous: IV. 294, 304, 
316, V. 6, VII. 46, 564, IX. 452, X. 
378 

Oracle of Apollo, I. 6, 36, II, 276, iv. 
122, VII. 44, 46, 50, 92, 228, VIII. 1G2 
See also " Delphi, oracle of." 

Oracle from Sibylline books, vil. 44 

Oracles of Ammon, Amphiaraii-, 
Dodona, Heracleia, Ismenus, see 
" Ammon, etc." 

Oracle from Lebadeia and cave of 
Trophonius, IT. 270, IV. 380 

Oration, funeral, delivered by Publi- 
cola in honour of Brutus earlier than 
any among Greeks, I. 524; by 
Pericles over those who fell at 
Samos, III. 80 ; of Fabius Maximus 
on the death of his son preserved, 
120, 190 

Orations : I, 106, 322, 324, II, 106, 
236, 250, 290, 510 f., UI. 160, 398, 
412, IV. 96, 130, 154 f., 172, 200 f., 204, 
206 f., V. 498, VT. 90, 168, 388, 426, 
438, 448, VII. 314, 4o8, VIII. 42, CC, 
132, 154, IX. 282, 404, X. 38, 72, 8U, 
118f., 164, 204, 230,234 

Oratorv, Asiatic, characterized, IX. 
140 " 

Orchalides, hill afterwards called 
Alopecus; its location, IV. 318 

Orchomenians, have left wing of 
Agesilaiip' array at Coroneia ; 
routed by Tbebans, V. 46 

Orchomenians, treated severely bv 
Thebans, V. 522 ; ll. 408 

Orchomenus (1), secretly attacked by 
Aratus, X. 56; 64; Aratus defeat*-.! 
Megi«tonous, stepfather of C'leo- 
menes there, xi, 86 ; surprised and 
plundered by Antigonus, 104, X. 
100; 110 

Orchomenus (2), taken by Lysander, 
rv. 310; espoused cause of Spar- 
tans; Pelopidas attempts to sur- 
prise it, V. 376; Sulla defeated 
Archelalis, Mithridates* general 
there, n. 480, 504, IV. 392 f., 408 
Orcynii, in Cappadocia; Antigonus 
defeated Euraenes there, viil. 104 
Oreites, their country traversed by 

Alexander in 60 days, vil. 410 
Oresteion, city in Arcadia, II. 244 



Orestes, consul, took C. Gracchus as 

quaestor to Sardinia, X. 198 
Oreus, Eoman fleet off it defeated by 

Perseus, VI. 376 
Orexartes, river crossed by Alexander 

VIT. 356 
Orfidius, commander of legion 

" Adiutrix " for Otho, slain, XI, 304. 
Oricum, vi. 434; V. 284; taken bv 

Caesar. Vll. 532 
Oritanians, defeated by Sertorius, vill. 

8 
Orneus, grandfather of Menestheus, l. 

72 
Ornis, place just outside Corinth, 

XI. 44 
Omytus, with loxus led colony into 

Caria, 1. 18 
Oroandes, Cretan, sails off leaving 

Perseus behind, VI. 422 
Orobazus, Parthian, ambassador from 

king Arsaces to Sulla, executed on 

return, IV. 334 
Oromasdes (Oromazdes) Persian god, 

VII. 312, XI. 200 
Orontes, Persian, closely resembled 

Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraiis, xi. 

8 
Orontes, Persian, married Rhodo- 

gun6, daughter of Artaxerxes, XI. 

192 
Oropus, the affair of, vil. 10; brings 

suit against Athens, II. 368 
Orphans, made subject to taxation by 

Camillus, II. 96 
Orpheus, Plato banters followers of, 

II. 612 ; image of him at Leibethra, 

VII. 260 

Orphic rites, VIT. 226 

Orsodates, rebellious barbarian shot 
by Alexander, Vll. 386 

" Orthagoras," name of Corinthian 
seer and friend of Timoleon accord- 
ing to Ephorus and Timaeus, VI. 
270 

Orthopagus, peak of hill Thurium near 
Chaeroneia, IV. 382 

Oryssus of Aptera in Crete, slavs 
Ptolemy, son of Pyrrhus, IX. 448 

Osca, Spanish city where Sertorius 
had noble Spanish boys educated, 

VIII. 30, 68 

Oschophoria, Athenian festival in- 
stituted by Theseus in honcnr of 
Dionysus and Ariadne, I. 40, 48 f. 

431 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Ostanes, son of Oareius and Parysatis, 
brother of Artaxerxes, XI. 128, 136, 
180 

Ostia, VII. 578, IX. 560; seized by 
Marius, 580 

Ostracism, its nature and purpose, 
II. 214, 230 f., III. 28, 246, IV. 30; 
Hipparchus of Cholargus, 1st man 
to be ostracized, ill. 250; Hyper- 
bolus, last man, 246; 202; 226 ; II. 
16; 62; 210; 456 

Otacilius, brother of Marcellus, saved 
by him in battle in Sicily, v. 438 

Otho, M. (1), praetor, was first to give 
special seats to knights at spectacles, 
VII. 112 

Otho, M. (2), married Poppaea, 
Galba minded to declare him his 
successor, XI. 246 f . ; first of pro- 
vincial governors to go over to 
Galba, 248; plots against Q-alba and 
is proclaimed emperor by the 
soldiers, 256 f . ; given titles of Caesar 
and Augustus, 268 

His first acts as emperor, 276 f. ; 
at first does not refuse name Nero, 
278; troubled by suspicions his 
paid soldiers had of influential 
citizens, 280 f. ; hears that Vitellius 
has assumed imperial power, 284; 
learning that Caecina and Valens, 
generals of Vitellius, are in posses- 
sion of the Alps, takes the field, 286 ; 
stops at Brixillum and sends his 
army forward, 288; his general 
Spurina repels assault on Placentia, 
290; his general Oelsus defeats 
Oaecina near Cremona, 292; Otho 
comes to the camp near Cremona 
and holds council of war, 294; 
decides on early battle and returns 
himself to Brixillum, 298 ; his armv 
defeated by that of Vitellius, 302 f."; 
learns of defeat and resolves to die, 
310 f . ; after making some disposi- 
tions falls upon his sword, 312 f. ; 
gets modest burial, 316; his troops 
swear allegiance to Vitellius, 318 

Otryae, place in Phrygia, II. 496 

•* Oulamos," a? constituted by Lycur- 
gus, was 50 horsemen In square 
formation, I. 276 

Outer sea, IX. 488 

Ovatio, meaning of the word, des- 
cription of the thing, v. 494; cele- 



brated by Crassus for Servile war, 

III. 350 
" Ovicula," surname of Fabius 

Maximus in childhood. III. 118 
Oxathres, son of Dareius and Pary- 
satis, brother of Artaxerxes 

Mnemon, XI. 128, 136 
Oxus, river in Asia, has very soft 

water, VII. 388 
Oxyartes, son of Abuletes, slain by 

Alexander, \^l, 388, 414 



Paccianus, sent to Africa by Sulla to 

help Ascalis, slain by Sertorius, 

VIII. 22 
Paccianus, C, taken prisoner at 

Carrhae, III. 416 
Paccus, attendant of Cato the Elder in 

Spain, II. 332 
Paches, Athenian, captor of Lesbos, 

committed suicide, II. 294, III. 226 
Pachynus, headland of Sicily, vi. 52 
Pacorus, son of Hyrodes, marries sister 

of Artavasdesj ill. 420; defeated 

and slain by Ventidius, III. 422, IX. 

212 5 

Paeania, deme of Demosthenes, VII. 

48; of Demon, 68 
Paedaretus, Spartan, rejoiced because 

300 better than himself, I. 282 
Paedonome, directed boys at Sparta, 

1.258 
Paeon, Amathusian, cited, I. 42 
Paeonia, V. 220 
Paeonians, ruled byAutoleon, ix. 368 ; 

VI. 402 
Pagasae, fleet of Greeks wintered there 

after Xerxes fled, II. 54 
" Pagi," divisions of Roman territory 

made by Numa, I. 362 
Painting, by Protogenes the Caunian, 

illustrating story of lalysus, ix. 50 ; 

of Hercules and Omphale, 336; of 

tyrant Aristratus by Melanthus, 

XI. 28 
Palaescepsis, city given Themistocles 

by Persian king for his support, il. 

80 
Palatine, settled by Trojan exiles 

I. 90, 146, 154, 160, 552, 654, VII. 

100, 120, 134, 172 
Palatium, XI. 262 
Palestine, triumphed over by Pompey, 

V. 230 



432 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Palladium, in Athens, I. G2 ; on 

Athenian acropolL? , dedicatory offer- 
ing of Nicias, ill. 214; at Delphi, 

dedicated by Athens, iii. 254 
Palladium of Troy, in temple of Vesta, 

11. 144 
Pallantidae, I. 8; make war on 

Theseus; betrayed by I^eos, are 

defeated, 24 
Pallantium, where Aratus prevents 

Aristomachus joining battle with 

Cleomenes, X. 58, Xl. 82 
Pallas, had 50 sons, I. 8 
Pallene, township of, why it has no 

intermarriage with township of 

Agnus, I. 26 
" Pahn," name of spring in Boeotia 

where Apollo was bom, v. 378 
Palm, custom of giving it to victors 

begun by Theseus, I. 44 
Palm-tree, bronze, erected on Delo- 

bv Nicias in honour of Apollo, lii. 

216 f. 
Pahis Maeotis, vil. 352. See also 

" Maeotic Lake." 
Pammenes, kept Philip as hostage in 

Thebes, v. 404 f, ; quoted, 382 
Pamphilus, painter, some of his works 

collected bv Aratus and sent to 

Ptolemv, XT. 28 
Pamphylia, II. 440, v. 312 
Pan, loved Pindar $md his verses, 

1.318; 11.246 
Panactum, not restored to Athens with 

walls intact, ill. 242, iv. 32; 

garrisoned by Cassander, reduced 

by Demetrius and restored to 

Athens, IX. 54 
Panaetius (1), commands Taenian 

trireme, II. 38 
Panaetius (2), cited, II. 212 f., 290, 

416, m, 32 
Panathenaic festival, instituted by 

Theseus, I. 52; musical contests 

added by Pericles, III. 42 
Pandion, adopted Theseus, I. 24 
Pandosia, city in Italy, ix. 394 
" Panemus," Boeotian name for 

Metageitnion, ll. 138, 274 
Pannonia, armies there faithful to 

Otho, XI. 284 
Panop6, city destroved by hosts of 

Mithridates, IV. 376 
Panopeans, Lj'sander buried in their 

soil, IV. 314 



Panopeus, father of Aigl6, 1. 40, 66 
Pans, resemble Picus and Faunua, I. 

358 
Pansa, consul with Hirtius, begs Cicero 

to stay at Eome, agreeing to put 

down Antony, Vll. 190; VI. 452; 

wages war on Antony and is slain 

with Hirtius, at Mutina, VU. 198, 

IX. 174 
Pantaleon, most influential Aetolian, 

XI. 74 
Pantauchus, general of Demetrius, 

defeated in Aetolia by Pyrrhos, IX. 

100, 364 
Panteus, general under Cleomenes in 

capture of Megalopolis, X. 102 ; 

dies with Cleomenes in Egypt, 13G : 

his wife executed by Ptolemy, 138 
Panthers, VII. 174 
Panthoidas, Spartan harmost, slain 

at Tanagra, V. 376 
Pantboides, Chian, son-in-law of 

Themistocles, 11.88 
Paphlagonia, subdued bv Alexander, 

VII. 272; vm.84; IV. 398; 11.580; 

triumphed over by Pompey, V. 230 ; 

ruled by Philadelphus, ix. 276 
Papiria, Maso's daughter, first wife of 

Aemilius Paulus, mother of Scipio 

and Fabius Maiimus, VI. 364 
Papirius, M., slain by a Qaul, n 

148 
Pappus, source of Hermippus' story 

of Demosthenes' death, VII, 74 
Paraotonium, IX. 294 
Paralus, son of Pericles smd his first 

wife. III. 70; last of Pericles' 

legitimate sons to die. III. 106 
Paralus, Athenian ship, escaped from 

Aegospotami, IV. 260 
Parapotamii, Boeotian city on the 

river Assus, in niins in Sulla's time, 

IV. 378 
" Parasitein," practice of eating at the 

public table in the townhall, regu- 
lated by Solon, I. 472 
Parauaea, in Macedonia, given 

Pvrrhus by Alexander, ix. 360 
Parilia, pastoral festival on April 21st, 

celebrated even before founding of 

Rome,!. 120; 156 
Paris, defeated by Achilles and 

Patroclus in Thessaly, I. 78; slew 

Achilles at gates, IV. 462 ; his lyre. 

VII. 62; IX. 338 

433 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES* 



Poriscas, eunuch of Gyrus the Toungcr 
XI. 152 

Parma, embassy from, acts as arbi- 
trator in dispute between Marias 
and Catulus, IX. 536 

Parmenides, natural philosopher, III. 
10 

Parmenio, conquered Illyrians at time 
of birth of Alexander, VII. 230; 
father of Philotas, 248; 264; 276; 
284; 316 f.; 318 f.; 326; 342; exe- 
cuted by Alexander, 366 

Parnassus, IV. 374 

Parrhasius, made likenesses of 
Theseus, I. 10 

Parricide, no penalty for, ordained by 
Theseus, I, 162 

Parsley, its use, VI. 322 f. 

Parthenon, built in Pericles' time; 
Oallicrates and Ictinus the archi- 
tects, III., 40, IX. 54 

Parthia, invaded by Alexander, VII. 
354; 11.592; III. 370; V.314; VI.254 

Parthian arrows, II. 592, ill. 388, 390 f . 
400 

Parthians, send friendly embassy to 
Sulla, IV. 334 ; their power humbled 
by Tigranes, II. 536 ; Lucullus plans 
to invade their country, 570 ; 590 ; 
refer to Pompey settlement of 
territorial quarrel with Armenians, 
V. 216; Ateius, tribune of the 
people, tries to stop Crassus' ex- 
pedition against them, iii. 362; 
send embassy to Crassus, 368 ; 
confront Crassus; their manner of 
fighting, 386 f, ; defeat and slay P. 
Crassus and his force, 390 f., VII. 
172; defeat Crassus' main force, 
III. 398 f., VII. 172; warred 
on by Bibulus, ix. 148; threaten 
Mesopotamia and Syria, 196 ; under 
Labienus subduing Asia, 204; de- 
feated by Ventidius, 210; harass 
Antony's army, 232 f. ; 334; 46 

Parysatis, daughter of Artaxerxes 
I., wife of Dareius, mother of 
Artaxerxes II., Cyrus, Ostanes, 
Oxathres, XI. 128; favours Cyrus* 
claim to the throne, 130; intercedes 
for his life, 132; blamed for revolt 
of Cyrus, plots death of Stateira, 
138f.; savagely punishes Carian 
who killed Cyrus, 158 f.; 162; has 
revenge on Masabates who cut off 

434 



head and hand of Cyrus, 164 f.; 
tries to save Greek generals, 168; 
poisons Stateira, 170 f.; sent ofE to 
Babylon by Artaxerxes, 172; re- 
stored to favour, causes death of 
Tissaphernes, approves Artaxerxes' 
marriage to Atossa, his own 
daughter, 180 f . 

Pasacas, horse ridden by Cyrus at 
Ounaxa, XI. 146 

Pasargadae, where Persian king was 
inducted by priests, Xl. 130 

Paseas, father of Abantidas, XI. 4; 
became tyrant of Sicyon; slain by 
Kicocles, 8 

Pasicrates, king of Soli, choregus 
competing against Nicocreon, king 
of Salamis, Vll. 308 

Pasiphae, accused of too great inti- 
macy with Taurus, I. 36; had 
temple and oracle at Thalamae, x. 
20 ; had precinct at Sparta, 64 

Pasiphon, dialogue of his cited. III. 
218 

Pasitigris river, VIII. 120 

Passaro, place in Molossian land, IX. 
356 

Pataecus, boasted he had Aesop's soul ; 
cited, I. 418 

Patara, city, surrenders to Brutus, 
VI. 198 

Patareans, VI. 130 

Patavium, Vll. 554 

"Pater patriae," title conferred on 
Cicero by the people. Ml. 138 

Patrae, its citizens persuaded by 
Alcibiades to attach their city to sea 
by 1 )ng walls, IV. 38 ; IX. 22 ; XI. 108 ; 
brought over to Rome by Cato the 
Elder, II. 336; IX. 274 

" Patres conscripti," name given by 
Romans to senators, I. 124 

Patricians, 100 in number chosen from 
people by Romulus ; who thev were 
and why so called, I. 122 f.; 100 
Sabines elected to their numbers, 
150; those of Romans and 
Babines united, 152 ; lost much 
power under Romulus; suspected 
when he disappeared, 172, 308; 
150 in number when Romulus died, 
312 ; accuse people of driving out 
Coriolanus unjustly, IV. 184; for 
bidden to have house on Oapitoline, 
II. 188 ; one censor a patrician, 346 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Patrobius, adherent of Nero, executed 

bv Galba, XI. 240 ; 270 
Patrocles, advises Seleucus not to 

allow Demetrius to remain in 

country, IX. 118 f . 
Patroclus, with Achilles defeated Paris 

in Thessalv, i. 78; brother of 

Myrto, 11. 273 
Patron, came to Italy with Evander, I. 

124 
" Patronatus," supposed to be de- 
rived from " Patron," I. 124 
Patronis, town in Greece, IV. 374 
Patrons, protectors, their relation to 

their clients, I. 126, 15. 472 
Paulinus, Suetonius, in command of 

part of Otho's forces, XI. 288 ; too 

slow at battle of Cremona, 292 ; lost 

his power to Proculus, XI. 294 ; 296 ; 

304 
Paulus, L. Aemilius (1), consul with 

Varro, iii. 160; slain at Cannae, 

III. 166; VI. 358; quoted. III. 166 
Paulus, L. Aemilius (2), took over 

army in Macedonia, XI. 206 ; father 
of Scipio the Younger, subdued 
Perseus, II. 346, 362, IV. 364, XI, 
124; father of Tertia, and of Scipio 
the Younger, II. 364. See also 
" Aemilius Paulus, L." No. 2. 

Paulus, L. Aemilius (3), when consul 
bought by Caesar for 1500 talents, 
with which he built the Basilica in 
the forum, v. 268, m. 514; brother 
of Lepidus the triumvir, proscribed 
by him, VII. 200, IX. 178 

Pausanias (1), father of Pleistoanax, 
I. 268, X. 8; commander of all 
Hellenic forces against Mardonius, 
joins Aristides, II. 238, 252, 256, 258, 
264; at prayer before batile, 266; 
defeats Mardonius at Plataea, 58, 
268 f ., X. 8 ; rapacious and severe 
toward allies, alienates them, ii, 
282 f.; has treasonable corres- 
pondence with Persians, 418; driven 
from Byzantium by allies, 422 ; 
makes treasonable proposals to 
Themistocles, discovered and put 
to death, 62 f . 

Pausanias (2), forms juncture with 
Agis and Lysander before Athens, 

IV. 268; frustrates Lysander's 
scheme to get pretext for taking 
Athens 2nd time, 290; sent with 



army against Boeotia, 310; comes 
to Haliartus and asks for body of 
Lysander, makes truce, 314; flees 
to Tegea where he dies, 318; was 
son of Pleistoanax, succeeded by 
his elder son Agesipolis, X. 8 

Pausanias (3), slew Philip of Macedon, 
VII. 250; 52 

Pausanias (4), physician, gets letter 
from Alexander, VII. 346 

Pausanias (5), acting for SeleucvLs, 
seizes Demetrius and conducts him 
to the Syrian Chersonese, IX. 128 

Peace, altar of, built by Athenians to 
commemorate Eurymedon, ii. 446; 
of Antalcidas, V. 62, XI. 176; be- 
tween Octavius and Antonv, IX. 
204, 216; between Greeks, V. 98; 
of Nicias, III. 240, IV. 32; between 
Philip and Romans, X. 346 ; be- 
tween Sextus Pompeius, Antony, 
and Octavius, IX. 206 f . ; between 
Sulla and Archelaiis, IV. 398; 
between Timoleon and the Cartha- 
ginians, VI. 340 

" Peculium," derived from " pecus," 

I. 532 

Pedalium, place in the Chersonese, 

II. 544 

Pedicularis morbus, IV. 438 

Pedum, Latin city taken by Volscians 
under Coriolanus, IV. 186 

Pegae, in Megarid, lll. 60, XI. 98, 100 

Peiralc gate, at Athens, I. 62, IV. 370 

PeirithoUs, becomes friend of The- 
seus, marries Deldameia, I. 68 ; 
helps Theseus carry off Helen from 
Sparta; is seized by Aldoneus, king 
of Molossians and killed, 72 

Peisianacteum, later called Painted 
Colonnade, adorned by Polvgnotus, 
11.414 

Peisander (1), sent to Athens to change 
form of government, TV. 74 

Peisander (2), put in charge of navy 
by Agesilaiis, v. 26; defeated off 
Cnidus by Pharnabazus and Conon, 
V. 46 

Peisistratidae, expelled by Clelsthenes, 
HI. 8 

" Peisistratidae, new," name given 
Pericles and his associates by comic 
poets. III. 50 

Peisistratus, related to Solon and great 
friend of his at first, I. 404, 406 ; of 

435 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^ LIVES 



township Philaidae, 428; son of 
Hippocrates, 490; supported Solon 
in war on Salamis, 422 ; leading the 
Uill-men becomes tyrant of Athens 
in spite of Solon's opposition, 486 f ., 
572 ; courts Solon and retains most 
of his laws, made law that those 
maimed in war should be maintained 
at public expense, 494; expunged 
verse from Hesiod and inserted one 
in Inferno of Homer, 40 ; married 
Tiraonassa of Argolis and begot 
lophon and Thessalus, II. 376; III, 
16 ; saying of his, II. 376 
Pelagon, Euboean, il. 20 
Pelasgians, said to have settled city 

and called it Rome, i. 90 
Peleus, son of Aeacas and Endels, 1. 20 
" Peleus," name given Philip by 
Lysimachus, Alexander's tutor, VII. 
236 
Pelias, father of Acastus, IV. 440 
Pelignians, repulsed at Pydna, vi. 406 
Pella, city of Macedonia, VI. 416 
Pella, L., ex-praetor, condemned by 

Brutus for embezzlement, VI. 202 
Pellen6, X. 18; seized by Aetolians, 
freed by Aratus, XI. 70 ; stormed by 
Cleomenes, 90, x. 86 
Pelopidae, IX. 464 

Pelopidas, his character and career, 
V. 344 ; his family and wealth, was 
friend of Epaminondas, 436 f . ; 
saved by Epaminondas in battle 
with Spartan? against Arcadians at 
Mantuieia, 348; arouses Theban 
exiles to attempt liberation of 
Thebes, 354 ; leads band of exiles to 
Thebes and slays Theban tyrants, 
356 f.; elected boeotarch, drives 
Spartans from acropolis, 370; with 
Gorgias devises scheme to embroil 
Athens with Sparta, 372; wins dis- 
tinction in battles with Spartans, 
especially at Tecyra, 376 f., 380, 386 
Eirst to side with Epaminondas 
to give battle to Cleombrotus, 388 ; 
before Leuctra has strange dream, 
390, 392 ; with his band of 300 turns 
the tide at Leuctra, 39tf. ; boeo- 
tarch with Epaminondas invades 
Peloponnesus, detaches most of 
Spartan allies, takes many cities, 
ravages Spartan land, 396 f.; re- 
stored Messenla and settled Ithom6, 



tried for his life on return, 398 f . ; 
goes to help Thessalians against 
Alexander of Pherae, 402 f . ; goes 
to Macedonia and acts as arbiter be- 
tween Ptolemy and Alexander, king 
of the Macedonians, brings Philip 
and others as hostages to Thebes, 
404; goes once more to help Thes- 
salians against Alexander of Pherae, 
and to deal with Ptolemy who had 
killed the king of Macedonia, 406; 
is taken prisoner along with 
Ismenias by Alexander of Pherae, 
408; visited by Theb6, wife of 
Alexander, 410; with Ismenias is 
recovered by Epaminondas and 
brought home, is sent on embassy to 
Persian king, 414, XI. 178 f.; highly 
honoured by Artaxerxes, who grants 
all his demands, 416; sent once 
more to help Thessalians against 
Alexander of Pherae, 420; attacks 
him at Cynoscephalae and is slain, 
422 f. ; bitterly mourned and given 
splendid funeral by Thessalians, 
426 f. 
See also II. 212, VI. 844, XI. 34 
Quoted : v. 388, 410, 422 

Peloponnesian war, its causes, III, 
82'f., 202 ; its course, 94 f ., 226 f ., 
IV. 42 f., 238 f. 

Peloponnesians, their character, II. 
414; attack Pylos, and 400 Spar- 
tans are cut oft on island of Snhac- 
teria, ill. 230 ; IV. 90 ; defeated by 
Athenians off Arginnsae islands, llf. 
108 

Peloponnesus, I. 72, ll. 26, 460, III. 56 ; 
ravaged first by Tolmides, then by 
Pericles, 60 ; ravaged by Athenians, 
98; invaded by Thebans under 
Epaminondas and Pelopidas, V. 396 ; 
invaded by Demetrius, IX. 58; by 
Pyrrhus, 434 ; freed from Macedon- 
ians by Aratus, X. 82; XI. 92; II. 
474 

Pelops (1), strongest of kings in 
Peloponnesus, ancestor of Theseus 
on hib mother's side, I. 6 ; father of 
Lysidic6 and Pittheus by Hippo- 
dameia, 16 

Pelops (2), of Byzantium, gets angry 
letter from Cicero, vil. 142 

Pelusium, in Egypt, taken by Antony, 
IX. 142 f.; by Octavius Caesar, 306 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Peneius river, in volume and speed 
equalled by Apsus, X. 328 

Penelop6, wife of Lvsimaohus, IX 60 

PeDsious, given to descendants of 
Aristides by Athens and by Deme- 
trius, II, 296 

Pentakosiomedimnoi, those with 500 
measures yearly iucrcjise; highest 
class in Solon's scheme, I. 450, II. 
210, 386 

Pentapyla, part of Syracuse, VI. 62 

Penteleium, won over by Cleomenes, 
X. 86, XI. 90 

Pcntheus, character in " Eacchae " of 
Euripides, ill. 420 

•* People's Flight," name of day on 
which Romulus disappeared, 1. 182 

Peparethus, Diodes of, I. 96 

Percote, city given by Persian king to 
help support Themistocles, II. 80 

Perdiccas (1), in Thrace, ill. 428 

Perdiccas (2), with Alexander on his 
expedition, VII. 262; advanced to 
Hephaestion's place after his death, 
VIII, 78; accomplice of Roxana 
in murdering Stateira; in great 
authority after Alexander's death, 
ni. 436; urged by Demades to 
seize Macedonia and deliver Greeks, 
78; informed of designs of Leon- 
natus by Eumencs, makes him 
satrap of Cappadocia, sends him 
back from Cilieia to reduce Armenia 
to obedience, viii. 86 f.; 90; slain 
in mutiny in Egypt, 100 

Prrgamenians, VI. 130 

Pergamum, X. 194; occupied by 
Mithridates, IV. 358 ; II. 478 ; home 
of Athenodorus; its libraries given 
to Cleopatra, IX. 270 

Pergamus, district of, in Crete, I. 302 

ITepl alrioiv "PoyixaiKHiv, work by 
Plutarch, II. 140 

Periander, son of Cypselus, XI. 8 ; 
arranged joint conference and 
banquet for 7 wise men at Corinth, 
1.412; 432 

Urpi ^ao-iAeias, work by Theophrastus, 
11.68 

Periboea, mother of Alas, married by 
Theseus, I. 66 

Periclcidas, goes to Athens to get aid 
for Sparta acainst Helots and 
Me?senian«-, II. '154 

Pericles, his family and physical 



deformity. III. 6 f . ; had Damon sis 
teacher in music, 8, II. 214; studied 
vrith Zeno the Eleatic and Anaia- 
goras the Clazomenian, in. 10; as 
a young man reluctant to face the 
people 16; joiaed the party of the 
people and shunned society, 18; 
excelled as an orator, 20 f . ; aristo- 
cratic rather than democratic in 
administration, 24; opposes Cimon 
and the Council of the Areiopagus, 
26 ; has Cimon recalled from banish- 
ment, 28, II. 458; made lenient to 
Cimon by Elpinice, Cimon's sister, 
448,111.30; opposed by Thucydides 
of Alopec6, leader of the " Good and 
True," 32; catered to the people, 
sent out numerous colonies, adorned 
Athens with public works, 34 f.; 
had Pheidias as general overseer of 
these works, 40 ; has musical con- 
test added to Panathenaic festival 
42; denounced by Thucydides for 
lavish expenditure, 46 ; with banish- 
ment of Thucydides has a free 
hand, 46 f . ; imtainted by cor- 
ruption; invites all Greek states 
to send deputies to a council at 
Athens to deliberate on various 
questions, 54 f. ; led successful ex- 
pedition to the Chersonesus, 58; 
other achievements, 60 f.; right in 
seeking to confine porver of Athen- 
ians within le-ser Greece; bribes 
Cleandridas to have Spartan army 
withdrawn from Attica, 64 ; subdued 
cities in Euboea, 66 : gets decree 
passed for expedition against 
Samlans; his relations with Aspa- 
sia, 68 f.; conducts war against 
Pamians, 72 f . ; receives surrender 
cf Samians, 78 

When Peloponnesian war was 
imminent, persuaded people to send 
aid to Corcyraoans in their war 
against Corinth, 82 ; accused of thus 
furnishing enemies pretext for 
war, 84; held responsible for war, 
86, 240; secures acquittal of 
Aspasia, 92 ; refuses to let Athenians 
attack invading army of Archi- 
damus, 94 f,; sends 100 ships to 
ravage the Peloponnesus, parcels 
out .'\ogina among the citizens, 
razes the Megarid, 98; blamed for 

4,37 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



the plague, 100, 226; fails in ex- 
pedition against Epidaurus and is 
fined, his domestic troubles, 102 f . ; 
recalled to conduct of affairs, lOG ; 
asks suspension of law about 
children born out of wedlock ; what 
this law was, 106 f. ; his dying 
words, 110; an appreciation of 
him, 112 f. 

See also I. 256, II. 6, 286, 292, 294, 
324, 444, 450, III. 212, 214, 290, 
IV. 2, VII. 22, 32, VIII. 160 

Savings : HI. 24, 36, 46, 58, 80, 
110, ly. 8 ^ 

Ilepl eiryei/eias, possibly work of 
Aristotle, 11.296 

riepl eiKTe^ei'a?, treatise by Dal- 
machiis, IV. 264 

Ilepl riixepu)v, treatise by Plutarch, 
II. 138 

Perigun6, daughter of Sinis, bore 
Melanippus to Theseus, afterwards 
lived with Deioneus, son of Eurytus, 

I. 18 

Ilept iJLvrifjLaTuiv, work by Diodorus 
the topographer, ll. 88 

Perinthus, attacked by Philip, saved 
by Athenians, vil. 40, viii. 174; 
besieged by Alexander, vii. 420 

Perioeci, received 30,000 lots of 
Laconian land in redistribution of 
Lvcurgus, I. 228; attack Sparta, ii. 
454 

Peripatetics, older, had no wide or ex- 
act acquaintances with writings of 
Aristotle and Theophrastus, iv. 406 

Periphemus, hero to whom Solon 
sacrificed, I. 424 

Periphetes, Club-bearer, slain by 
Theseus, I. 16 

" Periphoretus," surname of the 
engineer Artemon, III. 78 

Ilepl nKovTov, work by Eratosthenes, 

II. 74 

Peripolitas, seer, conducted King 

Opheltas from Thessaly to Boeotia; 

his posterity, II. 404 
Ilepl ^vxrii, treatise by Heracleides 

Ponticus, II. 146 
nepia-Kv\aKc<TixoL, rites performed by 

Greeks, I. IfiO 
Peritas, favourite dog of Alexander, 

VII. 398 
Ilepl Bto)v, treatise by Autlochos the 

philosopher, II. 504 



Perithoedae, deme of Hyperbolas, III. 
248, IV. 28 

Ilepl Toi) ^evyouj of Isocrates, cited 
IV. 26 

Perpenna Vento, M., abandons Sicily 
to Pompey, V. 156; came to Spain 
to fight lietellus, is forced to join 
Sertorius, VIII. 38 f.; with Heren- 
nius defeated by Pompey, v. 158; 
defeated, captured, and executed 
byPompey, 164, V111.72f.; quoted, 
66 

Perrhaebia, VI. 392 ; proclaimed free 
at Isthmian games by Flamininus, 
X. 350 

Persaeus, philosopher, commanded 
Acrocorinthas for Antigonus, XI. 
38; on its capture escaped to 
Cenchreae; anecdote about him, 
52 

Persephone, festival of; black heifer 
sacrificed, II. 500 

Perseus (1). his deeds against Aethio- 
pians, Medes, Armenians, II. 410 

Perseus (2), son of Pliilip, succeeds him 
to throne of Macedonia; said to 
have been really son of Gnathaenion, 
an Argive semptress, vi. 374, xi. 
124 ; wages war on Romans, ll. 302, 
VI. 370; his lineage and events 
prior to his accession, 372 f., IX. 
134; in spite of his mean and 
ignoble character wins successes 
against Romans, VI. 374 f. ; through 
avarice loses the help of the Bis- 
ternae, 382 ; basely betrays Gen- 
thius the lUyrian king; had 4000 
cavalry and nearly 40,000 heavy- 
armed infantry, 386 ; taken in the 
rear by Scipio Nasica, 394 : retires 
to Pydna and prepares for battle, 
396; is defeated by Romans under 
Aemilius Panlus, 400 f. ; flees from 
Pydna to Pella, 414 f. ; flees with 
his treasiu-e from Pella to Amphi- 
polis, from there to Galepsus, then 
sails across to Samothrace and takes 
refuge in temple of the Dioscuri, 
416 f. ; is left in the lurch by the 
Cretan Croandes, who sails off with 
his treasure, 422 ; surrenders to the 
Romans, 424, II. 346; is led with 
his children in triumph of Aemilius 
Paulus, VI. 442 f.; the manner ot 
his death, 450 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Persians, invaded Greece, II. 404; 
defeated by Greeks at Maratlicn 
Plataea, Mycalo, Arbela, 138, 224, 
III. 6; came into closer lelatious 
with Greeks after time of Themis- 
tocles, II. 80 ; defeated by Cimon on 
banks of Strymon, 422 ; 438 f, : d>^- 
feated at the Eurymedon, 442 f . ; 
446; 4G4; defeated large forces of 
Greeks in Egypt, 618 ; 620 ; attacked 
by Agesilaiis, 464; send money to 
Demosthenes to aid in struggle 
against Philip, VII. 48; defeated 
by Alexander at river Granicus, ll. 
138, VII. 262 ; some of their women 
marry Alexander's Macedonians, 
418; guard their women very 
jealously, n. 72 ; XI. 154 

" Persians " of Timotheus, opening 
verse, X. 284 

Persis, invaded and ravaged by 
Alexander, VII. 334; VIII. 120 

Pessinus, place in Asia Minor, Vlll. 
268, IX. 508 

Pestilence, in Rome in time of 
Romul'os, I. 166 ; swept Rome and 
Italy in time of Numa, 350; at 
Citium, II. 466 ; at Velitrae, IV. 144 ; 
at Athens, ni. 98 f., 226 f.; at Rome, 
II. 162, 206; in Demetrius' army, 
rx. 118 

Petelia, hill of, Hannibal slays 2500 
Romans there, V. 514; mountains 
of, III. 346 

Peteline Grove, scene of final trial of 
Manlius, II. 183 

Peteos, father of Menestheus, I. 72 

Peticius, takes Pompey, the two 
Lentuli, Favonius, and Deiotarus 
on board his ship, v. 306 f. 

Petilius, praetor, read I^uma's books, 
which were then burned in Comi- 
tium, I. 380 

Petillius, supported by Cato the Elder, 
prosecutes Scipio the Great, ll. 314 

Petinus, adherent of Nero, executed 
by G alba, XI. 240 

Petra, in northern Greece, VI. 392 

Petra, city in Arabia Petraea, V. 220, 
IX, 296 

Petrachus, the so-called, near Thuriiun 
in Boeotla, IV. 382 

Petro, Granius, see " Qranius Petrn." 

Petronios, in army of Grassus at 
Carrhae, III. 412 ; "legionary tribune, 



assists In attempt to save Crassus, 
414 

Petronius Turpilianus, of consular 
rank, ordered by Galba to take his 
own life, XI. 236, 240 

Peucestas, with Alexander on his 
expedition, vii. 346 f. ; saves 
Alexander, 404 ; friend of Eumenes, 
with other satraps joins him, viii 
118 ; rejected bv soldiers in favour 
of Eumenes, 120 f.; 124; fought 
ignobly for Eumenes against 
Antigonas, 130 

Phaea, the Crommyonian sow, or, as 
some say, a female robber called 
sow because of her life and manners, 
slain by Theseus, 1. 18 f. 

Phaeax (1), said to have been Theseus' 
look-out man on his trip to Crete, I. 
34 

Phaeax (2), father of Erasistratos, v. 
40 

Phaeax (3), son of Erasistratus, able 
opponent of Alcibiades, iv. 28 ; he, 
not Nicias, striving with Alcibiades 
when Hyperbolus was banished 
according to Theophrastus, 30, ill. 
250 ; his speech " Against Alcibi- 
ades " cited, IV. 28 

Phaedimus, warns Eumenes of plots 
against his life, VIII. 128 

Phaedo, archonship of, I. 82 

Phaedra, wife of Theseus, met with 
calamities, I. 64 

Phaenaret6, wife of Samon, ix. 358 

Phaenippas, archon eponymous in 
year of Marathon, II. 228 

" Phaenomerides," term applied to 
Spartan maidens, I. 248, 390 

Phaestus, Epimenides of, I. 432 

Phaethon, first king of Thesprotians 
and Molossians after the flood; 
came into Epeirus with Pelasgus, 

IX. 346 

Plialanx, its strength and weakness, 

X. 342 ; VI. 402, 406 

Phalerum, had temple of Scirus and 
memorial chapels for Nausithous 
and Phaeax, I. 34 ; haven of, II. 34 ; 
210; had tomb of Aristides, 296 

Phalinus, Zacynthian, sent by Arta- 
xerxes after Cunaxa to parley with 
Groeks, XI. 156 

Phallu-, phantom of, in home of 
Tarchetius, king of Albans, I. 94 

439 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Phanias, Lesbian of Eresos, philo- 
sopher and historian, ii. 40; cited : 
I. 436, 496, n. 2, 20 f., 40, 74, 80 

Phanodemus, cited : II. 38, 442, 464 

Pharax, Spartan, emissary between 
Dionysius and Heracleides, defeats 
Dion at Neapolis, Vl. 102, 286 ; 462 

Pharmacusa, island near which Caesar 
was captured by pirates, vil. 444 

Pharmuthi, Egyptian month, i. 122 

Pharnabazus (1), IV. 66 ; assists 
Spartans at naval battle of Abydos, 
80 ; defeated at Oyzicus by Alcibi- 
ades, 80 f . ; defeated by Thrasyllus 
and Alcibiades, 84; attempts to 
raise siege of Chalcedon, put to 
flight by Alcibiades, 86; makes 
peace with Athenian generals on 
conditions, 88; visited by Alcibi- 
ades in Phrygia, 110; bidden by 
Lysander to kill Alcibiades, 112 f., 
300; denounces Lysander to Sparta, 
284 f . ; V. 20 ; his province ravaged 
by Agesilaiis, 28 ; has conference 
with him, 32 f.; defeats and slays 
Peisander off Cnidus, 46, XI. 176; 
with Gonon ravages coasts of 
Laconia, furnished money for re- 
building walls of Athens, V. 62 ; 
quarrels with Iphicrates and so 
conducts unsuccessful war against 
Egypt for Artaxeries, Xl. 184; 
quoted : V. 32 f . 

Pharnabazus (2), son of Artabazu?, 
commands foreign horse under 
Eumenes, VIII. 96 

Pharnaces, son of Mithridates, revolts 
and thus drives his father to suicide, 
submits to Pompey and sends him 
gifts, V. 222 ; defeats Domitius and 
drives him from Pontus, occupies 
Bithvnia and Oappadocia, defeated 
at Zela by Caesar and driven from 
Pontus, VIT. 560 

Pharnacia, hiding place of Mithri- 
dates' women-folk, II. 624 

Pharnapates, most capable general of 
Hyrodes, slain by Ventidias, ix. 
210 

Pharos, visited by Alexander and 
made site of Alexandria, vil. 298 f.; 
560; IX. 296 

Pharsalin, plain of, V. 292 

Pharsalianp, proud of cavalry, routed 
by Age. ilaiis, v. -14 

440 



PharsaluB, occupied by Alexander of 
Pherae, v. 408, 422; battle of, 
Caesar defeats Pompey, v. 292 f ., 
VI. 134, 136, VII, 180, 182, 546 f., 
IX. 156 

Pharygae, village of Phocis at foot of 
Mt. Acrurium, VIII. 222 

Phaselis, Hellenic city, joins Cimon 
against Persians, II. 440; Vll. 272 

Phasis, II. 580 ; northern boundary of 
Lucullus' conquests, 618; river in 
Colchis, V. 206 

Phayllus, athlete of Croton, in 
Median wars fitted out ship at his 
own expense and sailed to Salamis, 
honoured in remembrance by Alex- 
ander, VII. 328 

Phegaea, Attic deme, iv. 60 

Pheidias, ill. 4; general manager and 
overseer of public works under 
Pericles, III. 40 ; made golden image 
of Athena, became involved in 
scandal, 44; charged with em- 
bezzlement, dies in prison, 88; 
moulded Zeus of Homer according 
to Aemilius Paulus, VI. 428 

" Pheido," surname of Demetrius, vil. 
382 

Pheneus, captured by Cleomenes, X. 
86, XI. 90 

Pherae ^1), ruled by Alexander, v. 
402, 406 

Pherae (2), Achaean city, menaced by 
Cleomenes, X. 78 

Pheraean, the, see " Alexander of 
Pherae." 

Phereboea, married by Theseus, I. 66 

Pherecles, approaches priestesses of 
Dodona for Lysander, iv. 304 

Phereclus, son of Amarsyas, accord- 
ing to Simonides was pilot of ship 
bearing Theseus and other victims 
to Crete, l. 34 

Pherecydes (1), though foreigner, 
honoured at Sparta, x. 24; lyric _ 
poet, eaten of worms and died, ■ 

IV. 440 1 
Pherecydes (2), cited, I. 36, 58 
Pherecydes, wise man, pat to death by 

Spartans and his skin preserved, 

V. 300 
Pherendates, commander of Persian 

infantry at Eurymedon according 
to Ephorus, II. 440 
Pherenicus, outlawed from Thebes by 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Spartans holding the Cadmeia, V. 

352; 356 
Pheristus, with Megellus, repeoples 

Agrigentum, Vl. 341 
Phersephon^, wife of Aidoneus, I. 

72 
Phiditia, Spartan for public me.~i~e<: ; 

etjTnology of the word, I. 236, V. '>i 
Phila, daughter of Antipater, wife 

first of Craterus then of Demetriu?, 

EX. 32 f., 50, 334; 64; mother of 

Antigonus and Stratonic6, 76 f,, 

90, 134; had sister Eurydic^, 116; 

commits suicide, 112 
"Phlladelphus," Greek surname from 

a special excellence, IV. 142 
Philaidelphus, king of Paphlagonia, 

fights under Antony, IX. 276 
Philfieus, son of Ajas, became 

Athenian citizen and made over 

Salamis to Athens, I. 426 
Philagrus, teacher of Metellus Nepos, 

VII. 148 

Philaldae, Attic township to which 
Peisistratus belonged ; named after 
Philaeus, son of Ajax, I. 428 

PMlargyrus, freedman of Cato the 
Younger, VIII. 328 

Philarus, stream joined by Hoplites, 
in Boeotia, iv. 316 

Philetas, poet, III. 4 

Philides, horse-breeder, II. 14 

Philinna, mother of Arrhidaeus by 
Philip of Macedon, vil. 43G 

Philip, with Archias and Leontidas 
persuades Phoebldas to seize Cad- 
meia, v. 350 f . ; polemarch at 
Thebes, 354; slain, 360 

Philip of Macedon, his character, vil. 
232, 234, vni. 4; progenitor of 
Perseus, VI. 384; brought as 
hostage to Thebes by Pelopidas, 
V. 404 f . ; married Olympias, sister 
of Arymbas, vn. 226"; took Poti- 
daea, 230 ; made Euboea submit 
to its tyrants, 40, VIII. 170; leaving 
Alexander as regent, made expedi- 
tion against Byzantium, Vll. 244, 

VIII. 174; expelled from Hellespont 
through Phocion, 176 ; his successes 
in regard to Amphissa, Elateia, and 
Phocis, VII. 42; defeats Greeks at 
Chaeroneia, ll, 138, VII, 48, 244, 
VIII. 178; proclaimed commander- 
in-chief of Greeks, IX. 58 ; marries 

VOL. XI. 



Cleopatra; vii. 246; IX. 338; slain, 
VII.50, VIII. 180 

See also VI. 296, VII. 30, 38, 42. 
228, 23G, 240, 246, 248, 250, VIII. 
78, XI. 52 

Quoted : ill. 4, v. 386, VI. 296, 
VII. 236 

Philip, companion of Alexander, made 
raler of large territory in India, vi). 
398 

Philip, the Acharnanian, cures Alex- 
ander, VII. 276 

Philip (Arrhidaeus), see Arrhidaeus. 

Philip, father of Antigonus, IX. 6 

Philip, son of Antigonus and Strato- 
nic6, younger than his brother 
Demetrius, died early, ix. 6, 54 

Philip, eldest son of Cassander, aft«r 
latter's death reigned over Mace- 
donians short time, then died, 
leaving two brothers, Antipater and 
Alexander, IX. 86 

Philip, had daughter Antigon6 by 
Berenic6, IX. 356 

Philip, successor of Antigonus Doson, 
sent into Peloponnesus by latter, 
XI. 106 ; supports Aratus as general 
of Achaeans, wins obedience of 
Cretans quickly, conducts vigorous 
campaign against Aetolians, 110; 
put to death courtiers for attacking 
Aratus, sets Messenians by the ears, 
112; lost Ixis fleet to Romans, 
ravaged territory of Messenians, 
IIG; got Taurion to poison Aratus, 
118; at war with Rome, X. 324; 
faces Publius Villius, 328; driven 
from mountains along Apsus by 
Flamlninus, 330; 334: meets 
Flamininus, but refuses nis terms, 
336 ; sends unsuccessful embassy 
to Rome, 338 ; defeated by 
Flamininus at Cynoscephalae, ll. 
350, VI. 372, X. 292, 340, 386; 344; 
terms of peace with Rome, 346, 
362, XI. 122; left kingdom to his 
son Perseu.5, 124, II. 334 

See also IX. 8, X. 274, 286, 348, 
388 

Quoted : X. 344 f., XI. 36 

Philip, freedman of Pompey, v. 320 

Philip (L. Marcius), married mother 
of young Caesar, negotiates with 
Cicero, VII. 194 

Philip, the Chalcidian, cited, ni. 366 

p 441 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Philip of Theangela, cited, VII. 356 
Philippi, IV, 402; battle of, vi. 178, 

18fi, 208, 212 
Philippics, name given Cicero's 

speeches against Antony, vil. 142, 

206 
Philippides, enemy of Stratocles, IX. 

30 
Philippides (Kock iii. 308), IX. 30, 

62 
Philippus, L,, moves that Pompey be 

sent against Sertorius, V. 118, i56 
Philippus, Marcius, censor with Aemi- 

liusPauIus, VI. 456 
Philippus, gives his daughter Marcia 

first to Cato, then to Hortensius, 

VIII. 292; consul, 330 
Philistus, his language corrected by 

Timaeusjill. 210 ; recalled from exile 

by Dionysius, the Younger, Vl. 22 f . ; 

advises Dionysius to banish Dion, 

28, 38 ; in wait for Dion's fleet at 

lapygia, 52 ; defeated and slain 

by Syracusans, 76 ; his books sent 

to Alexander, VII. 242. 

Cited : ill. 276, 306, V. 428, VI. 

298 
Phillidas, contrives to be appointed 

secretary to Archias and Philip, the 

polemarchs, V. 354; helps exiles 

kill tyrants and drive Spartans from 

Thebes, 360 
Philo, arsenal of, burned by Sulla, 

IV. 372 
Philo, represented doctrines of Oar- 

neades, founder of New Academy, ll. 

606 ; disciple of Cleitomachus, his 

lectures attended by Cicero, VII. 86 ; 

90 
Philo, the Theban, cited, VII. 356 
Philoboetus, hill in plains of Elatea, 

IV. 374 
Philochorus, cited, l. 28, 30, 34, 36, 

58, 68, 80, III. 292 
Philocles, one of Athenian commanders 

at Aegospotami, iv. 254; executed 

by Lysander, 264 ; 454 
Philocles, cited by Didymus, I. 404 
Philocrates, member of embassy of ten 

sent to Philip, Vll. 38 
Philocrates, servant of 0. Gracchus, 

slays his master and then himself, 

X. 236 
Philoctetes, once ruled territory about 

Olizon, II. 22 (. 



Philoctetes, character in play of same 
name, l. 460 

" Philoctetes," play of uncertain 
authorship (Nauck 841), cited, i. 
460 

Philocyprus, one of kings of Cyprus, 
loved Solon greatly, named new 
city Soli in his honour, I. 476. 

Philologus, freedman of Q. Cicero, 
betrayed Cicero to his murderer, 
punished by Pomponia, vil. 206 

Philombrotus, succeeded by Solon as 
arch on, l, 436 

Philomelus, Phocian, one of party 
that seized Delphi and plundered 
sanctuary, VI. 334 

Philoneicus, Thessalian, offered Buce- 
phalus to Philip for 13 talents, VII. 
236 

Philonicus, Licinlus, see " Licinius 
Philonicus." 

Philopoemen, son of Craugis, reared 
first by Cleander, then by Ecdemus 
and Megalophanes, X. 256; his 
appearance, 258; his character, 
260 ; youthful activities and train- 
ing, 262 f.; stoutly resists Cleo- 
menes when latter seized Megalo- 
polis at night, 264; persuades 
Megalcpolitans to refuse Cleomenes' 
offer to restore their city, 104, 266 ; 
distinguishes himself in battle at 
Sellasia, 266 ; refuses service under 
Antigonns, 270; serves with credit 
in Crete, is made commander of 
Achaean cavalry, defeats Aetolians 
and Eleians at river Larissus, 272 ; 
makes Achaeans independent of 
foreign protectors, changes armour 
and drill of troops, 276; defeats 
Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta at 
Mantineia, 280; honoured at 
Nemean games, 284 

His life attempted by Philip of 
Macedon, rescues Messene from 
Nabis, 286; serves with distinction 
as general of the Gortyuians in 
Crete, 288; saved by Achaeans 
from being exiled by his native 
city, 290; chosen general against 
Nabis, defeated in naval battle, 
292; defeats Nabis, 294: gives 
secret umbrage to Flamininus, 296, 
360; brings Sparta into Achaean 
league, 296; shuts out Flamiainua 



442 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



and Diophanes from Sparta and 
brings it back again into the league, 
300 ; as general of Achaean league, 
tore down walls of Sparta, annexed 
it to Megalopolis, and abolished 
constitution of Lycurgus, 30'-' ; 
defeats Deinocrates, who had in- 
duced Me5sen6 to revolt from 
Achaean league, but is taken 
prisoner, 310; drinks poison sent 
In by Deinocrates and dies, 314; 
his death avenged, his funeral, 314 
See also 368, XT. 54 
Quoted : X. 258, 290, 304, 306, 
314 

Philosophers, their definition of love, 
I. 190; fared ill until Plato CEime, 
III. 290; troubled Alexander in 
India, manv hanged bv him, vii. 
392; assist 'Dio, VI. 46; "2 94; those 
at Athens treated with munificence 
byPompey, V. 224; how speculative 
philosopher differs from statesman, 
III. 54 

Philosophy, higher, influence on 
Pericles, III. 12; effect of its lack, 
XI. 24; II. 472 

Philosophy, natural, removes super- 
stition, ill. 14; Latin terms of, 
provided by Cicero, vii. 184 

Ptdlostephanus, cited, i. 276 

Philostratus, philosopher, honoured 
by Cato in Sicily, nil. 374; par- 
doned by Octavius, IX. 318 

Philotas, son of Parmenio and friend 
of Alexander, vil. 248; 254; 316; 
342 ; suspected of plotting against 
Alexander, is put to death. 360 

Philotas, physician of Amphissa, his 
anecdote about Antony, IX, 198 

Philotis, or Tutula, serving-maid, 
proposes and carries out ruse to 
defeat Latins, I. 184, II. 176 

Philoxenus, son of Ptolemy, given as 
hostage to Pelopidas, v. 406 

Philoxenas, dithjrrambic poems of, 
sent to Alexander, VII. 242 

Philoxenus, commander of Alexander's 
forces on sea-board, VII. 284. 

Phlius, attacked by Agesilail^ in 
interests of its tyrants, V. 66 ; joins 
Achaean league, xi. 80; joins 
Cleomenes, X. 90, XI. 90; garrison 
of OligvTtus expelled from it by 
Oleomenes, X. 110 



Phlogidas, Spartan, opposed to gold 
and silver coinage, IV. 276 

Phlogius, accompanied Autolycus, 
II. 544 

Phlya, native place of MjTon, I. 432; 
had chapel shrine belonging to 
Lycomidae, which was burned by 
barbarians, restored by Therais- 
tocles, II. 4; had temple of Apollo 
the Laurel-bearer, 44 

•to^os, sacrificed to by Theseus, I. 62 ; 
by Alexander, vil. 316. 8ee also 
" Fesir." 

Phocaea, IV. 242 

Phocians, hid in caves near Tithora 
on advance of Xerxes, IV, 374; 
forced by Spartans to free Del- 
phians, II. 456 ; driven from sanc- 
tuary at Delphi by Spartans and 
Delphians, reinstated. III. 62; 
denounced Thebans to Alexander, 
VII. 254; proclaimed free at 
Isthmian games by Flamininus, x. 
350 

Phocion, his lineage, pupil of Plato, 
then of Xenocrates, Vlll. 152 ; his 
character and power as speaker, 
154, VII. 24, 34; attached himself 
to Chabrias, distinguished himself 
In sea-fight off Naxos, vril. 156; 
strove to be both orator and states- 
man, his policies, 160; sent with 
small force to Eretria to oppose 
Philip, 170; sent to help allies 
on the Hellespont, 174; expels 
Philip from Hellespont, brings help 
to Megara, 176; put in charge of 
Athens after Chaeroneia, opposes 
rejoicing at Pliilin's death and 
opposition to Alexander, 180; 
persuades Alexander to turn his 
arms against the Barbarians and 
becomes his friend, 182; vexes 
Alexander by refusing his gift, 184, 
VII. 340; his domestic life, viii. 
188; advises Athenians to accede 
to Alexander's request for triremes, 
190; resists Harpalus' attempts to 
bribe him, 192; tries to re-train 
people when news of Alexander's 
death is brought, 194 

Opposes Leosthenes, 194, VI. 274 ; 
successfully opposes sending expedi- 
tion against Boeotians, Vlll. 198; 
defeated Micion and his Mace- 

443 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



donians, 200; as envoy persuades 
Antipater not to invade Attica, 
202 ; with other ambassadors sent 
to meet Antipater at Thebes, 204; 
induces Antipater to exempt many 
from exile, 210; refuses gift of 
money from Menylhis, 212, XI. 42; 
persuades Antipater not to exact 
moneys due from city, Vlll. 214; 
refases to arrest Nicanor, Cas- 
sander's general, 218; deposed 
from command, 220 ; sets out with 
Deinarchus and others to meet 
Polysperchon, 222 ; taken back to 
Athens by Cleitus, virtually under 
sentence of death, 224; condemned 
to death by Athenian assembly, 
228; drinks the hemlock, 230; 
his burial, his death avenged, 232 

Sayings: 154, 158, 1C2, 164 f., 
174, 178 f., 190 f., 212, 226, 228 f., 
X. 4 
Phocis, raided by Xerxes, II. 26; 408; 

III. 56 ; IV. 310 ; occupied by Philip, 

VII. 42 

Phocus, son of Phocion, victor as 
vaulting rider of horses, sent by 
his father to Sparta for training, 

VIII. 188 f.; 212; 228; takes ven- 
geance on Epicurus and Demo- 
philus for his father's death, 232 

Phoebidas, seized Cadmeia in time of 
peace, v. 64, 350 ; slain at Thespiae 
by Thebans, 376 

Phoebis, sent by Oleomenes to slay 
ephors, X. 64 

Phoenicia, iv. 252; with exception 
of Tyre, surrenders to Alexander, 
VII. 292; 308; its cities subdued 
by Tigranes, II. 534; V. 196; taken 
from Tigranes by Lucullus, 202 ; 
triumphed over by Pompey, 230; 
given to Cleopatra by Antony, ix. 
216 f. 

Phoenician ships, II. 440, 444, 462, 

IV. 70, 76 

Phoenicians, send ships to aid of 
Samians, III. 74; routed in Sicily 
by P3Trhu3 and their territory 
subdued, IX. 418; call the cow 
" thor," IV. 382 
Phoenix, reared Achilles, X. 256 
Phoenix, name which Lysimachus, 
tutor of Alexander, gave himself, 
VII. 236 



Phoenix, his surrender demanded of 

Thebans by Alexander, vil. 252 
Phoenix, of Tenedos, commands 

foreign horse under Euraenes, vill. 

96 
" Phoenix," name of fount where 

Apollo was born, V. 378 
Phorbas, father of Dexithea, I. 92 ; 

loved by Apollo, 318 
Phormio, Athenian general, iv. 2 
Phormio, prosecuted by ApoUodorus, 

used speech written for him by 

Demosthenes, VII. 36, 216 
Phraata, large city besieged by 

Antony, IX. 222, 226, 252 
Phraates, Parthian, demands Tigranes 

of Pompey on plea that he is his 

son-in-law, and that Euphrates be 

adopted as boundary between his 

empire and that of the Bomans, 

V. 204 
Phraates, put his father Hyrodes to 

death and seized kingdom, iii. 422, 

IX. 218 
Phraortes, Parthian, quarrels with 

king of the Medes, IX. 254 
Phrasicles, nephew of Themistocles 

and husband of his daughter Nico- 

mach6, took charge of Asia the 

youngest, II. 88 
Phrixus, Spartan, v. 90 
Phrygia, II. 432; plundered by 

Agesilaus, V. 22; subdued by 

Alexander, VII. 272; ix. 116; 

Antiochus in battle there, x. 378; 

added to Pompey 's sway by 

Manilian law, V. 190 
Phrygia, Upper, has Epiiyes as satrap, 

11.82 
Phrygians, claim Bona or Gynaeceia, 

and say she was mother of Midas, 

VII. 462 
Phrynichus (1), won in tragedy, II. 

16 
Unidentified play cited (Kock I. 

385), III. 222, IV. 54 
Phrynichus (2), Athenian general at 

Samos, opposes return of Alcibiades 

from exile, betrayed and denounced 

by Alcibiades, slain by Ilermon, 

IV. 70 f . 
Phrynis, musician, had two of his nine 

lute-strings cut out by the ephor 

Ectrepes, X. 24 
Phthia, wife of Admetus, said to have 



444 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



suggested form of supplication to 
him, II. 66 

Phthia, daughter of Menon, the Thes- 
salian, married Aeacides and be- 
came mother of Deldameia, Troas, 
and Pyrrhus, IX. 346 

Phthiotis, Achaeans of, have garrisons 
put over them by Alexander of 
Pherae, v. 418; freed by Thebans, 
430; X. 350 

*vXd, subdivision of Spartans made 
by Lycurgus, I. 220 

Phylacia, in battle there Blthys, 
general of Demetrius, defeats 
Aratus, XI. 76 

Phvlacion, mistress of Stratocles, IX. 
26 

Phylarchus, his story about Themi- 
stocles fabricated, ll. 88; great 
admirer of Cleomene?, xi. 88 

Cited: ll. 88, 138, VII. 66, IX. 
438, X. 20, 60, 114, 118, XI. 88 

Phyl6, in Attica, IV. 290, 310, IX. 54, 
442 

Phytalidae, men of race of, purified 
'Uheseas from bloodshed and feasted 
him, I." 22 ; superintended con- 
tributions toward a sacrifice to 
Theseus, 50 

Picenum, ill. 340, V. 126 f., 442 

Pictae, deputation roaches Sulla 
there, iv. 352 

Pictor, see " Fabius Pictor." 

Picus, demi-god, once hauuted Aven- 
tine, etc., i. 358 

Pierio, said by some to have com- 
posed verses sung at banquet of 
Alexander, vil. 368 

Pigres, general, said by Eumenes to 
be coming against him, viil. 94 

" Pilamenai," connected with " flam- 
ines,"l.328 

Pillars of Hercules, HI. 250, vi. 310, 
368 

Pinarii, descended from Pinus, son of 
Numa, I. 376 

Pinarius, husband of Thalaea, I. 394 

Plnarus, river, Vll. 278 

Pindar (In passage not extant) says 
son of Theseus and Antiop6 called 
DemophoOn, I. 64; he and his 
verses loved by Pan, 318; his 
descendants spared by Alexander, 
VII. 254 
Pytb. (2, 1 f.), V, 492, (8, 44 f.) XJ. 2 



Frg 77 (Bergk l». p. 414) II. 22 ; 
Frg 131 (p. 444) I. 180; Frg 169 
(p. 458) IX. 104; Frg 199 (p. 466) 
I. 272; Frg 205 (p. 469) IX. 544; 
Frg 206 (p. 469) lU. 208; Frg 232 
(p. 476) V. 516 

Pindarus, f reedman, slays Cassius, vi . 
234, IX. 184 

Pinus, son of Noma, ancestor Ol 
Pinarii, I. 376 

Piracy, ships engaged in it not 
collected by Lucullus, II. 478 

Piraeus, equipped and connected with 
Athens, ll. 52; tomb of Themis- 
tocles near it, 88; entered by 
Lysander, IV. 270; vii. 2; 68; 
handed over to Demetrius, ix. 84; 
captured by Sulla, iv. 360, 372, 452 ; 
unsuccessfully attacked by Aratus, 
guarded by Diogenes, Xl. 76 ; given 
up to Athenians by Diogenes, 78 

PIralcgate, see " Peiraic gate." 

Pirates, driven from Scyros by Lucul- 
lus, II. 426; attack Lucullus on 
way to Egypt, 476; save Mithri- 
dates, 508; Cilician pirates make 
bargain with Spartacus, then dis- 
appoint him. III. 342; their de- 
prpdatious in Pompev's time, V. 
172 f.; by Gabinian law Pompey 
sent against them, 178 f.; subdued 
by Pompey, 182 

Pirithoijs, see " PeirithoUs." 

Pisa, statue of Zeus at. III. 4 

Pisandrus, Plataean hero, ii. 246 

Pisaurum, city near Adriatic, colonized 
by Antony, swallowed by chasms 
in earth, IX. 274 

Pisis, of Thespiae, urges Boeotians to 
revolt, spared by Demetrius and 
made polemarch of Thespiae, ix. 
96 

PlsldianF, seeking toslay Themistoclcs, 
are captured, ii. 82 ; overpowered 
by .Vlexander, vil. 272 

Piso, 0., historian, cited, l. 378, IX. 
594 

Piso, C. Calpurnius, consul, interferes 
with Pompey in his war on pirates 
and comes near losing consulship, 
V. 182 ; makes report on Catiline's 
conspiracy, Vll. 126; 466 

Piso, L. Calpurnius, marries his 
daughter to daosar and Is made 
consul, V. 238, 240, VII. 474, Vlll. 



445 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



306, 316; gets province of Mace- 
donia with support of Clodius, 
VII. 156; advises Cicero to leave 
country, 160 f . ; urges Caesar to 
propose settlement with Pompey, 
630 

Piso Caesoninus, L. Calpurnius, sup- 
ported for consul by Pompey, v. 
228 ; assists Curio in taking opinion 
of senate, 268 

Piso Prugi, 0. Calpurnius, Cicero's 
son-in-law, goes to Pompey to beg 
aid for Cicero, vil. 160 ; 188 

Piso Frugi Licinlanus, L. Calpurnius, 
son of Crassus and Scribonia, pro- 
claimed his successor by Galba, xi. 
254 f,; slain, 258, 266, 270 

Pissoutlmes, Persian satrap, aids 
Samians, III. 72 

Pitan6, fortress of llithridates, Tl. 
478 

Pittacus, tyrant of Mitylenc?, i. 438 

Plttheus, son of Pelops, grandfather 
of Theseus, founded Troezen, etc., 
I. 6; persuaded Aegeus to take 
his daughter Aethra, 8; spread 
report that Poseidon was father of 
Theseus, 12; father of Henioch6, 
grandfather of Sclron, 56 

Pityussa, island off Spain, attacked 
by Sertorius, viii. 18 

Pixodarus, satrap of Caria, hopes to 
marry his daughter to Arrhidaeus 
or Alexander, Vll. 248 

Placentia, held by Otho's troops, n. 
288 f . 

Plague, see " Pestilence." 

Plain-men, at Athens, favoured olig- 
archy, I. 434 ; headed by Lycurgus, 
486 

Plancus, L. Munatlus, speaks In 
favour of amnesty after Caesar's 
murder, VI. 166; joins Antony, 
IX. 176; abused by Cleopatra, 
deserts to Octavianus, 268 

Plancus, T. Munatius, on trial, snp- 
ported by Pompey, V. 262 

Plataea, Dalmachus of, I. 572 ; heroes 
of, II. 246; meeting place of 
Hellenic council, ll. 274, 278 ; IV. 
310 

Plataea, battle of, Greeks defeat 
Persians, ll. 46, 138, 214, 226, 238, 
386, 396, X. 8; Thebans defeat 
Spartans, V. 376, 400 



Plataeans, had general Arimnfetus, 
II. 246; vote to move boundary 
toward Attica, rewarded by Alex- 
ander, 248, VII. 326; n. 274; 278; 
denounced Thebans to Alexander, 
VII. 254 
Plato, philosopher, adopted Lycurgus' 
design for a civil polity, i. 300; 
thought earth in secondary space, 
344; sold oil in Egypt to make 
expenses, 408; says Solon aban- 
doned work on story of lost 
Atlantis on account of old age, 
494; began story of lost Atlantis, 
496; gave performance of singing 
and dancing boys, ll. 212, VI. 34; 
asked to write for Cyrene, makes 
oracular reply, ll. 474; abused 
by Timaeus, III. 210; brought 
philosophy into good repute, 290; 
had tendency to melancholy 
according to Aristotle, iv. 236 ; 
admired poetry of Antimachus of 
Colophon, 282; opposed use of 
mechanical illustrations to assist 
geometry, v. 470 f.; had Dion as 
immediate disciple, vi, 2 ; how 
treated in Sicily by Dionysius the 
Elder, 8; how by Dionysius the 
Younger, 26; kept Dion with him 
in the Academy, 32; his last visit 
to Syracuse, 36; wrote letter to 
Dionysius the Younger about treat- 
ment of Dion's wife, 42 ; refuses to 
help Dion in war against Dionysius 
the Younger, 44; 110; censures 
Dion for choosing men who proved 
his ruin, 252 ; dead when Dionysius 
came to Corinth, 296; taught 
Demosthenes according to Her- 
mippus, VIT. 12; praised by Cicero, 
140; VIII. 152; says great natures 
exhibit great vices as well as great 
virtues, IX. 4; 78; his advice to 
Xenocrates, 466; his death-bed 
words, 594 
Alcibiades, (112) IV. 2, (122&) I. 

256 
Epistles, VT. 262 ; Epist. IV. (320) 

VI. 110, (ad fin.) IV. 152, 224, 

VI. 16 
Epist. VII. (327) VI. 8, (328) 22, 

(346)36, (349 f.) 40 
Qorgias (464) IX. 200, (618 f, 626) 

11.292 



446 



I 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Laws (630d) I. 288, (69le) I. 218, 
330, (692a) I. 224, (706b) II. 12, 
X. 292 
Menexenus, III. 70 
Meno(93)ll.86 
On the Soul, read by Cato just 

before his death, Vlil. 400 
Phaedrus (254a) ix. 216, (255) 
IV. 12, (270a) III. 22, (271c) 
111.48 
Phjedo (68d) I. 188 
Republic (363) II. 612, (376c) XI. 
206, (426e) X. 244, (458d) I. 
248, ('473d) VII. 216, (475b) 81, 
(487e~) I. 374, (557d) VI. 112, 
(562c^ III. 20 
Symposium (179a) v. 384, (215) 

II. 320 
Timaeu3(37c)I. 292 
Plato, comic poet, IX. 296 ; (Kock r. 
651) II. 90; (Kock I. 654) III. 248, 
rv. 30; (Kock 1. 655) iil. 10 
Plebeians, their compladnts about 
money-lenders, and secession, iv. 
126; unrest among them after 
Volscian war owing to scarcity of 
food and money, 144; angry when 
Coriolanus and other senators 
oppose free flistribution of grain 
sent by Syracuse, 154; 184: get 
permission to elect one of consuls 
from their own body, II. 202, 204 ; 
one censor plebeian, 346 
Pleistarchus, brother of Cassander, 
receives Cilicia after defeat of 
Antigonns, goes to see Seleucus, 

IX. 76 

Pleistinus, brother of Faustulus, fell 
in battle between Romulus and 
Remus, I. 116 

Pleistoanax, king of Sparta, son of 
Pausanias, father of Pausanias, 

X. 8; invades Attica, but is bribed 
to withdraw, fined and goes into 
exile, III. 64; Savins, i. 268 

Plemmyrium, captured from Athen- 
ians by Qylippus, III. 278 

Plotiup, accused Licinia the Vestal 
and Cracsus, III. 314 

Plutarch, Eretrian, asks help of Athens 
against Philip, defeated and driven 
from Eretria by Phocion, vin. 
170f. 

Plutarch, our, had intimate friend, 
Themlstocles of Athens, attended 



school of Ammouius, the philoso- 
pher, II. 90; native of Chaeroneia, 
VII. 44; IV. 378 f.; visits Rome and 
acquires the language, Vll. 4; saw 
marble statue of Marius at Ravenna 
in (laul, IX. 466 ; vi-sited =cene of 
battle between Otho and Vitellius, 
XI. 308; saw tomb of Otho at 
Brixillum, 316 
Works cited : — 
Life of Aratos, X. 276; of 
Demosthenes and Oicero in 
5th book, VII. 6 ; of Dion in 
12th book, VI. 6; of Lys- 
ander, iii, 66; of Metelhis, 
IX. 546; of Pericles and 
Fabius Maximus, III. 6; of 
Timoleon, vi. 122 
On Days, II. 138 
Roman Questions, ii. 140 
Savings: I. ISO, 362, 376, 396, 
398, 418, 460, 570, II. 110, 228, 316, 
392 f., 398, 410, 490, III. 2 f ., 14, 
54, 112, 152, 202, 214, 318, 386 
426, 428, 434, 436, IV. 120, 212 
252, 446 f., 450, V. 106, 312, 344, 
VII. 44, vni. 344, IX. 476 f., 520, 
596, X. 2, 52, 168, 240, 248 f., 
278 f., 352, 384 f., XI. 4, 24, 106, 
186 f., 196 
Pluto, sacrificed to, by Publicola, I. 

556 
Plutus, blind and lifeless at Sparta, 

I. 232 
Plynteria, see " Athena." 
Pnvx, at Athens, had bema, II. 64; 

I.60f.; III. 232 
Po, river, V. 446; crossed by Marius, 
IX. 526 ; battle there between 
Caecina and Otho's men, XI. 298 f. 
Poets, nameless, cited, II. 222; 420; 
460 ; 472 ; 506 ; (Kock III. 493). III. 
432 ; IV. 10, V. 414 ; IV. 326 ; (Nauck* 
921), 454; (Berpk III*. 622), V. 38; 
(Kock III. 484), 254; (Kock II. 80. 
128), VII. 22; (Nauck« 911), 150; 
378; (Nauck» 921), ix. 318 
Polemarchs, at Sparta fine Agis, I. 
238; at Athens chosen by lot, iii. 
26; at Thebes, V. 66, 354 
Polemon, strives for chief command 

under Eumenes, Vlll. 102 
Polemon, cited, I. 190 
Poiomon, topographer, cited, XI. 28 
Polemon, king, taken prisoner by 

447 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Parthians, IX. 224; sent army from 
Pontus to Antony, 276 

" Poliorketes," title of tyrants, II. 
228; surname of Demetrius, IX. 
106 

PoUichus, goes to rescue his nephew 
Heracleides, III. 292 

Pollio, sole remaining prefect of 
Otho's soldiers, orders them to 
swear allegiance to Vitellius, Xl. 318 

Pollio, Asinius, see " Asinius Pollio." 

PoUIp, Spartan, sold Plato as slave 
in Aegina, vi. 10 

Pollux, see " Castor " and " Dios- 
curi." 

Polus, Aeginetan, pupil of Archias, 
VII. 70 

Polvaenus, fought always at side of 
Philopoemen, X. 282 

Polyalces, ambassador from Sparta 
to Athens, III. 86 

Polyarchus, Aeginetan, charges Athen- 
ians with fortifying their city, ll. 52 

Polybius, son of Achaean general 
Lycortas, friend of Philopoemen, 

X. 314 f . ; gets Scipio's aid in 
securing return of Achaean exiles, 
11.326; VI. 134 

Cited: II. 330, V. 380, 524, VI. 

404, X. 152, 300 

Histories (II. 47, 4 f .) XI. 88, 

(II. 64, 1) X. 106, (II. 65, 2 & 7) 

114, (XXIX) VI. 392, 394 
Polycleitus (1), made statue of Hera 

at Argos, ill. 4 
Polycleitus (2), cited, vil. 356 
Polycleitus (3), adherent of Nero, 

executed by Galba, XI. 240 
Polycrates (1), tyrant, III. 76; 

imitated by Lysander in his dis- 
regard for oaths, IV. 252 
Polycrates (2), descendant of Aratus 

and friend of Plutarch, xi. 2 f. 
Polycrates (3), son of Polycrates, 

XI. 4 

Polycratidas, one of embassy sent to 
generals of Persian king, quoted, 
1.282 

Polycrit^, daughter of Lysimachas, 
voted public maintenance, II. 296 

Polycritus, physician at court of 
Artaxerxep, XI. 176 

Polydectes, half-brother of Lycurgus, 
I. 206; died soon after ascending 
throne, leaving it to Lycurgus, 



208; had posthumous son Chari- 
laiis, 1.210; his widow plots against 
Lycurgus, 212 

Polydorus, king of Sparta, with his 
colleague Theopompus inserted 
clause in rhetra of Lycurgus, I. 
222 ; said to have added some lots 
to those distributed by Lycurgus, 
228 

Polyeuctus (1), son of Themistocles 
and Archipp6, II. 86 

Polyeuctus (2), Sphettian, contrasts 
Demosthenes and Phocion as 
speakers, VII. 24, VIII. 154; VII. 32 ; 
counsels Athenians to go to war 
with Philip, VIII. IS 4; demanded 
by Alexander, Vll. 50 

Polyguotus, painter, his relations 
with Elpinic6, 11.414 

Polygnotus, tower of, H. 12 f. 

Polyidus, Plataean hero, ll. 246 

Polymachus, of Pella, executed by 
Alexander for rifling tomb of 
Cyrus, VII. 416 

Poljrmedes, father of Glaucus, VIII. 
172 

Polyphron, uncle of Alexander of 
Pherae, slain by him, v. 412 

Polysperchon, with Leptines, puts 
Callipus to death, vi. 122 

Polysperchon, appointed general-In- 
chief by Antipater before dying, 
VIII. 216 ; quarrels with Cassander 
after death of Antipater, 114; 
orders Eumenes to wage war on 
Antigonus and take 500 talents of 
treasure at Quinda, 116; plots 
against Phocion, 216; father of 
Alexander, 220, IX. 22 ; has Dein- 
archus of Corinth executed, refuses 
to hear Phocion, vill. 222; good 
general according to Pyrrhus, IX. 
366 

Polystratus, witnesses death of 
Dareius, vil. 350 

Polyxenus, husband of Thest4, became 
enemy of Dionysius the Elder, vi. 
42 

Polyzelus, Rhodian, cited, I. 446 

Pomaxathres, Parthian, slew Crassus, 
111.416,422 

Pomentinum, city of Italy with 
marshes near it, vil. 578 

" Pomerium," its etymology, I. 1 18 

Pompaedius Silo, leader of Latin 



448 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



allies in their effort to obtain 

Roman citizenship, nil. 238; 

challenged Marius to battle, ix. 554 
Pompeia, Caesar's third wife, vil. 

452 ; loved by Clodias, 462 ; 

divorced by Caesar, 152, 46G 
" Pompeii," name common to familv, 

IX. 464 
Pompeii, Cicero had farm near it, 

ni.ioo 

Pompeius, neighbour of Ti. Gracchus, 
said Eudemus of Pergamum gave 
Ti. Gracchus royal diadem and 
purple robe, x. 176 

Pompeius, Aulus, tribune of people, 
called Bataces impostor and died 
within week, IX. 508 

Pompeius, Qnaeus, elder son of 
Pompey, sent to Syria by his father 
to raise a fleet, v. 278; enraged at 
Cicero after Pharsalus, vil. 180, 

VIII. 370 ; enamoured of Cleopatra, 

IX. 192 

Pompeius, Sextus, younger son of 
Pompey, tells Cato of Pompey's 
death, viil. 370; supported by 
Spain, 382; holding Sicily and 
ravaging Italy, makes peace with 
Octavius and Antony, ix. 206 ; 
attacked by Octavius, 216; driven 
from Sicily by him, 262 

Pompeius Rufus, Q., consul with Sulla, 
IV. 342 ; his son slain by Sulpicius' 
mob, escapes himself, 350 

Pompeius Sextus Strabo, Q-naeus, 
father of Pompey, able soldier, hated 
for his greed, v. 116 ; arrayed 
against Cinna, saved from mu- 
tinous troops by his son, 122 

Pompey, 8on of Strabo, loved by 
people, his character, v. 116 f.; 
saved his father Strabo from 
mutinous soldiers, tried for theft 
of public property on his father's 
death, 122 ; wins favour with his 
judge, the praetor Antistius, be- 
comes engaged to his daughter, 
is acquitted, 124; married Anti^tia, 
126; when 23 raises force pre- 
paratory to jolniog Sulla, 128; 
defeats various enemies, 130; is 
saluted as " Imperator " by Sulla, 
sent to Gaul to help Metellus, 
132 ; divorces Antistia and marries 
Aemilia, step-daughter of Sulla, 



134; sent against Marians in 
Sicily, executes Carbo and Q. 
Valerius, 136 f.; sent by Sulla 
against Domitius in Africa, 140; 
defeats and slays Domitius, 142; 
captures lampsas and gives his 
kingdom to Hiempsal, subdues 
Africa within 40 days, 144; on 
his return greeted as " Magnus " 
by Sulla, 146; allowed to have 
triumph, 148 

Is left out of Sulla's will, 
appointed general against Lepidus, 
152 ; has Brutus, father of the 
Brutus who killed Caesar, slain, 
154 ; goes to Spain to help Metellus 
against Sertorius, 156 ; fights drawn 
battle with him, 160; after death 
of Sertorius completely defeats 
Perpenna, 162 ; returning from 
Spain defeats remnant of Spar- 
tacus' force, 164; receives 2nd 
triumph and consulship, 166 ; In 
constant collision with his colleague 
Crassus, 168; given command 
against pirates by Gabinian law, 
1 76 f . ; clears Tyrrhenian and 
Libyan seas and sea about Sar- 
dinia, Corsica, and Sicily in 40 
days, 182; drives all piracy from 
the sea in less than 3 months, 186 ; 
treats Metellus in Crete unfairly, 
188; given command against 
Mithridates by Manilian law, lyo f. ; 
meets Lucullus in Galatia, 194; 
defeats Mithridates near Euphrates 
river, 200; invades Armenia, 202; 
defeats Albanians and Iberians 
about Caucasus mountains, 206 f . ; 
in fortress of Caenum found and 
read private documents of Mithri- 
dates, 212 ; marches toward Petra, 
220 ; receives news of death of 
Mithridates, 222 ; while returning 
visits Athens and donates 50 
talents toward its restoration, 224; 
divorces Mucia, disbands his army, 
226 

Attempts to win Cato by mar- 
riage alliance, 228; celebrates 
triumph, 230 ; begins to lose 
reputation from this time, 232 ; 
refuses to help Cicero threatened 
with exile, 234; lends his support 
to Caesar the consul and marries 



449 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



his daughter Julia, 236 f . ; with 
Caesar's help gets his enactments 
ratified which Lucullus contested, 
'238 ; opposed by Clodius, 240 ; 
assists in recall of Cicero and by 
him is reconciled to senate, 242 f . ; 
is given direction of navigation and 
agriculture, 244; secures abund- 
ance of grain for the city, 246; 
has understanding with Caesar 
and Crassus at Luca, 248; elected 
consul with Crassus, with his help 
introduces laws giving Caesar his 
provinces for 5 more j^ears, giving 
Crassus Syria and the expedition 
against the Parthians, and giving 
himself Africa, both Spains, and 
4 legions, 250 

Loses his wife Julia, learns of 
Crassus* death, 254; elected sole 
consul, 258; marries Cornelia, 
daughter of Metellus Scipio, 260; 
is to retain his provinces another 
4 years and receive 1000 talents 
yearly to maintain his soldiers, 262; 
demands his 2 legions back from 
Caesar, recovers from dangerous 
illness, 264; receives his 2 legions 
from Caesar, becomes filled with 
confidence in his power to suppress 
Caesar, 266 ; is commanded by 
the consuls to levy recruits but 
has difficulty in securing them, 270 : 
Issues edict recognizing state of 
civil war and ordering all the 
senators to follow him, 276 ; crosses 
from Brundi^ium to Dyrrhachium, 
278; gathers great force and has 
irresistible navy, 280; refuses 
Caesar's offer of peace, routs his 
army but fails to take advantage 
of the victory, 284 ; pursues Caesar, 
288; is forced by his friends to 
offer battle to Caesar, 290; is 
defeated by Caesar at Pharsalus, 
292 f . ; flees from the field of 
battle, 304; is joined by his wife 
Cornelia, 310; sails to Pelusium in 
Egypt, 316; is murdered by 
Ptolemy's agents, 322; his death 
avenged by Caesar, 324 

See also II. 140, 472, 484 f., 582, 
688 f., 594 f., 606, III. 328 f., 348 f., 
428 f., IV. 418, 430 f., 442, 448, VI. 
132, 136, 190, 198, 252, VII. 102 f., 



114, 124, 158, 160, 166, 170, 176 f., 

194, 468, 472 f., 478, 494, 500 f., 

610, 514 f., 524, 528, 538 f., 548 f., 

VIII. 4, 32, 48 f., 58, 72, 140, 264, 

306 f., 332 f ., 340, 344 f., 352, 366 f., 

382, IX. 148, 152, 160, 180 

Quoted : II. 600, V. 120, 136, 164, 

192, 304, 310 
Pompilia, only daughter of Numa and 

Tatia, I. 376; married Marcius, 

378 
Pompon (1), father of Numa Pom- 

pilius, I. 314 
Pompon (2), son of Numa, ancestor 

of Pomponii, l. 376 
Pomponia, wife of Q. Cicero, inflicts 

terrible punishment upon Philo- 

logus, Xll. 208 
Pomponii, descended from Pompon, 

son of Numa, I. 376 
Pomponius (1), praetor, announces 

defeat at Thrasymen6, ill. 126 
Pomponius (2), companion of C. 

Gracchus, killed at wooden bridge, 

X. 234 
Pomponius (3), spared by Mithridates, 

11.514 
Pontic kings, line of, founded by 

Mithridates, ended by Romans, ix. 

12 
Pontifex Maximus, his duties, I. 338, 

342 f.; Antony, IX. 208; Caesar, 

VII. 456 ; P. Liciiiius Crassus Dives, 

III. 192; P. L. Crassus Dives 
Mucianus, X. 162 ; Metellus Pius, 

IV. 342, VII. 456 ; Nasica, X. 194 
Pontifices, ascribed to Numa, why 

so called, I. 336 ; their duties, 346 
Pontius, his servant gives inspired 

message to SuJla, iv. 412 
Pontius Cominius, see " Oomlnius, 

Pontius." 
"Pontius Olaucus," poem by Cicero 

when a boy, vil. 84 
Pontus, II. 294; held by eon of 

Mithridates, IV. 358; 11.494; 508; 

ravaged by Lucullus, 510 ; invaded 

by Lucullus again, 542; men sent 

from Rome to regulate its affairs, 

586; invarled by Pompey, Vll. 

106; triumphed over by Pompey, 

V. 230 ; freed of Romans by Phar- 
naces, freed of Phamaces by Caesar, 
VII. 560 

Popilius, 0., defeated by Caesar as 



450 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



candidate lor military tribuneship, 
VII. 450 
Popilius Laenas, alarms Bnitus and 

Cassius by his word?, V7. 158 
Popillius, as praetor had banished 
friends of Ti. Gracchus, flees from 
Italy, X. 206 
Popillius, military tribune, once when 
charged with parricide defended by 
Cicero, is one of his assassins, vii. 
204 f. 
Poppaea, wife of Crispinus, her acts, 

XI. 246 f . 
'* Poppaea," name given Sporus by 

Nymphidius Sabinus, Xl. 224 
" Populu5," name given to those not 

in the legions, 1. 122 
Porcia (1), sister of Cato the Younger, 
wife of Lucius Domitius, vui. 236, 
332 
Porria (2), daughter of Cato the 
Younger and wife of Bibulus, to 
whom she bore 2 sons, VIII. 292; 
mother of Bibulus, vi. 176; cousin 
and wife of Brutus, insists upon 
sharing his secret, 152, viii. 410; 
VI, 158; manner and time of her 
death, 246 
" Porcius," derived from "porous," 

I. 532 
Porsena, Lars, declares war on Rome 
when she refuses to restore Tarquin 
to throne, I. 542; checked at 
bridge by Horatius amd his 2 com- 
panions, 544 : releases Mucins, 
who tried to kill him, 546 f.; makes 
peace with Rome on conditions, 
550; honours Cloelia, 552; in 
retiring left his supplies behind for 
Romans, 554, 574; bronze statue 
of him near senate-hoase, 554 
Porsena's goods cried first, I. 554 
Porus, Indian king, defeated and 
captured by Alexander, restored 
to his kingdom and given title of 
satrap, VII. 394 f,; quoted, 398 
Poseideon, Athenian month, corre- 
sponds nearly to January, VII. 532 
Poseidon, patron god of Troezen, 
reputed father of Theseus, I. 12; 
Ifthmian games in his honour 
instituted by Theseu.«, 56 ; honoured 
on 8th day of every month, 84; 
called Securer and Earth-stayer, 
86; contends with Athena for 



Athens, II. 54; V. 8; temples of, 
at the Isthmus, at Taenarnm, at 
Calauria, plundered by pirates, 
174; VII. 70; x. 36 
Poseidonius, tells of his discourse at 
Rhodes before Pompey tigainst 
Hermagoras the rhetorician, V. 224 : 
wrote history of Perseus in several 
books, excuses king for retiring 
from battle of Pydna, vi. 404 f.^; 
taught Cicero Dhilosophy, vii. 90 
ated : v. 436, 458, 488 f,, 520, 

VI. 128, 412, IX. 464, 592 f. 
Posidonia, Astyphilus of, il. 460 
Postuma, daughter of Sulla and 

Valeria, why the name, iv. 442 
Postumius, soothsayer, tells Sulla the 

omens are good, IV. 352 
Postumius, Livius, led Latin army 

against Rome, I. 184 
Postumius, Spurius, rival of Ti. 

Gracchus, X. 162 
Postumius Tubertus (1), made consul 

along with M. Valerias, I. 654 
Postumius Tubertus (2), as dictator 

fought Aequians and Volscians, li. 

96 
Postumus, surname of child bom after 

father's death, IV. 142 
Potamon, Lesbian, according to 

Sotion told of Alexander founding 

city in memory of his dog Peritas, 

VII. 398 

Potamus, place in Attica, il. 298 

Potheinus, eunuch, managed Ptolemy's 
affairs, called council of influential 
men to decide on fate of Pompev, 
V. 316, VII. 556; drove out Cleo- 
patra, plotted against Caesar, 556; 
put to death by Caesar, 558, V. 324 

Potheinus, official under Cleopatra, 
IX. 274 

Potidaca, colony of Corinth, revolts 
from Athens, ill. 84; campaign 
against, IV. 18; taken by Philip 
at time of Alexander's birth, vii. 
230 

Potitus, Valerius, sent to consult 
oracle at Delphi about Alban lake, 
II. 102 

Praecia, controls Cethcgus and thus 
secures Cilicia for Lucullus, il. 488 

Praoncste, iv. 416; younger Marius 
besieged there, 418; its inhabitants 
slaughtered by Sulla, 428, IX. 598 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Praenestines, with Vol?cians make 
war on Kome, ll. 190 

Praesli, their kings said to be waiting 
for Alexander on banks of Ganges 
with large forces, revere altars left 
by him, vil. 400 

Praetor, In Macedonia in time of 
Lucullus, but Greece had none yet, 
II. 408; usually granted accused 
10 days in which to make defence, 

VII. 104 

Praetors: 0. Antonius, IX. 170; 
Antistius, V. 124; Brutus and 
Oassius, VII. 574; Brutus and 
Servilius, IV. 350; 0. Caesar, vil. 
138, 462, VIII. 298; Cato the 
Younger, 340; Cicero, vil. 102; 
Clodius, III. 336 ; Didius, in Spain, 

VIII. 6; Cornelius Lentulus 2nd 
time, VII. 122, 126; Lepidus, IX. 
162; M. Lucullus, of Macedonia, 
VII. 448; Marius, IX. 472 ; M. Otho, 
VII. 112; Aemilius Paulus with 12 
lictors, VI, 362; Petilius, I. 380; 
Pomponius, III. 126 ; Rubrius, viIl. 
254; Salonius, II. 384; Sulla, rv. 
334; C. Sulpicius, vil. 126; P. 
Varinus, III. 338 ; Vatinlus, V. 250 ; 
0. Vergilius, VII. 164; Verres, 98; 
Vetns, in Spain, 452 

Pranichus, poet, vil. 368 
Praxagoras, advises Neapolitans to 

offer sacrifices for Pompey's re- 
covery, V. 264 
Praiiergidae, celebrate the rites of 

the Plynteria of Athene, iv. 98 
Prayer, Pythagoreans do not allow 

men to offer it cursorily, I. 354; 

after praying Roman turned to 

right, II. 106 
Priapus, Artemis of, II. 510 
Prices, II. 610, IV. 366, IX. 242, X. 

148, 360 f., XI. 184 
Pricnc?, bone of contention between 

Samians and Milesians, in. 72; 

assigned by Antony as place for 

dramatic artists to dwell in, ix. 

266 
Priestess, Pythian, iv. 304 
Prima, daughter of Hcrsilia and 

Romulus, I. 130 
" Prlncipia," Roman word for 

general's quarters, XI. 228 
" Priscus," original cognomen of 

Cato the Elder, IT. 302 



Priscus, Helvidius, see " Helvldlus 
Priscus." 

Prisoners, exchange of, between 
Fabius and Hannibal, III. 140 

Proauga, daughter of Agesilalis, V. 62 

Procles, Spartan king, son of Aristo- 
demus and father of Soils, v. 62 

Proconnesus, Aristeas of, 1. 178 

Procnistes, slain by Theseus, 1. 188 

Proculeius, bidden by Octavius to get 
Cleopatra alive, does so by ruse 
IX. 314 

Proculus, prefect of guards sent by 
Otho to army with full authority, 
XI. 294; leads troops out of 
Bedriacum for battle, 300 ; 304 

"Proculus," surname of child born 
in absence of father from home, 
TV. 142 

Proculus, Julius, by his story of seeing 
Romulus ascending to heaven quiets 
people, I. 176, 310; favourite of 
Romans, sent to invite Numa to 
accept the throne, 320 

Prodigies: I. 166, 176 f., 180, 308, 
534, II. 98, 126, 168, 452, 460 f., 
496, 600, 548, III. 14, 100, 122 f ., 
244, 254, 288, 372 f., IV. 48, 210, 
260 f., 340, 344, V. 180, 420, 442, 
512, 516, VI. 48 f,, 82, 210 f., 234, 
276 f., 290, 398, 418, VII. 130, 164, 
204, 260, 300 f., 324, 386 f., 588 f., 
604 f., VIII. 208, IX. 274, 308, 450, 
508, 572, X. 140, 184 f., 220, 352, 
XI. 100 

" Prodikoi," name given by Spartans 
to guardians of fatherless kings, 
L 210 

Promachus, won prize by drinking 4 
pitchers of wine, vil. 418 

" Promanteia," meaning of word, 
secured for Athenians by Pericles, 
III. 64 

Promathion, compiler of history of 
Italv, cited, I. 96 

Property, III. 204, 218, 316, IV. 12, 
280, V. 50, 120 

Frophantus, brother of Oleinlas, xi. 6 

Propontis, to be guarded by Gotta, 
II. 490 

Propylaea, of acropolis, Mnesicles its 
arcliitect. III. 42 f. 

Proscription, III. 330, TV. 4'.!6 f. 

Proseoea, temple of Artemis, IT. 24 

Proserpina, possibly same as Libitina, 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL IHE ^LIVES' 



I. 346; VI. 118; 276. See also 
" Cora " and " Persephon6." 

Prosper, see " Eutychus." 

Ilpb9 Tou? eratpous, speech of 

Andocides, II. 88 
Protagoras, in discussion with Peri- 
cles, III. 104 ; exiled, 290 
Proteas, boon companion, forgiven 

by Alexander, vil. 340 
Prothoiis, opposes expedition against 

Thebes, v. 78 
Prothytes, her surrender demanded 

of Thebans by Alexander, vil. 

252 
Protis, merchant, popular with Gaul?, 

founded Marseilles, I. 408 
Protogenes, Caunian, made painting 

for Rhodians illustrating story of 

lalvsus, captured by Demetrius, 

IX.'SO 
Protus, Dion's pilot, VI. 62 
Proverbs : I. 66, II. 540, III. 238, 246, 

IV. 64, 286, 448, V. 318, VI. 322, 

416, VII. 6, 318, VIII. 102, X. 110, 

244, XI. 2, lO), 194,208 
Provinces, extravagance of governors, 

II. 320; 484; 488 

Proxenus, Macedonian, uncovers 

spring of oilv liquid near river Oius, 

VII. 386 f. 
Prusias, in BithjTiia, harboured Han- 
nibal, asked by Flamininus to give 

him up, X. 378 
Prytaneium, l. 456; in Plutarch's 

lime preserved some of Solon's 

tables of law, i. 472 ; VII. 76 
Prytanes, i. 456 
Prytanis, father of Lycurgus and 

Eunomus, I. 206 
Psammon, philosopher, heard by 

Alexander in Egypt, VII. 304 
Psenophis, of Heliopolis, learned 

Egyptian priest with whom Solon 

studied, I. 476 
Psiltucis (or Scillustis) island in 

Indian ocean marking limit of 

Alexander's expedition, vii. 410 
Psvch6, wife of Marphadates, viil. 

408 
Psylli, Libyan people who charmed 

snakes, VIII. 372 
Psyttalci:', small island In front of 

Salami^, 11.2." S 
Ptoeodonis, Mcg^riaa, visited bj 

Dion, VI. C4 



Ptoleniacus (1), eunuch of Mithridates 
II. 5;;2 

Ptolernaeus (2), encourages Otho by 
his prediction, XI. 256 

Ptolcmais, daughter of Ptolemy and 
Eurydice, married to Demptrius, 
IX. 78, 116; mother of ruler of 
Cyren6, 134 

I'tolemy (1), at war with Alexander, 
king of Macedonia, slew him and 
succeeded to throne, made peace 
with Pelopidas, V. 404 f . 

Ptolemy (2), nephew of Antigonua, 
given as hostage to Eumenes, vill. 
108 f, 

Ptolemy (3), son of Pyrrhus and Anti- 
gone, IX. 360, 368; repulsed by 
Acrotatus, 440 ; slain in battle by 
Oryssus, 446 f . 

Ptolemy (4), son of Clirysermus. 
friend of Eing Ptolemy but 
treacherous toward Cleomenes, X. 
130; slain by Cleomenes, 134 

Ptolemy (5), in charge of Alexandria 
under King Ptolemy, slain by 
Cleomenes, X. 134 

Ptolemy (6), king of Cyprus, opposed 
bv Cato, slew himself, VI. 130, VlIl. 
322 

Ptolemy (7), son of Antony and 
Cleopatra, given Phoenicia, Svria, 
and Cllicia, ix. 262 

Ptolemy Auletes, flees from Egypt, 
seeks Roman aid, v. 244 f . ; " re- 
ceives kindness from Pompey, 314; 
disregards Cato'a advice not to go 
to Rome, VIII. 320 ; bribes Gabinius 
to help him recover Egypt, IX. 142 ; 
prevented by Antony from putting 
people of Pelusium to death, 144 

Ptolemy Ccraunus, with army peri-hcd 
at hands of Gauls. IX. 410 

Ptolemy Dionysius, Indebted to Pom- 
pey, V. 314; makes war on his 
sister at Pelusium, 316; defeated 
by Caesar, disappears, 324 

Ptolemy Euergetes, X. 16; made ally 
of Achaeans, XI. 54; sent Aratus 
6 talents a year, 96, X. 92 ; 98 f . ; 
receives Cleomenes kindly, gives 
him pension of 24 talents, dies 
before sending him back to Sparta, 
122; 274 

Ptolemy Lathvrup, gives royal wel- 
come to Lucullus, bat out of fear 

453 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



of Mithridates abandons alliance 
with Rome, II. 476 ; IV. 142 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, to help Aratus 
get back to Sicyon, XI. 10; re- 
ceives paintings from him, 28; 
gives Aratus 150 talents for Sicyon, 
30, 32 f. 

Ptolemy Philometor ( ?) X. 146 

Ptolemy Philopator, his character and 
treatment of Cleomenes, X. 124 f.; 
128; has Cleomenes imprisoned, 
130 ; 132 ; has mother and children 
of Cleomenes executed, 136; 140; 
290; built a ship with 40 banks 
of oars, IX. 108 

Ptolemy Soter, son of Lagus, com- 
panion of Alexander, banished 
from Macedonia by Philip, vil. 
250; received Apama, sister of 
Barsin6, from Alexander, VIII. 80; 
threatened with attack by Per- 
dlccas, 90; defeated Demetrius in 
Syria near G-aza, his general Cilles 
defeated by Demetrius, ix. 12 f.; 
had more than one wife, 338; 
besieged Halicarnassus, with Cas- 
sander had subdued all Greece, 18; 
defeated bv Demetrius in Cyprus, 
36 f ., 336 ; ' given title of king, 40, 
VII. 336; unsuccessfully attacked 
by Antigonus and Demetrius, IX. 
42 ; 60 ; marries one daughter to 
Lysimachus and one to the latter's 
son Agathocles, 76 ; marries his 
daughter Ptolemals to Demetrius 
and makes peace with him, 78, 116, 
354; marries his daughter Anti- 
gon6 to Pyrrhus, his hostage, 356; 
sends 150 ships to assist Athenians 
against Demetrius, 82, 360; takes 
Cvprus, excepting Salamis, from 
Demetrius, 86; 360; leagued with 
Seleucus and Lysimachus against 
Demetrius, sails to solicit Greek 
cities to revolt, 108 f., 374 
Cited : VII. 356 

PtoUm, mountain near temple of 
Apollo Tet^vraeus, V. 378 

Publiclus Ribulus, tribune of the 
plebs, Impeaches Marcellus but 
fails, V. 510 

Public land, allotment of, by Pericles, 
III. 24 

Publicola, li. Qellius, with Antony 
had right wing at Actium, IX. 284 f. 



Pdblicola, P. Valerius, his lineage, 
his eloquence and wealth, I, 502 ; 
disappointed at not being elected 
as one of first two consuls, with- 
draws from public life, 504 ; takes 
oath not to submit to Tarquins, 
506 ; brings to justice two sons of 
Brutus, the consul, for conspiracy 
to restore Tarquins, 508 f . ; pro- 
tects Vindicius, who revealed the 
plot to him, 516; elected consul, 
has Vindicius rewarded, 518; 03le- 
brates triumph over Tuscans, first 
consul to drive into city on a 
four-horse chariot, 138, 624; takes 
measures to remove his unpopu- 
larity with the people, 526 f . ; uses 
his sole authority to have various 
important measures passed, 530 f.; 
has first Lucretius, then M. Ilora- 
tius as his colleague in consulship, 
534; is anxious to dedicate new 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, 536 
Chosen consul 2nd time with 
T. Lucretius as his colleague to 
resist Lars Porsena, 542 ; is 
wounded in battle with Porsena, 
proposes honour for Horatius 
Codes, 544 ; consul 3rd time, defeats 
Tuscan army, 546 ; makes Porsena 
arbitrator in dispute with Tarquln 
and concludes peace with him, 
548 f . ; sends Oloelia and the other 
maidens back to Porsena, 550; 
advises and assists consuls in 
repelling attack of Sabines, 554; 
consul 4th time, induces Appius 
Clausus, a Sabine to move with 
many friends to Rome, 656 f . ; 
defeats Sabines, 560; celebrates 
triumph and dies, 562, IV. 200 
Quoted : I. 558 

Publicolae, trace descent to Valerius 
Publicola, I. 566 

Publius, stole Mithridates' sword-belt, 
punished by Pharnaces, v. 224 

Publius Silo, see " Pompaedius Silo." 

Pulytion, played part of Torch-bearer 
when A Icibiades profaned mysteries, 
IV. 48, 60 

Punishment, II. 282, 6161., 532, III. 
342 

Puteoli, see " Dlcaearchia." 

Pyanepsion, month of, I. 46, 84, VII. 
70, 7C 



454 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Pydna, li. 68, VI. 396 ; battle of, 398 f . 
Pylades, minstrel at Nemean games, 

X. 284 
Pylagorae, delegates to Amphictyonic 

conventions, il. 56 
Pylius, adopted Hercules, I. 78 
Pylos, fortified by Demosthenes, 

attacked by Peloponnesians, ill. 

230, 232 ; Spartans captured there, 

234, 238, 244, IV. 32 
Pyramia, in district of Thyreatis ; near 

it Danaiis first landed in country, 

IX. 454 
Pyrenees, II. 126 
Pyrilampes, comrade of Hercules, III. 

44 
Pyrrha, wife of Deucalion, ix. 346 
Pyrrhidae, line of kings descended 

from Neoptolemus, IX. 346 
" Pyrrhus," surname of Neoptolemus, 

IX. 346 

Pyrrhus, son of Neoptolemua and 
Lanassa, ix. 346 

Pyrrhus, son of Aeacides and Phthia, 
his lineage, ix. 346 f.; as infant 
given asylum by Glaucias, king of 
Illyrians, 348 f.; when 12 years 
old restored to throne of Ep'eirus 
by Glaucias, when 17 driven from 
throne, joins Demetrius, fights at 
Ipsus, 352 f . ; goes to Egypt as 
hostage for Demetrius, 354; mar- 
ries Antigon6, daughter of Berenice, 
returns to Epeirus, 356; slays 
Neoptolemus, who shared throne, 
adds to his territory, 360 ; quarrels 
with Demetrius, 362 ; defeats his 
general Pantauchus, 100 f ., 364 ; 
his ranking as a general, 102, 366, 

X. 382 ; marries several wives 
after death of Antigon^, iX. 368; 
overran Macedonia, 370; makes 
agreement with Demetrius, 372; 
takes Beroea, 110, 374; proclaimed 
king of Macedonia, 112, 376 ; enters 
Athens, 378: driven from Mace- 
donia by Lysimachus, 380 

Invited to Italy by Tarentines, 
384; sends Cineas ahead to Taren- 
tum with 3000 soldiers, then 
crosses himself, 388; defeats the 
Romans at Heracleia, 394 f . ; sends 
Cineas to Rome with proposals 
of peace, 402; tries to corrupt 
Fabricius, 406; warned by Fabrl- 



cius of danger from poison, 410: 
sends Cineas again to negotiate 
peace, defeats Romans at Asculum, 
412 f . ; invited to Sicily, defeats 
Carthaginians, 418; puts to death 
Thoenon, a Syracusan who had 
invited him to Sicily and incurs 
bitter hatred, 422;" returns tc 
Italy, 424; defeated by Romans 
at Beneventum, 426 

Returns to Epeirus and defeats 
Antigonus in Macedonia, 430: 
invited by Cleonymus to attack 
Sparta, 434 f . ; repulsed from 
Sparta, 436 f , ; loses his son 
Ptolemy, 448; enters Argos by 
night, is slain in street fighting, 
450 f. 

See also, ll. 306, EC. 58, 74, 86, 
98, lOG, X. 380 

Sayings: IX. 370; 374; 386 f.; 
394, X. 334 ; IX. 396 ; 416 ; 424 ; 432 ; 
436 

Pythagoras (1), Olympic victor, said 
to have helped Numa arrange 
government of Rome, I. 306 

Pythagoras (2), said to have been 
intimate friend of Numa, said to 
have lived 5 generations after him, 
I. 306; why supposed to have 
Influenced Numa, marvels told of 
him, 332 ; said first principle of 
being beyond sense or feeling, said 
to have been Roman citizen, 334 ; 
his statue in forum at Rome, 336 ; 
380; educator of Numa and father 
of Mamercus, vi. 358 

Pythagoras (3), seer, questioned bv 
Alexander, vii. 426 

Pythagorean philosophers, in Sicily, 
"invite Plato, VI. 22 

Pythagoreans, place element fire in 
centre of universe and call it 
Vesta and Unit, i. 344; their pre- 
cepts enumerated and compared 
with Numa's, 354 f.; why they 
do not entrust their precepts to 
writing, 380 

Pytheas, verbal encounter with 
Demosthenes, VIT. 18, 210; Athen- 
ian orator, joins party of Antipater, 
66; Vlll. 190 

Pythian games, list of victors at, by 
Aristotle, 1. 428; IV.282; conducted 
by Demetrius at Athens, ix. 100 

455 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Pj^thlan priestess, approached by 

Lysander, IV. 304 
Pythium, vi. 392 f. 
Pythocleides, Pericles' music teacher, 

III. 10 
Pythocles (1), condemned to death 

with Phocion, VIIJ. 228 
Pythocles (2), son of Polycrates, XI. 4 
Pythodorus (1), waiting to seize 

Themistocles, ll. 68 
Pythodorus (2), torch-bearer, opposes 

initiating Demetrius into mysteries 

irregularly, IX. 60 
Pytholaiis, " Phebe's brother, helps 

slay Alexander of Pherae, v. 430 
Python, story of, associated with 

birth of Apollo near temple of 

Apollo Tegyraeus, V. 378 
Python, of Byzantiimi, answered by 

Demosthenes, vil. 20 
Python, with Seleucus sent to temple 

of Serapis to ask whether Alexander 

should be brought thither, vil. 434 
Python, flute-player, IX. 366 
Pythonic6, mistress of Harpaliis, her 

tomb built by Oharicles, vill. 192 
Pythopolis, founded by Theseus where 

Solois, his friend, was drowned, I. 

60 



Quad ran s, to be contributed by each 
citizen toward expense of Pub- 
licola'? funeral, I. 562; smallest 
copper coin, Vll. 154 

Quadrantia, nickname of Clodia, Vll. 
154 

Quadrants, of Archimedes, V. 486 

Quaestors, Introduced by Publicola, 
I. 532, 568 

Cato the Elder, II. 310; Cato 
the Younger, vill. 268; Cicero, 
VII. 82, 94; Ti Gracchus, X, 152; 
Qranlus Petro, VII. 480; Cornelius 
T^ntulus, 122; M. LoUiup, VIII. 
272; Marcellus, 276; Sertorius, 
8 ; Sulla, IV. 328 ; Titius, IX. 234 ; 
P. Veturius and M. Minuclus, I. 
534 

Quinda, treasure there, VIII. 116, IX. 76 

Quinsy, Vll. 62 

Quintilis, original name of July, I. 
174, 370, II. 178, IV. 412 

Quintio, freedman of Cato the Elder, 
11.366 



Quintiu?, L., see " Flamininus, L. 

Quintius." 
Quintus, officer of Crassus, defeated 

by Spartacus, ill. 346 
Quintus, L., popular leader, quieted 

by Lucullus, li. 486 ; when praetor 

attacks Lucullus, 580 
Quirinalis, hill at Rome, named after 

Quirinus, I. 182; site of Numa's 

palace, 354 
Quirinus, name of Romulus deified, 

I. 178, 182, 310; temple of, ll. 

144 
" Quiris," ancient word for spear or 

spear-head, I. 182 
" Quirites," derived from "Cures," 

I. 150, 314 
" Quiritis," epithet applied to Juno, 

1.182 
Quotations, anon vmcu? : I. 48; 76; 

78; 238; 240; "246; 248; 268; 270; 

272; 284; 290; 374; 460; II. 12; 

126; 220; 260; 280; 304; 460; 472; 

m. 20;34f.; 122; 196; 212; 368; 

428; IV. 10, V. 414; IV. 64; 84; 

280; 288; 326; 454; V. 102; 340; 

430; VI. 144; 354; VII. 62; 150; 

VIII. 188; IX. 592; XI.2 



Rain shower, dissolves assembly, 

X. 228 
Ramnenses, named from Romulus, 

one of 3 Roman tribes, I. 152 
Ransom, 250 drachmas per man, ill. 

142 
Rapax, legion of Vltellius, XI. 302 
Rations, Cato the Elder took 3 Attic 

bushels per month for himself and 

retinue, ll. 318 
Ratumena, gate of Rome, I. 536 
Ravenna, in Gaul, has marble 8tat»e 

of Marius, IX. 466 
Records, of Athens, II. 226; of 

Sparta, V. 52 
Recreation, of Cato the Elder, II. 378 
Red Sea, ll. 618, v. 214, ix. 296 
Regia, i. 146, 182; built by Numa 

near temple of Vesta, l. 354 
Regillus, lake, battle of, iv. 122 
Rcmonia, burial place of Remus, I. 

118 
Remonium, afterwards called Rig- 

narium, precinct on Aventine, laid 

out by Remus, I. 114 



456 



J 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Eemus, account of his birth and early 
life, 1. 102 f . ; handed over to Numi- 
tor, believed to be child of Faustulus 
and Larentia, 106 ; laid out pre- 
cinct on Aventine, first called Ilemo- 
nium, afterwards Rignarium, 114 ; 
slain by Romulus, or by Celer, 116, 
194; with his foster-fathers buried 
in the Remonia, 118 

Rent, of public land, forced up by 
Cato the Elder when censor, n. 
356 

Revenue, Athenian, from silver mines 
at Laureium, 11. 10; embezzlement 
of, by Themistocles and others 
shown by Aristides, n. 220 f . ; 
revenues from campaign i^iven 
Athens by Cimon, 432 ; how farmers 
of, were hold up by Alcibiadf h once, 
IV. 14; great revenue required on 
account of Rome's wars, n. 96; 
public revenues at Rome, 50,000,000 
drachmas from taxes, 85,000,000 
more added by Pompey, v. 230 

Revolt, of Thasians from Athens, n. 
446 ; of Helots, 454 

Rex, Marcius, had Tertia, sister of 
Clodius to wife, vn. 154 

Rhadamanthus, judge under Minos, 
I. 32 ; believed to have once dwelt 
near Haliartus; husband of Alc- 
mene after death of Amphitryon, 
IV. 312 

Rhamnus, Micion lands there, vm. 
200; captiured by Demetrius, EX. 
80; ra. 226 

Rhamnus, freedman of Antony, takes 
oath to slay his master if asked, 
E. 248 

Rhea (1), see " Ilia." 

Rhea (2), mother of Sertorius, greatly 
loved by him, \^^. 6, G2 f. 

Rhegium, in Italy, taken by Alcl- 
biades, iv. 52 ; helps Timoleon out- 
wit Carthaginians, VI. 282; 306; 
its garri.-on ordered by Fabius to 
overrun Bnittium and take Cau- 
lonia by storm, m. 182 

Rheneia, island very near Delos, m. 
216 

Rhetoric, value of, exemplified by 
Periclep, m. 48 f . ; taught by Aes- 
chines in Rhodes and Ionia, VU. 60 

Rhetra, meaning of term, 1. 220, 244; 
224; 240; 242; V. 72 



Rhine, VL\. 490 ; bridged and crositd 
by Caesar, 498 

Rhipaean mountains, crossed bv 
Gauls, II. 126 

Rhode.-;, III. 56; Aeschines taught 
Rhetoric there, VII. 60 ; gave Alex- 
ander belt made by Helicon, vil, 
322 ; ally of Ptolemy, warred on 
by Demetrius, rx. 48 ; makes terms 
with Demetrius, 52 ; gave Lucullus 
ships, n. 478; visited by Caesar 
for study, VII. 446 ; visited by Pom- 
pey, V. 224; visited by Cicero, VII. 
90, 174; lost its fleet, 178; taken 
by Cassius, VI. 192 

Rhodogun6, daughter of Artaierxes, 
married to Orontes, XI. 192 

Rhoemetalces, Thracian, Caesar's 
words regarding him, I. 140 

Rhoesaccs (1), story of Ids experience 
with Cimon, n. 436 

Rhoesaces (2), Persian commander, 
slain by Alexander, vn. 266 

Rhoeteium, x. 102 

Rhomboid, in Megara, I. 64 

Rhone, canal run along its mouth by 
Marius, rx. 500 

" Rhopoperperethras," name given 
Demosthenes by one of Comic poets, 
VU. 22 

Rhosus, scene of meeting between 
Seleucus and Demetrius, EX. 76 

Rhus, in Megara, I. 64 

Rhj-ndacus, river, defeat of part of 
Miihridates* forces by Lucullus 
there, n. 504 

Rhyntaces, a little Persian bird, XI. 
170 

Riddle, many owls sleeping under 
tiling, rv. -76 

Right, of selling children restricted by 
Numa, I. 366 ; of appeal by defend- 
ant to people introduced by Publi- 
cola, of appeaL by defendant to 
jurors introduced by Solon, 568 ; of 
three children, see " Jus trium libe- 
rorum." 

Rignarium, see " Remouiuni." 

Rites, at Sparta in commemoration 
of incident at Plataca, n. 266 ; per- 
formed by Athenians in mouth 
Anthesterion in commemoration of 
the deluge, IV. 372 ; Orphic, prac- 
tised by Macedonian women, vn. 
226 f . ; of Mithras, celebrated at 

457 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



Olympia by pirates, v. 174; care 
with which Romans performed 
sacred rites, IV. 180; mysterious 
rites at Rome in month of Novem- 
ver, V. 442. See also " Funeral 
rites" and "Marriage." 

Roads, built by 0. Gracchus, X. 212 ; 
of Italy, all end at gilded column 
in Forum, XI. 260 

Roma (1), woman who gave her name 
to city, I. 90 ; married Latinus, son 
of Telemachus, and bore him Romu- 
lus, 92 

Roma (2), daughter of Italus and 
Leucaria, or of Telephus, son of 
Heracles, married Aeneas, or Asca- 
nius, and gave her name to city, 
I. 92 

Roma Quadrata, built by Romulus, 
1.114 

Romans, why they honour second 
Larentia, I. 100; waged war on 
Sabines, 132; style of armour 
adopted from Sabines, 154; feared 
by neighbours, 168 ; nominated the 
Sabine, Numa Pompilius, as king, 
312 ; distracted by pestilence, 350 ; 
increased in power after forsaking 
institutions of Numa, 398; con- 
quered Tarquins and Latins, VI. 
420; afflicted by famine, I. 546; 
defeat Sabines and Latins, 556 f . ; 
could not by its vote enact a law 
without a previous decree of Senate, 
IV. 188; agree to pay 1000 lbs. of 
gold to get rid of Gauls, n. 164 ; 
wish to move to Veii, but finally 
decide to stay where they are, 170 f. ; 
at war with Tarentum, IX. 382; 
under Laevinus defeated by Pyrrhus 
near Heracleia, 394 f . ; refuse to 
make peace with Pyrrhus, 412; 
lose 6000 men at Asculum according 
to Hieronymus, 414; after Bene- 
ventum get control of Italy and 
Sicily, 428 ; wage war on Ligurians, 
lu. 120 ; wage war on Gauls, V. 440 ; 
bury alive 2 Greeks and 2 Gauls in 
Forum, 442; send bowl to Delphi 
to celebrate victory over Gauls, 456 ; 
refuse to ransom prisoners after 
Cannae, and banish those who fled 
to Sicily, 466 f . ; with Achaeans 
wage war on Nabis, x. 292; defeat 
Antiochus, then give closer atten- 



tion to affairs of Greece, vi. 362, 
X. 302, 364; character changed by 
conquests, n. 314; at war with 
Philip v., X. 324; wage war with 
Perseus, subdue Macedonia, VI. 370, 
IX. 134; VI. 452; registered by 
Aemilius Paulus and Marcius Philip- 
pus, the censors, 454; how they 
punished those who accepted terms 
from the enemy, X. 156 f.; how 
they treated the land question, 
158 f. ; had army under Oaepio 
destroyed by Oimbri, n. 140 ; sum- 
mon Marius to take command 
against Cimbri and Teutones, IX. 
492 ; 150,000 massacred by Mithri- 
dates in one day, IV. 404 ; defeated 
at river Lycus by Mithridates, n. 
514; under Lucullus conquer Ti- 
granes and the Armenians, n. 140; 
end line of Pontic kings, IX. 12; 
divided into 3 powerful parties, m. 
334 ; ready for revolution, vn. 108 ; 
defeated by Parthians, 172 ; defeat 
Pacorus, son of Hyrodes, or Arsaces, 
m. 422; subject to many dire 
events after death of Nero, XI. 206 

Romanus, son of Odysseus and Circe, 
colonized Rome, I. 92 

Rome, various theories as to origin 
of name, I. 90 ; founded by Romulus 
on April 21st, I. 4, 120, 122, 314; 
a sanctuary for fugitives, called 
sanctuary of God of Asylum, made 
in it by Romulus and Remus, I. 
114; how marked out, 118; grew 
because she incorporated with her- 
self those she conquered, I. 136; 
plague and dread portents at, 166 ; 
receives grain, part bought in Italy, 
part sent as gift from Syracuse, rv. 
154; menaced by Volscians under 
Ooriolanus, 188; 7 large cities cap- 
tured from it by Volscians under 
Coriolanus, 192; again menaced by 
Ooriolanus and Volscians, 194; how 
saved by Volumnia, mother of 
Ooriolanus, IV. 200 f . ; captured by 
Gauls, then attacked by Latins 
under Livius Postumius and saved 
by strategy of Philotis, or Tutola 
I. 184 f., 306, n. 146 f., V. 440 
delivered by Oamillus, n. 164 f. 
rebuilt within year, 174; struggle 
there between SuUan and Marian 



458 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



factions concerning Mithrirlatic war, 
IV. 348, IX. 553; great changes in 
government of, introduced by Sulla, 
IV, 434 ; captured twice by Sulla, iv. 
452 ; occupied by Caesar, ix. 152 ; 
entrusted to Lepidus by the trium- 
virs, IX. 182; outshone by Athens 
in great public works, temples, etc. 
down to time of Caesars, rn. 204; 
required monarchy to heal its ilb, 
VI, 250; history of, plarmed bv 
Oicero, vn. 186 

Romis, tyrant of Latins, drove out 
Tuscans and founded Rome, I. 
92 

Romulus, varying accounts of his 
lineage, I. 92 f . ; twin son of Ilia, 
Rhea, or Silvia, 96; exposed near 
river, 98 ; reared by Faustulus, 
swineherd of Amulius, 102 ; with 
his brother Remus, attacks and 
slays Amulius, 112; builds Roma 
Quadrata, 114; slays his brother 
Remus, as some say, 116; buries 
Remus in the Remonia, marks out 
the city, 118; founded Rome on 
April 21st, 120; divides men of 
military age into companies, each 
consisting of 3000 footmen and 300 
horsemen, 122 ; appointed lUO of 
most eminent to be councillors, call- 
ing the individuals "patricians" 
and their body a " senate " ; called 
nobles " patrons " and commonalty 
"clients," rape of Sabine women, 
126 ; origin of nuptial cry " Tala- 
sius," 132 ; slew Acron, king of the 
Oaeninenses, routed his army, and 
took his city, 134 f., v. 454 ; mean- 
ing of " spolia opima," I. 138 

Attacked by Sabines under Ta- 
tius, who is admitted to citadel by 
Tarpeia, 140; fights Sabines with 
varying fortune, 144 f . ; led to make 
peace by the ravished daughters of 
the Sabines, 146 f.; Sabines to 
dwell with Romans and Tatius to 
be king with Romulus, 150; 100 
Sabines added by election to the 
patricians and legions enlarged to 
6000 footmen and 600 horsemen, 
people arranged in three bodies, 
Ranmenses, Tatienses, Lucerenses, 
152; Romulus adopted oblong 
shields of Sabines, 154; said to 



have introduced consecration of fire 
and to have appointed holy virgins, 
called Vestals, to guard it, was a 
diviner, enacted law concerning 
divorce, 160 ; buried Tatius, who 
was slain by friends of murdered 
ambassadors, but makes no attempt 
to bring murderers to justice, 162 £., 
322 ; took Fidenae and made it 
colony of Rome, 164; captured 
Cameria, transferred half of sur- 
vivors to Rome and sent colonists 
to Cameria, 166 ; defeats Veientes 
in two battles, 168; celebrates 
triumph, becomes haughty in bear- 
ing, had about him young men 
called Celeres, and Lictores, 170 f.; 
of his own motion divided territory 
acquired in war among his soldiers, 
and gave back their hostages to 
Veientes without consent of patri- 
cians, disappeared unaccountably 
short time after, conjectures as to 
manner of his death, 174 f., 308, 
n. 180, V. 178; Julius Proculus, a 
patrician, said he saw R,omulus as 
a deity and received a meassge for 
the Romans from him, the people 
pray to him under name Quirinus, 
I. 178; died 54 years of age and in 
38th year of his reign, 186 

PiOmus (1), sent from Troy by Dio- 
medes, son of Emathion, founded 
Rome, I. 92 

Romus (2), brought to Italy with his 
brother Romulus, I. 92 ; named 
from " ruma," a teat, 102. See also 
" Remus." 

Roscii, two brothers with Craissus at 
Carrhae, m. 414. 

Roscius, comedian, had influence on 
Sulla in his latter days, rv. 438; 
imitated by Cicero, vil. 94 

Roscius, attacks Chrysogonus and is 
accused by him of murder, defended 
by Cicero and acquitted, VU. 88 

Roscius, "had Milesiaca" of Aristides 
in his baggage at battle of Carrhae, 
ra. 418 

Roscius Otho, L., opposes Gabinian 
law, V. 180; Introduced law giving 
knights separate seats at spectacles, 
vn. 112 

Roxana, married by Alexander, vn. 
358 ; mother of Alexander, IX. 354 ; 

459 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES* 



murders Stateira and her sister, vu, 
436 

Hoxana, sister of Mithrldates, put to 
death at his orders, ll. 524 

Roxanes, chiliarch, his angry words 
to Themistocles, U. 78 

Rubicon, separates Italy from Cis- 
alpine Gaul, vn. 490; crossed by 
Caesar, 522, v. 272 

Rubrius, tribune, brings in bill for 
colony on site of Carthage, X. 218 

Rubrius, praetor in Macedonia, had 
Cato the Younger under him, vm. 
254 

Rubrius, M., with Cato at Utica, VIU. 
386 

Rufinus, ancestor of Sulla, was consul, 
expelled from senate, IV. 324 

*' Rufus," concerning the name, IV. 
142 

Rufus, L., gave Ti. Q-racchus second 
blow, X. 190 

Rufus, Virginius, see " Virginius Ru- 
fus." 

Rullus, Fabius, received title Maxi- 
raus for expelling descendants of 
freedmen from senate, V. 148, m. 
118 

•• Ruma," ancient Roman name tot 
teat, I. 98 

Rumilia, goddess who presided over 
rearing of young children, I. 98 

*• Ruminalis," name of fig-tree near 
which twins of Ilia grounded; ety- 
mology of word, I. 98 

Rutilius Rufus, P., legate of Caecilius 
Metellus in Africa, ix. 484 ; accused 
falsely by Theophanes; his his- 
tories, V. 212 ; cited, DC. 540 f . 



Sabaco, Cassius, friend of Marios, ex- 
pelled from senate, rx. 472 

Sabbas, induced by Gymnosophists to 
revolt from Alexander, vn. 404 f . 

Sabines, attacked by Romulus wan- 
tonly, I. 126 f. ; their daughters 
seized by Romans, 128; wage war 
on Romans, 132; Lacedaemonian 
colonists, lived in unwalled villages, 
134, 308; under Tatius march on 
Rome, treacherously admitted into 
citadel by Tarpeia, 140; challenged 
to battle by Romulus, 144 ; repulsed 
to Regia and temple of Vesta, 146; 



make peace, adopt Roman months, 
154; quarrel with Romans as to 
appointment of king on death of 
Romulus, 310; waged war on Tar- 
quin, son of Demaratus, 536 ; in- 
vaded Roman territory, 554 ; with 
Latins wage war on Rome and are 
defeated, 556 f.; campaign against 
them undertaken on understanding 
that creditors would deal gently 
with debtors, rv. 126 

Sabine women, rape of, was act of 
necessity, I. 112; when and why 
carried out, 126 f . ; rape took place 
on August 18th, 134 ; separate com- 
batants and bring peace, 146 f. ; 
quoted, 148 f.; terms of peace, 150 ; 
received concessions from Romans, 
152 

Sabinns, friend of Cicero, prosecuted 
by Munatius, vn. 144 

Sabinus, Calvisius, Roman general, 
XI. 228 

Sabinus, Nymphidius, see " Nymphi- 
dius Sabinus." 

Sacred band of Thebans, account of 
it, v. 382 

Sacred gate, at Athens, IV. 370 

Sacred mount, where plebeians seceded 
to, beside river Anio, iv. 128 

Sacrifice, of hair to god at Delphi by 
youth in Theseus' time, I. 10; 
human sacrifice by Greeks before 
Salamis, n. 38 f . ; sacrifice by Aean- 
tid tribe of Athens to Sphragitic 
nymphs, 272; vowed by Fabius 
Maximus, m. 130 ; human sacrifice, 
V. 390 f.; 11 heifers sacrificed to 
the moon, 20 oxen to Hercules, by 
Aemilius Paulus, VI. 400 

Saculio, buffoon, executed after Phi- 
lippi, VI. 228 f . 

Sadalas, king of Thrace, with Antony 
at Actium, IX. 276 

Sagra river, battle of, fought by Italian 
Greeks, VI. 420 

Saguntum, battle in the plains of, 
between Sertorius and Metellus, 
vm. 54 

Sals, learned men of, gave Solon story 
of lost Atlantis, I. 494 ; Sonchis of, 
476 

Salaminian state-galley, for special 
occasions, m. 20; sent to brin^ 
Alcibiadcs home, rv. 68 



460 



J 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



Salamis, bone of contention between 
Athens and Megara, I. 420; re- 
covered from Athens by Megara, 
432 ; received ashes of Solon, 498 ; 
672; scene of defeat of Xerxes by 
Athenians, n. 12, 28, 38, 138, 242, 
388, 396, 416, 418; overrun by 
Lysander, IV. 252; plundered by 
Aratus, XI. 54; given up to Athe- 
nians by Di(^enes, xi. 78 

Salamis, in Cyprus, Nicocreon, king 
of, vn. 308 ; where Demetrius de- 
feated Ptolemy in sea-fight, IX. 
36 f . ; mother and children of Dsme- 
trius besieged there by Ptolemy, 86 

"Salamis," title of poem by Solon, 
1.422 

Salii, priests established by Numa, I. 
346 ; to guard bronze buckler that 
fell from heaven, 350 

Salinae, town in Italy, m. 338 

Salinator, Julius, sent with 6000 men 
by Sertorius to bar passage of 
Pyrenees, killed by Calpurnius La- 
narius, vm. 18 

Salius, from Samothrace or Mantinea, 
did not give his name to Salii, I. 
352 

Sallust, cited, n. 504; 580; IV. 450 

Salonius, married his young daughter 
to Oato the Elder in latter's old 
age, n. 376 

Salonius, son of Oato the Elder and 
grandson of Salonius, n. 376; son 
of Cato by 2nd wife, had son Marcus, 
died in praetorship, 384 

Salvenius, legionary soldier, brings 
Sulla oracle about affairs in Italy, 
IV. 380 

Salvius, conmianded Pelignians at 
Pydna, VI. 406 

Salvius, centurion, helps murder Pom- 
pey, V. 318, 322 

Samaena, species of war-ship, in, 76 

Sambuca, of Marcellus, described, V. 
470; crushed by Archimedes' en- 
gines, 474, 478 

Samians, attacked by Athens for not 
desisting from war against Mile^-iany, 
m. 68; fighting Milesians for Priene, 
defeated by Pericles, who set up 
democracy, 72; defeated by Peri- 
cles off island of Tragia, defeat 
Athenians, 74; their general Mdi^- 
sus defeated by Pericles, 76, U. 6; 



surrender to Pericles after 8 months 
m. 78 ; driven out and their cities 
handed over to men they had 
banished, IV. 268: vote that their 
festival be called Lysandreia, 280; 
addressed in letter by Brutus, Vl. 
130 

Samnites, joining Pyrrhns after Hera- 
cleia, are censured, IX. 400 ; worsted 
by Romans, invite Pyrrhus back 
from SicUy, 422 ; discouraged by 
many defeats at hands of Romans, 
do not join Pyrrhus in large num- 
bers, 426 ; their ambassadors found 
Manius Curius in his cottage cooking 
turnips, n. 306; their cities which 
had revolted, taken by Marcellus, 
V. 502 ; spared Roman generals, X. 
158; inveterate foes of Rome, IV. 
420 

Samon, husband of Phaenaret4, EX. 
358 

Samos, siege of, n. 6, m. 68, 200; 
Athenian fleet there, rv. 70, 74, 104, 
242 ; siege of, V. 344 ; attacked by 
Lucullus, n. 478; temple of Hera 
there, v. 174; festivities held there 
by Antony and Cleopatra, ix. 264 f . 

Samosata, in Svria, besieged by Ven- 
tidius, IX. 212 

Samothrace, v. 520; Perseus takes 
refuge there after Pydna, VI. 418; 
422 ; n. 508 ; plundered by pirates, 
V. 174 

Samothracian images, in temple of 
Vesta, brought to Troy by Dar- 
danus, carried to Italy by Aeneas, 
n. 144 

Sandauc6, sister of Xerxes, wife of 
Artayctus, her three sons sacrificed 
to Dionvsius Carnivorous by the 
Greeks, h. 38, 238 

Sandou, father of Atheuodorus, I. 548 

Sapha, place in Asia where Amphi- 
crates is buried, n. 542 

'* Sapiens," its meaning, X. 160 

" Sardians for sale," called by heradd 
at Rome in celebrating victorv, I. 
170 

Sardinia, X. 198 f.; province of Cato 
the Elder, U. 318; v. 154 

Sardis, I. 170; visited by Solon, 478; 
U. 80; 82 f.; burned by Athenians, 
224; Cvras meets Lysander there, 
IV. 240'; 262; submits to Alex- 



4^1 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



ander, vn. 262 f . ; taken by Deme- 
trius, K. 116; meeting-place of 
Brutus and Cassjius, VI. 200 

Sarmentus, favourite of Octavius 
Caesar, IX. 272 

Sarpedon, tutor of Cato the Younger, 
VIU. 238; 242 

Satibarzanes, eunuch of Artaxerxes 
II„ XI. 152 

Satiphernes, friend of Cyrus, slain by 
Artaxerxes at Cunaxa, XI. 148 

Satricum, captured by Tuscans, re- 
captured by Camillus, n. 1 92 

Saturn, temple of, made public trea- 
sury by Publicola, I. 532, X. 168 _ 

Saturnalia, slaves then feasted with 
masters as Numa ordained, I. 386, 

IV. 386 ; the time fixed for carrying 
out Lentulus' plot, vn. 124 

Satumian age, when there was neither 
slave nor master, I. 386 

Saturninus, L., tribune of people, sup- 
ports Marius for fourth consulship, 
IX. 498 f. ; slew Nonius, rival for 
tribuneship, introduced agrarian law 
with clause requiring senators to 
take oath not to oppose what people 
voted, IX. 542 ; gets all senators 
to take oath except Marius, helps 
Marius oppose MeteUus, 544, IV. 
446; pitted against nobles by 
Marius, EX. 548 

Satyreius, P., gave Ti. Gracchus the 
first blow, X. 190 

Satyrs, resemble Picas and Faunns, 
1.358 

Satyrus, seer who helped slay Timo 
phanes according to Theopompus, 
VI. 270 

Satyrus, actor, points out Demos 
thenes' weaknesses to him, vn. 16 
Saviour-gods," honorary title given 
Antigonus and Demetrius by Athe 
nians, IX. 26 

Savings, anonvmous, n. 502 ; iv. 386 

V. 86 ; VI. 384 

Soaeva, Cassius, see " Cassius Scaeva." 
" Scaevola," means left-handed, I. 548 
Scaevola, Mucius, see "Mucins Scae- 
vola, C." 
Scalae Gael, beside dwelling of Romu- 
lus, near descent into Circus Maii- 
mus from Palatine, I. 152 
Scambonidae, deme of Alcibiades, IV. 
60 

462 



Scandeia, m. 434 

Scarpheia, Lycon of, vn. 310 

Scaurus, illustrious Boman name, Vll. 
82 

Scaurus, M. Aemilius, father of Aemilia 
by Metella, iv. 432, v. 134 

Scedasus, slays himself when his 
daughters are ravished, V. 390 

Scellius, companion of Antony in 
flight from Actium, IX. 288 

Scepsis, Metrodorus of, n. 538 f . ; 
Neleus of, IV. 406 

" Schinocephalus," name applied to 
Pericles by Comic poets, m, 8 

" Schinus," name for squill at times, 
m. 8 

Schoolmaster of Falerii, punished by 
Camillus, n. 118 

Sciathus, n. 20 

Scillustis, island in Indian ocean 
reached by Alexander, vn. 410 

Scionaeans, restored to their homes 
by Lysander, IV. 270 

Scipio, Q-naeus Cornelius, son of P. 
Cornelius Nasica, father-in-law of 
Pompey, sent to Syria with his 
father to raise fleet, V. 278 

Scipio Asiaticus, L. Cornelius (1), II. 
388 ; conquered Antiochus, 504, m. 
398; ambassador with Flamininus 
to Prusias to demand death of 
Hannibal, X. 386 ; brother of Scipio 
the Great, condemned to pay fine, 
n. 344; expelled from equestrian 
order by Cato, 354 

Scipio Asiaticus, L. Cornelius (2), out- 
witted by Sulla, loses all his men 
to him, IV. 414, V. 130 Vin. 14 

Scipio, P. Cornelius, made master of 
horse by Camillus, n. 104 

Scipio Africanus, P. Cornelius, son of 
Africanus Major, adopted younger 
son of Aemilius Paulus and Papiria, 
VI. 366 

Scipio Africanus Major, P. Cornelius, 
opposed by Cato the Elder, his 
quaestor, for extravagance on his 
campaign in Africa, n. 310 f. ; con- 
quered Carthaginians in Spain, 
made consul in spite of Fabius 
Maximus' opposition, crossed to 
Africa and defeated Hannibal, m. 
190 f., 202, vm. 2, X. 144, 328; 
382; sumamed Africanus, ix. 464; 
succeeded Cato the Elder in Spain, 



I 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE ^LIVES' 



outwitted by him, n. 332 ; opposed 
politically by Cato the Elder, 346, 
386, 398; made princeps senatus 
by Flamininu?, X, 372 ; because of 
attacks turned back upon people, 
II. 376 ; his brother Lucius expelled 
from senate by Cato, n. 354; had 
Aemilia to wife, VI. 358; his son 
adopted the son of Aemilius Paulus 
and gave him the name Scipio, 366 ; 
father-in-law of Scipio Nasica Cor- 
culum, 392 ; inferior to Caesar as 
general, vn. 478; second only to 
Pyrrhus as general in opinion of 
Hannibal, ix. 366 

Scipio Aemilianus Af ricanus Minor, P. 
Cornelius, son of Aemilius Paulus, 
grandson of Scipio the Great by 
adoption, contemporary of Cato the 
Elder, n. 346, 364, VI. 364, 366, 
446, 458; asked Cato the Elder's 
aid in behalf of the Achaean exiles, 
n, 326 ; consul contrary to the laws, 
DC, 492; n. 384; at "Pydna, took 
Carthage and Numantia, 596, vi. 
412 f . ; reproached with aristocratic 
leaning of his father Aemilius 
Paulus, VI. 452 ; supported by com- 
mon people for censorship, 454; 
destroyed Carthage, Vin. 2 ; be- 
sieged Numantia, rx. 468, 494 f . ; 
married daughter of Ti. G-racchus 
the Elder and Cornelia, x. 146, 152 ; 
most influential man at Home, 
blamed for not saving Mancinus, 
was waging war on Numantia when 
Ti. Gracchus began to agitate for 
agrarian laws, 158 ; had C. Gracchus 
under him when besieging Numan- 
tia, 174 ; nearly lost popularity by 
expressing disapproval of Ti. Grac- 
chus and his measures, 194 f . ; had 
friend Laelius, vm. 252, x. 160; 
died under suspicious circumstances, 
I. 174, X. 218 f, 

Scipio Nasica, P. Cornelius (Scipio 
Metellus) with two others came to 
Cicero at midnight to warn of plot, 
vn. 116 ; father-in-law of Pompey, 
saved from trial by him, v. 260, 
326 ; with Hypsaeus and MUo can- 
didates for consulship, VIU. 350; 
chosen by Pompey as his colleague 
in consulship, V. 262 ; opposes com- 
promise with Caesar, vil. 516 f. ; 



with his son Gnaeus sent to Syria 
toraisefleet, V. 278; 288; in Mace- 
donia, to be attacked by Caesar, 
vn. 540; di'^puted with Domitius 
and Spinther over Caesar's oflp.ce of 
Pontifex Maximus, vn. 544 ; V. 290; 
said to have hid away greater part 
of treasure he brought from Asia, 
335 ; commanded centre at Phar- 
salus for Pompey, opposed to Lucius 
Calvinus, v. 294, vn. 548; vm. 
250 ; vn. 480 ; quarrels with Varus, 
weU received by Juba, takes com- 
mand of forces as proconsul, vm. 
372 ; VI. 138 ; escapes from Thapsus 
with few followers, vm. 374 f., VIL 
562, 570; vm. 384 f. 

Scipio Nasica Corculum, son-in-law of 
Scipio Africanus, given task of 
seizing pass through Perrhaebia, VI. 
392 ; at battle of Pydna, 394, 398, 
402; 424; says 80 Romans slain 
at Pydna, 412; consul, with 0. 
Marcius, laid down oiBce on account 
of mistake in auspices, v. 444; 
opposed destruction of Carthage, n. 
382 

Scipio Nasica Serapio, large holder of 
public land, opposed Ti. Gracchus 
bitterly, X. 174; leads attack 
against Ti. Gracchus, 188 f.; hated 
by people; though pontifex maxi- 
mus, fled from Italy and committed 
suicide, 194 

Scipio Sallustio, of family of Africani, 
put in forefront of battles in Africa 
by Caesar, vn. 564 

Sciradium, promontory of Salamis, I. 
426 

Sciraphidas, declared Spartans should 
not receive gold and silver coinage, 
IV. 276 

Sciron, son-in-law of Oychreus, father- 
in-law of Aeacus, grandfather of 
Peleus and Telamon, slain by The- 
seus ; disagreement as to his charac- 
ter, I. 20, 188; son of Canethus 
and Henioch^, daughter of Pittheus; 
Isthmian games in his honour 
according to some, 56 ; father of 
Alycus, 76 

Scirophorion, Athenian month, v. 
78 

Scirus, of Salami?, according to Philo- 
chorus furnished pilot and look- oat 



463 



GENERAL INDEX TO ALL THE 'LIVES' 



man to Theseus ; temple to him at 
Phalerum, I. 34 

Scopadae, wealth of, II. 434 

Scopas, Thessalian, his remark about 
happiness, n. 354 

Scorpion, engine devised by Archi- 
medes for short-range work, V. 476 

Scotussa, town in Thessaly, I. 64; 
how treated by Alexander of Pherae, 
V. 412 ; where Flamininus defeated 
Philip, VI. 372, X. 338; V. 292, vn. 
546 

Scribonia, wife of Orassus, mother of 
Piso, executed by Nero, xi. 254 

Scrophas, quaestor under Orassus, de- 
feated by Orassus, ni. 346 

Scyros, isle of, I. 80; inhabited by 
Dolopians, ruled by Lycomedes, 82 ; 
seized by Cimon, settled by Athe- 
nians, n. 426 ; has grave of Theseus, 
428 

Scytal6 (1), described, IV. 284 f. ; 112 

Scytal6 (2), fabled serpent, ni. 418 

Scythes, ambassador of Agesilaus, 
imprisoned in Larissa, V. 42 

Scythes, servant of Pompey, V. 320 

Scythia, V. 220; 298 

Scythia, Pontic, neighbour of Gaul, 
IX. 488 

Scythians, how they wear their hair, 
m. 386; shoot as they flee even 
better